Emporia News, December 11, 1868.


Gen. Sheridan=s ReportCThe Work Done and To Be Done.

Major General Sheridan, commanding the Department of the Missouri, has forwarded his annual report of affairs within his command for the year 1868, to Lieut. Gen. W. T. Sherman, commanding the Military Division of the Missouri. The following is a copy of the report.


November 16, 1868.

Lieut. Gen. W. T. Sherman, Commanding Military Division of the Missouri, St. Louis:

GENERAL: In reply to your letter of Oct. 1, calling for an annual report, I regret to state that I will be compelled, in consequence of my presence in the field being necessary, to make a much more incomplete report than I had desired.

I assumed the permanent command of the Department of the Missouri, March 2, 1868, relieving Brevet Major Gen. A. J. Smith, Colonel Seventh Cavalry, temporarily in command. The Department comprises the districts of New Mexico, the Indian Territory, Kansas, the Upper Arkansas, and the State of Missouri.

The District of New Mexico, commanded by Brevet Major Gen. C. W. Getty, is an old and established command. It has within its limits the Navajo nation of Indians, the Utes, and wandering bands of Apaches, together with a few bands of semi-civilized Indians. This District has been, with the exception of an occasional depredation on the part of the Apache bands, comparatively quiet. During the past year the Navajo Indians were successfully moved, under the authority of the Lieutenant General, from their temporary reservation near Fort Sumner to their permanent reservation in the northwestern portion of the Territory. The Utes have remained friendly, although more neglected by the Government than any other Indian tribe within my command. In fact, the suffering from hunger and want in some of the smaller bands has been very great. This District has been ably and economically administered by its distinguished commander.

The District of the Indian Territory is also an old District, having in it the posts of Forts Gibson and Arbuckle, and has been under the command of Brevet Major Gen. Grierson, Colonel Tenth Cavalry, since May, 1868. It had previously been commanded by Brevet Major Montgomery Bryant, Captain Sixth Infantry. This District has in it all the semi-civilized bands of Indians, the principal tribes being the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Osages. It also contains the new reservations of the Kiowas, Comanches, Arapahos, and Cheyennes, as fixed by the Treaty with the Indian Commissioner of last fall. Of these bands a portion of the Kiowas and Comanches visited Fort Cobb early last spring, the point designated for their agent to reside at, apparently for the purpose of obtaining their annuities and other supplies. The Indian Department having failed to purchase the supplies, they fell out with the agent, drove him off, destroyed the agency building, and came up to their old haunts on the Arkansas, threatening war if their demands were no complied with. No other events of importance occurred in this District during the last year. The District was fairly and economically managed by both its commanders. Troops were sent twice or three times to Cobb, on requisition of the agent, who appeared to be constantly in trouble, either through his own fault or that of his IndiansCmost probably the latter, as they told me they did not like him, but wanted Mr. Tappan, the Indian trader at Larned, to be their agent, and that they put a halter about his neck and had him led out on the prairie, and that if they had anymore bad agents, they would hang them.

The District of Kansas has been under the control of Brevet Lieut. Col. T. C. English, Major Fifth Infantry, since the departure of Gen. Hoffman about the beginning of May, 1868. It comprises within its limits the posts of Forts Riley and Leavenworth, with one company of soldiers at the Kaw crossing of the Cottonwood, not far from Council Grove, and one company on the Republican, at the Big Bend. The District has been very well commanded.

The District of the Upper Arkansas embraces nearly all the Territory of Colorado and that portion of Kansas west of a north and south line through Fort Harker, and has been commanded by Brevet Brig. Gen. A. Sully, Lieutenant Colonel Third Infantry, since May, 1868, previous to which time it was commanded by Brevet Lieut. Col. T. C. English, Major Fifth Infantry. This District was the most difficult to manage and the most pregnant with events during the year. It had within its limits the territory of the Cheyennes, Arapahos, Kiowas, and Comanches, which they had agreed to give up in their treaty with the Peace Commission. The two great commercial highways to Colorado and New Mexico, and the lateral roads connecting them from Harker to Larned, and Hays to Dodge, and Wallace to Lyon, pass through the district; also the western line to frontier settlements in Kansas and the eastern line of settlements in Colorado, which, from their scattered and helpless condition, were much exposed and invited the cupidity of the savage. It is likewise the hunting ground of Sioux, northern Arapahos, and northern Cheyennes, and it was the permanent residence of the first named tribes. These Indians (the Kiowa, Comanches, Arapahos, and Cheyennes) were able to put into the field about 6,000 well mounted and well armed warriors, with from two to ten spare horses each.

To guard the lines of the Union Pacific Railroad and the Denver stage line, and other interests in this State, there had been established in 1867 the posts of Forts Harker, Hays, and Wallace, and the outpost of Cedar Point; and to guard the line of the Arkansas to New Mexico there were the posts of Larned, Dodge, Lyon, and Reynolds, and the outposts of Zarah and the mouth of Little Arkansas. All these posts were garrisoned during the summer by companies of the Tenth and Seventh Cavalry, Fifth and Third Infantry, and four companies of the Thirty-eighth Infantry, all ver much reduced in numbers, which gave me a force of 1,200 Cavalry and about 1,400 Infantry. After distributing this force for the protection of the railroad and the different posts, and along the line of settlements, I had available for the field at the commencement of hostilities only eleven companies of CavalryCseven of the Seventh and four of the Tenth CavalryCin all about 800 men. [For particulars touching the outbreak I respectfully refer you to my report of Sept. 26, 1868, appended hereto.] With this small force for offensive operations, it was impossible to accomplish a great deal in so extensive a country. The Indian, mounted on his hardy pony and familiar with the country, was about as hard to find, so long as the grass lasted, as the Alabama of the ocean. The seven companies of the Seventh Cavalry, joined by West=s company of the same regiment, moved to Fort Dodge, while the four companies of the Tenth Cavalry moved from the Saline to the crossing of Walnut Creek, on the road from Fort Hays to Ford Dodge, and there awaited information of the direction in which the families and villages of the Indians had moved, while Brevet Col. G. A. Forsyth, with a party of fifty scouts, moved north of the railroad to Beaver Creek, to watch the direction of the trailsC

all of which he reported as leading to the south of the Arkansas.

On the 7th of September Gen. Sully, whose command had been increased by a company of the Seventh Cavalry from Lyon, and Brevet Major Page=s company, Third Infantry, in all between five and six hundred men, crossed the Arkansas at Dodge to strike the villages of the Indians reported on the Cimarron, about forty miles distant.

On arriving at the Cimarron, it was found that the villages had moved; and the trail was followed with more or less skirmishing until the crossing of the Canadian or Middle River was reached, when the Indians made a brisk attack, but were driven off, after which the command moved north toward Fort Dodge and went into camp on Chalk Bluff Creek to await a further escort of Infantry for the wagon train. The amount of Infantry with it not being considered sufficient to guard it successfully, Capt. Hale=s company, from the Solomon; Capt. Asbury=s, from Larned; and Brevet Major Beebe=s company of the Thirty-eighth were sent. So much time was consumed in getting these companies from remote points that the rations for the expedition at Dodge and with the command were eaten up, and not much has since been accomplished by this column. The Indians lost in the series of skirmishes on this movement south of the Arkansas from seventeen to twenty-two killed, and an unknown number wounded. The troops lost two killed and one wounded.

While Gen. Sully was operating south of the Arkansas, Capt. Graham, with his company of the Tenth Cavalry, was sent out from Wallace to give as much protection as he could along the stage line to Denver. On the 15th of September he was attacked on Big Sandy Creek by about 100 Indians, defeated them, killed eleven, and wounded an unknown number. Meantime, Brevet Col. G. A. Forsyth, with his company of scouts, took the trail of a party of Indians who had committed depredations near Sheridan City, and followed it to the Orrikaree Fork of the Republican, where he was attacked by about 700 Indians, and after a very gallant fight on the 7th of September, repulsed the savages, inflicting a loss on them of thirty-five killed and many wounded. In the engagement Lieut. F. H. Beecher was killed, Forsyth twice wounded, the command living on horse flesh for eight days. The gallantry displayed by this brave little command is worthy of the highest commendation; but was only in keeping with the character of two gallant officers in command of it, Brevet Col. G. A. Forsyth and Lieut. Frederick H. Beecher. While the command was beleaguered, two scouts stole through the Indian lines and brought word to Fort Wallace of its perilous condition, and Brevet Col. H. C. Bankhead, Capt. Fifth Infantry, commanding Ft. Wallace, with the most commendable energy, started to its relief with 100 men from the post, and Brevet Lieut. Col. Carpenter=s company, then en marche protecting the stage line to Denver, reaching Forsyth on the morning of the 25th of September.

About the same time Brevet Brig. Gen. W. H. Penrose, from Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, pursued a party of Indians who were driving off stock from the settlers, and killed four of them. While these operations were in progress, the Governor of Kansas, knowing how hard we were pressed for troops, proposed to relieve the companies I had on the eastern frontier settlements of Kansas, if arms, ammunition, and rations could be issued by the Government for 500 militia from the State. This I gladly assented to, and these conditions were carried out by direction of the Lieutenant General.

As soon as the agreement was consummated, I drew the two companies of the Seventh Cavalry at Harker, and proceeded to Larned to try to induce the Kiowas and Comanches to return to their reservation at Fort Cobb. I offered to furnish them rations to the post, and Brevet Maj. Gen. Hazen, sent by Gen. Sherman to conduct the Indians to their reservations, agreed to feed them during the winter, and issue their annuities. This proposition was accepted, but only as a decoy to get their families out of the proximity of the post and then openly to become hostile. There is no doubt in my mind of the young men having done so previously.

Previous to this interview with the Kiowas and before Gen. Sully moved south of the Arkansas, in order to keep a portion of the Arapahos, who were not known to be hostile, out of the war, he invited their principal chiefs to visit us at Fort Dodge. I then offered to provide for them during the winter, which proposition they accepted, but only as a cover to get their stock and families out of the reach of the troops, and when Gen. Sully moved south they were the first to attack him. I mention this circumstance to show that we exhausted every alternative to be friendly with Indians not known to be fully engaged in the strife, as we had exhausted every alternative during the summer to preserve the peace with all the tribes.

During the period embraced in the events the Lieutenant General ordered Brevet Major General C. C. Augur, Commanding Department of the Platte, to send from Fort Sedgwick to the forks of the Republican River six companies of the Twenty-seventh Infantry, and at the same time notified me that the seven companies of the Fifth Cavalry would report to me at Harker. General Bradley arrived on the Republican River on the 25th of September, in time to be of material assistance to Col. Forsyth by the approach of his command, since which time he has been operating east and west on the headwaters of the Republican; but his command being principally infantry, it cannot do much ore than cover the country. After it became fully known that the Kiowas and Comanches were engaged in hostilities, we had against us the full number of 6,000 warriors, well mounted and armed, and I deemed it necessary to say our force was too small, and orders were received to call on the Governor of Kansas for one regiment of Cavalry 1,200 strong. This regiment will soon be organized and ready for the field.

On Sept. 29 seven companies of the Fifth Cavalry arrived at Fort Harker. They were at once equipped and sent north of the railroad from here on Beaver Creek, under command of Brevet Col. W. B. Royall, Major Fifth Cavalry, but as yet have not succeeded in finding the Indians. On Oct. 12, Gen. Sully ordered Custer=s command from Chalk Bluff Creek to scour the country on Medicine Lodge Creek and the Big Bend of the Arkansas, pending the accumulation of supplies at Dodge for an expedition to the Canadian River and Wichita Mountains. Only small parties of Indians who had been depredating on the line from Harker to Dodge were found, and who drew south to watch the movements of Custer. Two Indians were reported as probably killed in some small dashes made by them at sundry times, but no families or villages were found.

On Oct. 5, Gen. Bradley notified me that the trail of the Indians Col. Royall was sent after had crossed Beaver Creek in a southwesterly direction. Brevet Major General E. A. Carr, Major Fifth Cavalry, who arrived soon after the detachment of his regiment had taken the field, was ordered to join his command and take the trail reported by General Bradley with directions to Brevet Col. Bankhead, at Fort Wallace, to furnish him with Brevet Lieut. Col. Carpenter=s and Capt. Graham=s companies of the Tenth Cavalry, numbering about 120 men, as an escort. Gen. Carr, while carrying out these instructions, was with his party attacked on the 18th inst., by about 400 of these Indians on Beaver Creek, and after an engagement of six hours repulsed the Indians, killing nine and wounding an unknown number. Three of the escort were wounded.

The above gives you an account of the principal movements and principal combats since the 25th of August; but in addition there were a number of movements from posts, especially from Forts Wallace, Dodge, Lyon, and Hays, in which some Indians were killed. In all contests and skirmishes which have taken place up to this time about ninety-two Indians have been killed and an unknown number wounded. No villages have as yet been destroyed, and no large amount of stock captured. The above number of Indians killed, I think, can be safely relied upon as correct. The number of soldiers killed in this period has been six, and of scouts in the Government service five; of soldiers wounded, ten; and of scouts, sixteen. The number of citizens killed and officially reported is as set forth in the accompanying list of Indian outrages and murders, and will number seventy-five killed and nine wounded. In nearly all cases the most horrible and savage barbarities were perpetrated on the bodies of the victims.

The amount of stock run off in Colorado and Kansas, and from the freight trains to New Mexico and Colorado is very largeCin excess of five thousand head. The settlements have been driven in and ranches abandoned, making the damage done to all interested very large. In fact, unless the Indians are crushed out and made to obey the authority of the Government, there will be a total paralysis of some of the best interests of this section of country. All confidence is destroyed. The people had felt some degree of security from the assurance of the Peace Commission, and many of them have met a horrible fate in consequence. No peace which will give confidence can be hereafter made by paying tribute to these savage bands of cruel marauders.

I am exceedingly glad that the Peace Commission resolved at their late meeting that the Indian tribes should not be dealt with as independent nations. They are wards of the Government, and should be made to respect the laws and the lives and property of citizens. The Indian history of this country for the last 300 years shows that of all the great nations of Indians, only the remnants have been saved. The same fate awaits those now hostile, and the best way for the Government is to now make them poor by the destruction of their stock and then settle them on the land allotted to them. The motive of the Peace Commission was humane; but there was an error of judgment in making peace with those Indians last fall. They should have been punished and made to give up the plunder captured and which they now hold, and after properly submitting to the military and disgorging their plunder they could have been turned over to the civil agents. This error has given many more victims to savage ferocity.

The present system of dealing with the Indians, I think, is an error. There are too many fingers in the pie, too many ends to be subserved, and too much money to be made, and it is the interest of the nation and humanity to put an end to this inhuman farce. The Peace Commission and the Indian Department and the military and the Indians make a Abalky team.@ The public treasury is depleted and innocent people murdered in the quadrangular management in which the public treasury and the unarmed settlers are the greatest sufferers. There should be only one head in the government of Indians; now they look to the Peace Commission, then to the Indian Department, both of which are expensive institutions, without any system or adequate machinery to make good their promises. Then the Indian falls back on the military, which is the only reliable resort, in case he becomes pinched from hunger.

I respectfully recommend, in view of what I have seen since I came in command of this department, and from a long experience with Indians heretofore, that the Indian Department be transferred to the War Department, and that the Lieutenant General, as the common superior, have sole and entire charge of the Indians; that each department commander and the officers under him have the sole and entire charge of the Indians in his department. There will then be no Abalky team,@ no additional expense in salariesCa just accountability in the disbursement of the Indian appropriations. The machinery necessary to support the army can, without additional expense, supply the Indians.

Our success so far in the number of Indians killed is fully as great as could be expected, and arrangements are now being made for active operations against their villages and stock. As soon as the failure of the grass and the cold weather forces the scattered bands to come together to winter in the milder latitudes south of the Arkansas, a movement of troops will then take place from Lyon, Bascon, Dodge, and Arbuckle, which I hope will be successful in gaining a permanent peace.

I have the honor to be, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant.


Major General United States Army.



Emporia News, May 7, 1869.


CHICAGO, May 3. Writing under date of March 29th, from Fort Sully, Gen. D. S. Stanley, after recounting the murder of a soldier at Fort Randall, says that what has been done to make peace with the Sioux as a nation is an entire failure. The Indians are just as far from peace today as they were two years ago. They boasted while at this place of having killed white men this winter over on the Platte and stealing horses. I believe there are war parties out now to depredate on the line of the Pacific Railroad. Their hostility may run on in the same way, without showing itself only by an occasional murder, though I fear it may develop in a worse form, in the way of heavy attacks on the frontier. Unfortunately for the ideas of our peace advocates, these Indians say they do not want peace; that the whites are afraid of them, which is the reason that we send so much for them to eat; that they will make us leave this country, and stop boats on the Missouri River. The portion of the Sioux that were friendly two years ago have continued so, and are friendly today. They have gained none in numbers, and all reports to the contrary that have been circulated through the country and asserted at Washington are false.

Emporia News, June 4, 1869.


The following items in relation to the Indian troubles on the frontier we take from the Topeka Commonwealth.

We have seen a letter from a citizen of Washington, Washington County, dated the 24th inst., in which it is stated that two days before six men were out on White Rock Creek buffalo hunting, when they were attacked by Indians, and four of their number killed, the remainder escaping. This is said to have occurred some twenty-five miles above the camp of the Excelsior colony on White Rock. The members of the colony are very much and doubtless very justly alarmed.

From another letter from a citizen of Cloud County, of the same date, we make the following extract, which doubtless refers to the same occurrence.

AInformation has just been received here of Indian depredations on White Rock Creek, in Jewell County. As some buffalo hunters, seven in number, were out on Friday, May 21st, while four were engaged in skinning the buffalo, they were suddenly surprised by Indians; when they retreated, or attempted to. The three who were left in camp, seeing the fight, came down to the settlement, some seven miles, and reported their comrades dead. They made an alarm, and a large party of settlers have gone to bury the dead, and investigate the whole affair.

AThe foregoing I think is reliable. The Indians committing the depredations are supposed to be the Platte River Sioux, and perhaps some others. They were armed with revolvers, bows and arrows, and spears. The party attacking is estimated to have numbered thirty or forty, with a great many others back in sight. Quite a number are out on the buffalo grounds; among them I understand, three females. Great anxiety is felt for all the hunters, as they comprise some of our best farmers, who are thus endeavoring to secure their meat for summer.@

On Friday evening the track of the Kansas Pacific was torn up at Fossil Creek, twenty miles east of Hays, and two section hands killed. The eastward bound train did not reach this point until about nine o=clock last night, being detained, we presume, by this occurrence.

We have before mentioned the dash into Sheridan, and the driving off of stock.

At the present writing, the Waterville dispatch, which gave an account of a reported fight between Swedes and Indians, in which four of the former were killed, lacks confirmation. It may be true, and the story may have grown out of the affair first above referred to.

It is likely that the New York colony, on White Rock, or a portion of them, will be organized into a militia company, and supplied with arms and ammunition. It is certainly to be hoped that they will be able to maintain themselves in their present position.

Two companies of mounted militia are being organized to patrol the border. It is thought these will be sufficient to scout the exposed frontier, and to give such timely notice of approaching danger that the settlers may be prepared to defend themselves. If the number shall prove insufficient, it is likely that it will be increased. Gen. Schofield has sent a company of cavalry to the Solomon Valley, and will send another to scout the country in the direction of the Arkansas, until the militia can be made ready to take their places.

Emporia News, June 11, 1869.


Notwithstanding the announcement of Generals Sheridan and Custer a few weeks ago that the Indian war was ended, it is now raging on our northwestern border with renewed ferocity. It is a little strange that our border cannot be protected by the Government. The Indians have been treated in a way to make them more bold and impudent than ever. We are not in the habit of crying Ablood,@ but it does seem to us that the only plan to stop the Indian depredations at this stage of their warfare is Awar to the knife.@ They will respect no other treatment. It is of no benefit now to talk about what might have been done years ago to prevent the present trouble. The Government, it seems to us, ought to wake to the realization that it has a merciless Indian war on its hands which is not going to be stopped by boys= play, or prattling of peace. Everybody knows that the only way to get peace from a treacherous Indian, is to whip him into it. The sooner the Government commences to act on this principle, the better for all parties. Our settlers have been and are being murdered by the score in the northwest. Something must be done at once to stop these outrages. Governor Harvey is doing all in his power. He is comparatively helpless, as the Government will neither furnish him troops or permit him to raise regiments in Kansas. It looks now as though the people of Kansas must take the matter in their own hands and defend their own homes. Indeed, considerable numbers are already on the Awarpath.@ If that foolish and do-nothing policy which characterized the Government in the first stages of the recent rebellion, and which has so far characterized its treatment of these Indian difficulties is continued, nothing can check the indignation of the people of our border, and there will be some precious (?) Indian blood spilt. Sympathy for the redskins is worn threadbare in Kansas.

Emporia News, June 11, 1869.


Another Bloody MassacreCImportant Details of Indian Outrages.

A dispatch received last evening from Waterville states that an attack had been made upon the settlers on the Republican by a large body of Sioux, Cheyenne, and Kiowa Indians. The settlers were driven across the river. Seventeen settlers who had recently come into the country were killedCamong them a Mr. Winkefiel, late a prominent citizen of Atchison. The larger number of these were killed while crossing the river.

Topeka Commonwealth, June 6.

Geo. W. Crowther, of the Irving Recorder, writes the following particulars of late Indian murders to Governor Harvey, dated Waterville June 2nd.

AThe reports of Indian massacre and pillage I find upon examination have not been exaggerated. In fact, they have committed more depredations than have been reported.

ARepresentative Smith, of Marshall County, has just arrived from the country west of the Solomon. He was one of the party of ten that went out for the purpose of hunting and looking up locations. On last Saturday evening about four o=clock five of the party, while hunting near the forks of the Solomon, were set upon by about 100 Sioux and Cheyennes; the party were separated, and they took to the brush, eluding the Indians until dark, at which time they singly struck for the settlements. Four of them, after being chased two days, and suffering untold hardships for the want of food, water, and sleep, have arrivedCthe most terribly dilapidated mortals I have ever seen. The fifth man, John Wilson, Smith says, was headed by the Indians and was compelled to run through their camp; since then nothing has been seen or heard of him. It is thought he was tomahawked in the camp.

ASix of a hunting party of seven from this place were massacred at the mouth of White Rock. They made a gallant fight of two days duration, but their ammunition giving out, they fell easy victims to the merciless tomahawk. The following are the names of those killed belonging to the Waterville party: R. Wendlefleck, E. Wendlefleck, and two persons named Cole, just from Michigan. It is truly heart-rending to learn that those killed are not the only sufferers. Mr. Burke, well known, I believe, to your Excellency, leaves a family consisting of a wife and eight childrenCall girls, in all but destitute circumstances. Mr. Wendlefleck, a much honored citizen of this place, leaves a family of a wife and six children, who were entirely dependent upon him for their daily bread.

AFour citizens of Rose Creek, Nebraska, near the Kansas line, were at the head of White Rock, in this State, looking up farms, and were ruthlessly set upon by the savages, on Thursday last, and brutally murdered and mutilated. Two Swede farmers were massacred on Thursday, on White Rock.

AMr. Pillsbury, of Smith=s party, in his wanderings, found the body of a Dr. Rose, on the Solomon, terribly mutilated. It is feared that the remainder of a party of four, of which he was the head, are murdered, as they have not been heard from.

AMr. Smith says that he knows of seven squads of hunters, averaging five to the squad, who were about twenty miles west of him when he was attacked, and it is fear that, owing to the fact that they have not been heard from, they have fallen victims to the scalping knife.

AMr. Smith stopped at Lake Sibley, where Capt. B. C. Saunders, who commanded a company of the Indian militia last year, was very busily employed organizing the settlers who had flocked there for protection.

A. . . Mr. Smith intends raising an independent company of men, and calculates to go up on White Rock to protect the settlers. [He left with his command yesterday. ED.]

AThe Excelsior Colony have deserted their locations, and are scattered all along the Republican, from Scandinavia to Lake Sibley.

AMr. Smith says that the Indians who attacked his party wore broad brimmed hats, and were armed with new Colt=s revolvers.@

From Capt. Brunswick, of Junction City, who arrived in the city yesterday, we have learned the names of the parties who were murdered by the Indians on Spillman=s Creek, ten miles from Ellsworth. Mr. Brunswick saw the bodies on Saturday last. He says they presented the most shocking sight he ver beheld or conceived of. The brains of the children were beaten out and their teeth driven into their mouths. The bodies of the adults were mangled, bruised, and tortured. The names of the killed were A. C. Lovington and wife, Mrs. Alderdyce and four children aged respectively eight, five, and two years, and a babe of seven months; Christopher Peterson, John Wetzel, and Hermann Mayhoff. George Smietz and Wm. Alderdyce were wounded. Topeka Commonwealth.

Emporia News, February 25, 1870.


CHICAGO, Feb. 23. A letter from Fort Sully says that Little Swan, a Sioux Indian, arrived at the Cheyenne Agency on the 14th instant. He gives the particulars of a desperate fight between three hundred Sioux and Crow Indians in the early part of January, about the mouth of Yellowstone River, in Missouri. It appears that a party of twenty-nine Crows came on foot to steal horses from the Sioux Indians, and met two young Sioux Indians, one of whom was killed and one wounded, who managed to escape, which alarmed the Sioux Indians, and the warriors mounted their horses and hurried to the point where the Crows had fortified themselves in a fort built with loose stones, and defied the Sioux Indians, who charged several times unsuccessfully, losing five killed. The last attack was made near sundown, under Spotted Eagle, who was killed. The Sioux Indians then managed to overpower the Crows, everyone of whom were killed in a hand to hand encounter. The Sioux Indians lost twelve killed on the ground, and five died the next day. Many were dangerously wounded.

Emporia News, March 4, 1870.

Emporia News, March 4, 1870.


CHICAGO, March 2. A letter received today at Sheridan=s headquarters from Col. D. Stanley, Dakota Territory, gives a discouraging account of Indian affairs in that region, based chiefly upon information brought to that post by a Sioux Indian chief, named Little White Swan. This chief, who is very friendly toward the whites, and considered perfectly reliable, says he had entertained hopes of bringing in all his people, but recently the notorious renegade and murderer, John Richards, had so stirred up and influenced them against the whites that hostilities this coming season will probably be worse than ever before. Several tribes besides the Sioux are brewing hostilities, and are sending out war parties in every direction.

Walnut Valley Times, May 6, 1870.


General Sheridan received a letter from General Stanley, commanding Fort Sully, Dakota, dated April 9th. It says that for a week previous the Indians on the Cheyenne reservation have been insolent and there are strong indications that they will soon break out into open hostilities. There are eight hundred lodges of Sioux at or near Fort Sully, of which five hundredCthe BrulesCare hostile to the whites. They offer all sorts of insults to the Indian agent at that point, dancing war dances before his headquarters, and exhibiting the scalps of white men whom they have murdered. They are led by Red Leaf, the Indian who led the attack and massacre at Fort Phil Kearney. They have ordered the Two Kettle and Foot's bands across the Missouri River, these bands being friendly to the whites. Most of the employees of the agency have left through fright. Gen. Stanley is firmly convinced that there can be no peace, and no living near the hostile Sioux, until they are soundly thrashed. He is in constant fear for the fate of the agencies on the Cheyenne reservation. General Sheridan is confident that he can get the upper hand of the Brules, being thoroughly acquainted with all their modes of living and fighting. General Sheridan and several members of his staff will go West next week, to personally survey the situation.


Walnut Valley Times, May 6, 1870. Front Page.

An Indian war is said to be imminent. Twenty thousand Sioux are reported to be on the warpath. The 15th and 17th regulars of infantry are ordered to Sioux City, and all the recruits from the recruiting station in New York will be sent to Fort Leavenworth. General Sherman goes to Montana next week.

Walnut Valley Times, May 6, 1870.

The Indians cut a stringer on the Union Pacific bridge, three miles east of Antelope Station, and threw fourteen cars of the eastern bound freight train from the track, recently. All the trainmen except one brakeman got on the engine and ran to the next station. After they left, the Indians broke open a number of cars, when the remaining brakeman fired upon them a few times, and they left. The westward bound train was delayed there six hours, waiting for the wreck to be cleared.

Denver (Col.) Tribune.

Walnut Valley Times, May 6, 1870.

The Approaching Indian War.

Washington, May 2. General Parker, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, estimates the number of Indian Warriors in the neighborhood of Fort Sully at about 8,000. They are well armed and mounted. About 6,000 of them are Sioux, and the remainder is made up of scattering tribes. He is satisfied that they are bent on War, and if it shall take place it will be the most destructive and expensive Indian War that ever occurred. He says these savages are better prepared with horses than our own cavalry, and the Indians can raise in all about 12,000 warriors. The Sioux and their allies were never in all better condition to give battle. One of the immediate causes of alarm to the Indians is the threatened approach of the Big Horn expedition, which numbers about 2,500 men, assembled, at CheyenneCminers, surveyors, farmers, etc. They are expected to start in a few days to inspect the Big Horn range of mountains, Big Horn River and slopes, and discover, if possible, the immense gold deposits said to be in the region.


Walnut Valley Times, Friday, May 13, 1870.

General Sheridan and several members of his staff left Chicago on the 4th inst. for Salt Lake City and other points in the far west, intending to make a thorough investigation into Indian affairs in Wyoming, Montana, and the territories. The party will be absent about two months.

The military authorities will conduct the threatened Sioux war with utmost vigor, and have nearly completed preparation for the expected trouble. The number of available troops in the department of Dakotah is about 4,000; this force is considered ample to cope with the 10,000 brutes, but it will be augmented if necessary. It has not been decided who shall command these forces. General Stanley is at present in command of the middle district, the scene of the trouble.

Walnut Valley Times, May 13, 1870.

Information has been received from the Northern Indian country, at the Interior Department, that Red Cloud and several of the hostile chiefs in Dakota have sent in word that they desired to come to Washington and have a conference upon the causes of difference, and the Secretary has indicated his readiness to receive them. This is considered a very hopeful sign, and the first indication received for some time that a widespread war may be avoided.

Emporia News, June 10, 1870.

Red Cloud, the Indian chief, now visiting Washington, declines to have his photograph taken. That=s the first Indian we ever heard of who didn=t want to figure in the picture galleries.

Emporia News, June 17, 1870.

The great Indian pow-wow at Washington does not seem to have been very harmonious, or very beneficial in its results. Red Cloud made several speeches. In this respect he is as prolific as some of our Kansas politicians. He told the government authorities a good many plain things. He said he didn=t want any more musty flour or Arotten terbacker.@ He says the government can=t play that on him any more. Neither does this chieftain want any more Aold soldiers= clothes colored black.@ He says the officers in the Indian country are all whiskey drinkers, and that the soldiers are all afoot, and the government is Athrowing away money for nothing.@ Secretary Cox did not succeed to any alarming extent in convincing him that the government would live up to its treaty stipulations, and he went back saying he would not take the paper with him, as it was Aold lies.@ He said he would not return angry, although it was evident, says a telegram, that the Indians were not well pleased with their visit. It is a matter of extreme doubt, in our estimation, whether the benefits of this pow-wow were worth $50,000, the sum Congress proposes to appropriate for Red Cloud=s traveling expenses, presents, etc.

Emporia News, June 17, 1870.


Dispatches received from General Pope=s headquarters say: Fifty Indians attacked Hugo Spring Station, thirteen miles west of Kit Carson, Colorado, and were driven off by the guard, with a loss of three killed and several wounded. No whites hurt.

A dispatch to the Commonwealth, states that the well diggers at the end of the Kansas Pacific track were attacked a few days ago, by Indians, and two of them killed.

The Senate has passed the bill granting lands for the extension of the Central Branch Union Pacific railroad. The grant enters upon even-numbered sections as well as odd, so that the effect is to give all the land the Government owns in a belt fifty miles wide and two hundred long, and part of this is now held by the Government at $2.50 per acre. The Washington correspondent of the St. Louis Democrat says: AIt is doubtful whether this measure would ever have passed the Senate with such an excessive grant, but for the persistent lobbying of the former principal owner, at present Senator Pomeroy.@ Senator Ross voted against the bill.

An appropriation of $50,000 is asked for to pay the traveling expenses of Red Cloud and his staff.

Emporia News, June 24, 1870.

The Interior Department was very generous in complying with Red Cloud=s request for horses. It gave him seventeen splendid animals. He says now his Aheart is big,@ and he returns to the scene of his depredations in an excellent mood. He thinks the Great Father, as he terms President Grant, a perfect gentleman.

Emporia News, June 24, 1870.


It is a noteworthy fact that the East and West are in opinion diametrically opposed to each other on the Indian problem. Is it because our Eastern brethren are so far in advance of us upon questions of a humanitarian nature, is it because they are so much more civilized, cultivated, and refined that they advocate a sugar and plum policy with reference to the red man, while we of the West believe soldiers and soldier=s bullets are sometimes necessary? We do not believe there is any less true philanthropy in the West than in the East. The only difference between the two sections in this respect is that the Western people are on the ground, in close contact with the Indians and are thus enabled to thoroughly understand their nature, and intelligently determine what sort of treatment will alone be effective. Should it be so ordered by Providence that a number of these Eastern philanthropists be compelled to come to the frontier and pass four or five years where every day they could behold the noble savage and witness his praiseworthy mode of life and become victims of his pleasant treachery, they would find it easy to discover a more deserving subject for whose benefit to propagate their Ahumane@ theories.

We do not believe in being unnecessarily cruel to the Indian. We know he has suffered irreparable injuries at the hands of rogues and rascals, still in every instance that he has been abused, he has taken his revenge by butchering innocent white men and outraging innocent white women. His work of retaliation is more than complete. But whatever may the wrongs on either side, it should be borne in mind that if the demands of the Indians be granted, then civilization must suffer at the hands of barbarism. They virtually insist that thee shall be no more railroads built across their country, that there shall be no more mines explored along their hills, nor any more white men settle along their streams; that no more of their soil be cultivated; but they want money, and blankets, and food, and horses and powder, lead, and rifles. If the Indians in demanding their rights did not thus come in conflict with the growth of our country, and block the wheels of the car of progress, then their requests would be entitled to some consideration. But if what they ask for should be granted, then the pioneer must be restricted to certain well defined bounds, the developing of mines must not be extended beyond such and such limits, and the building of railroads with the tide of teeming multitudes of busy, active men they carry with them must be checked. But the fact is, this state of things cannot come to pass. The encroachments of civilization are inexorable. The buffalo, the antelope, and the deer retreat as the white man with his ax, his plow, and his shovel advances. The red man must, in the natural course of things, unless he is willing to give over his romantic life, lay down his bow and arrow and become a tiller of the soil, depart also. There is no other way for it. The progress of the world cannot be stopped in order that he may hunt his game unmolested.

No man, be the color of his skin red, black, or white, has any right to insist that mankind must stop its work in order that he may live in idleness and ignorance. Red Cloud and Spotted Tail must either take hold and help the white man develop the great West, constructing railroads, working mines, and building towns, or they must remove to new hunting grounds. Extermination is a terrible word; but finally, we fear, they will come to know fully its bitter meaning unless they subdue their wild, restless natures, and consent to engage in the peaceful pursuits of civilization.

Emporia News, July 1, 1870.

Red Cloud, when allowed to look upon the piles of gold in the United States Treasury, was rude enough to remark to Boutwell that he did not like the looks of the gold as well as he did those of the female clerks in the department. The savage was at once taken into the open air.

Near the close of his speech in Washington, Red Cloud pointed to a lady present, Mrs. Fanny Kelly, and generously asked that she should be paid for the property his people had destroyed in Dakota out of the money apportioned to them. Mrs. Kelly is young and fresh-looking, bearing no marks of hardship or trouble. She said that while a captive to them the terrible war chief had treated her with the greatest respect and kindness.


Walnut Valley Times, July 29, 1870.

Gen. Parker says all the reports for the last five or six days from the Indian country are quite favorable. He does not believe there will be any trouble with the Sioux or any other northern Indians, and hopes to avoid trouble with the southern Indians, some of whom have recently shown indications of hostile intent. Three or four members of the peace commission will probably leave for the plains at an early day, and if all cannot go, the commissioners will send other gentlemen as temporary substitutes to represent the views of the department.

Emporia News, January 20, 1871.

Red Cloud says his tribe is starving, and wants Government rations. The Crows have stolen sixty horses from them, and two hundred from the Cheyennes. The latter recovered their stock after a fight in which seven Crows and one Cheyenne expired.

Emporia News, January 27, 1871.

By order of the President, Red Cloud=s Indians are to be fed this winter on government rations, and 1,000 head of cattle are to be bought and sent to them. The Indians at Fort Laramie are also to be fed, and supplied with enough ammunition to hunt all game except white folks. If the Indians were only allowed their natural rights to scalp and rob the whites, they would not be thus reduced to the deplorable necessity of accepting government beef and hard tack. We look for a sympathetic editorial from the New York Tribune.

Emporia News, April 28, 1871.

Governor Harvey has written a letter to the President protesting against allowing Red Cloud, the Sioux, and other Indians to hunt on our frontier.

Emporia News, June 30, 1871.


WASHINGTON, D. C., June 23. The following contracts for the transportation of Indian supplies were awarded, by the Indian Bureau, to Chick, Brown & Co., of Kit Carson; from Kit Carson, Cal., to Forts Defiance and Wingate, Losperous agency, one dollar per cwt. per one hundred miles. John H. Coad, Omaha, from Fort D. A. Russell to the Red Cloud agency, one dollar and forty-five cents per cwt. per one hundred miles. D. J. McCaun, Nebraska City, from Fort D. A. Russell to the Whitestone agency, one dollar and seventy-five cents per cwt. per one hundred miles.

Emporia News, July 28, 1871.


Red Cloud and party are making ready for the war path.


Walnut Valley Times, September 22, 1871. Front Page.


A refugee from the wild Indians of the plains, calling himself John Brooks, arrived last Saturday, and left the same night en route for Illinois. He walked across from Fort Leavenworth, and was come across in the country by a couple of young gentlemen of the Gordon family, who learned his story; and becoming interested, aided him to town. Here they took steps to enable him to prosecute his journey to Illinois, where he supposes his family formerly lived.

He tells a strange story. When he was six years old, as he supposes (he is now 22), his father, with the family, left Illinois to cross the plains to California. There were four of them: father, mother, sister, two years old, and himself. They joined a train and had arrived at a point beyond Salt Lake. Here while the train parked, his father went out to bring in a mule. He was fired on by the Indians and fell. His motherCholding his little sisterCwitnessed it. She ran out to her husband, followed by little John. The Indians seized the infant sister, dashing out her brains against a tree, and snatching up John, turned and fled.

The Indians proved to be a band of Sioux under Red Cloud. They took him to their village, where he was adopted and raised by Red Cloud. The Indians had six other white prisonersCfive boys and one girl. By conversing with each other, they preserved their knowledge of the English language.

John was badly treated until he became large enough to take care of himself. Red Cloud's boys, especially, delighted in beating him, and otherwise abusing him. So with the Indian who boasted of killing his father. He taunted John with the possession of his father's scalp. Little John treasured the matter up, and swore, when old enough, to revenge his father's murder on this Indian.

John grew up and was a skillful hunter. He wanted to marry the white girl, but Red Cloud desired another wife, and took her himself. Soon after, about three months ago, he returned one day from a hunt, and riding by the lodge of the Indian who had killed his father, was accosted about that terrible tragedy. He dared the Indian to fight. The Indian seized his gun, and John drew his revolver. The Indian fired, but missed. John put a ball through the Indian's head, and then turned and fled. He had a good pony, but quick pursuit was made. Several times he was on the point of capture, but saved himself by shooting down the pony his nearest pursuer rode. In this manner, before the pursuit was abandoned, he shot down six ponies.

The Indian village from which he escaped, he says, was somewhere near the head of the Yellow Stone River. He struck for the Platte. He fortunately encountered a detachment of Federal troops coming into Fort Leavenworth. He accompanied them.

John Brooks does not know whether his mother was killed, but he recollects that his father came from Illinois. He is going there, with an indefinite idea that somewhere in Illinois he will gain tidings of his father's or mother's family. His appearance is rather prepossessing, and very well agrees with his story.

Jefferson City (Missouri) Times.

Emporia News, October 13, 1871.


The following is from the Pueblo (Colorado) Chieftain, of October 5th. Mr. Hadley, as many of our citizens will remember, was for some months an employee of this office. He was quite extensively known to the towns of Southern Kansas. All will regret to learn of his death. Poor Jim! He had his faults, but with all, had many good qualities, and it is with a sad heart we chronicle his untimely and cruel death.

AOn the 12th inst., a party of herders composed of A. H. Haines, J. H. Hill, H. C. Moore, E. K. Womey, Charley, and another individual who responded to the name of Whiskey Bill, while riding along Sand Creek, in Bent County, stumbled upon the remains of a wagon and a few camp equipments, which were scattered about over the ground in much confusion. These indications led the party to suspect that some foul deed had been committed, and continuing their search for other evidences, they soon came upon the ghastly skeleton off a man, who had probably been killed three or four weeks. Much of the flesh had been stripped from the bones by the wolves, but the ground about the body was deeply indented in places, showing the deadly nature of the struggle, while cartridge shells were scattered all around, showing that the victim had fought bravely, and probably against fearful odds, to the last. The murder was no doubt committed by some of Red Cloud=s braves. All the clothing was gone, but the scalp was untouched, and examination showed that the left arm was broken, while the chest and legs of the unfortunate man were riddled with bullets, each producing a wound sufficient to cause his death. From the position in which the corpse was found, it was evident that the man, after having been left for dead by the Indians, had attempted to crawl to a ravine nearby in search of water, and had died in the attempt. Near the mutilated corpse was found a large memorandum book, while the ground was strewed with letters and photographs which the Indians had evidently examined and thrown away as useless. The blood from the hands of the murderers is still visible on these letters, and from them we are enabled to establish the identify of the victim. It seems that the name of the murdered man is James A. Hadley, and his last place of residence, Emporia, Kansas.

AThe family of the deceased belong, it seems, to the Society of Friends, for the well known expressions peculiar to the order, Athee@ and Athou,@ are common. First, we notice a letter from the father, who writes from Dublin, Indiana, bearing the date of June 27, 1871. This is well written, and contains some good, fatherly advice, among the rest a hint to be careful about endorsing notes for other parties. And then we have a note from Jame=s sweetheart, a young girl who writes from Hesper, but gives no other clue by which we can ascertain the place. They are like all love letters, interesting but for only two persons in the world, but they breathe the spirit of chase maiden love and devotion. They are now crumpled, torn and stained with the life blood of the lover, who probably fought to the last, incited by the memory of the maid who wrote them, but they are none the less binding. The meeting which she so earnestly prayed for will take place some time, but in a happier world than this.

There are also other letters, one from his elder sister, Sarah, who seems to reside at or near Lawrence, Kansas. The photographs, of course, embrace the relations of the deceased

and are uninjured. These, together with the letters and memorandum book, are in our possession, and will be delivered when called for.

Emporia News, April 14, 1871.

Sioux Indians have just massacred two parties, comprising 15 white men, on the divide between the Yellowstone and Muscleshell River, Montana.

Emporia News, April 28, 1871.

Governor Harvey has written a letter to the President protesting against allowing Red Cloud, the Sioux, and other Indians to hunt on our frontier.

Emporia News, June 30, 1871.


SIOUX CITY, June 21. We learn from the second clerk of the steamer Kioutz, who has just arrived up the river, that Indians in the vicinity of Forts Berthold and Buford are very troublesome. A herder had been badly wounded a mile from Fort Berthold and 25 cattle run off with. A party of soldiers and wood-choppers were attacked 3 miles from Stephenson; a soldier was fatally wounded. The government cattle have been run off with at Sulley. The Indians declare that the Northern Pacific R. R. shall not run through their country, and much trouble is expected.

Emporia News, July 28, 1871.


WASHINGTON, July 2. A letter from Fort Sill says that Kiowa Indians have made efforts to induce the Cheyennes and Sioux to join them in a war against the whites, but thus far they have failed.

Winfield Courier, Saturday, February 1, 1873.


The Indian Commission to audit the claims of settlers who sustained losses from the depredations of tribes along the border between the years of 1861 and 1871, will make an elaborate report in a short time, giving an itemized statement of the amount allowed each claimant. The total amount of bills presented to the board was $191,917.06, amount allowed $119,807.66. A nice little sum for our state to pay for the ravages of poor Lo on the frontier, besides assisting to support them while committing their depredations.

The Quaker policy will ruin these western states yet.

If we pay a soldiery to protect us, turn them loose and allow them to do it.

The question arose in the state senate on the fourth day and this is the opinion our statesmen have of it.

S. C. R. No. 1, in relation to Indian depredations on the frontier, was then taken up for consideration.

Mr. Edwards, in explanation of the intention of the resolution, called attention to the frequency of the depredations committed by Indians in the western portion of Kansas, and the injury it was doing the state in preventing that portion of it from being as rapidly settled as others. He said the Sioux and Arapaho tribes of merciless savages were fed and maintained by the government and allowed to roam at will over the western border counties of Kansas and other portions of the country, committing what depredations and acts of violence they saw fit, robbing the settlers and murdering defenseless women and children. He instanced the massacre of the two Jordan brothers, which occurred in the latter part of last September, and the captivity or murder of Mrs. Jordan, the wife of one of the boys. A most thorough search and investigation was made, but no clue has ever been obtained of Mrs. Jordan.

He instanced this as a fair specimen of the Quaker policy of the government towards the Indians. He wanted the legislature of this state to pass this resolution, send a copy to the authorities at Washington and demand of them that this matter be thoroughly investigated, means devised for the better protection of the citizens of western Kansas, and that a diligent inquiry be made by the authorities as to the fate of Mrs. JordanCa fate worse than death, if indeed she is yet alive. He was of the opinion that if the daughter of our respected president should be making a tour of the plains and should become a captive in the hands of this thieving, marauding band of Arapahos or Sioux, the entire force of the government would be speedily brought to her relief and rescue.

The same course should be pursued in the case of Mrs. Jordan, and the legislature of Kansas should demand protection for her citizens from the fallacious and ruinous Quaker policy of the United States government in relation to Indian affairs.

At the conclusion of Mr. Edwards' remarks the resolution was adopted unanimously.

The weakest point a man has is his pocket-book when attempt is made to reach him by taxation, and when an honest farmer is asked to pay taxes to support a worthless race of Indians and then in return for his generosity, pay them over again to remunerate a neighbor for damages sustained from a worthless gang, that are so highly fed from the country of a lenient government.

"Poor Indian!" bah! we have heard enough of it here on the border.

What Kansas wants is protection from marauding bands.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, May 27, 1873.

The commission sent to the Red Cloud agency to prepare the Indians for the building of the Northern Pacific railroad report that they have seen a number of representative Indians and whites. If they are not decidedly hostile, they are constantly opposed to the project. They want no white people, other than trades, on their lands.


Walnut Valley Times, September 12, 1873.

General Custer's official report of his recent skirmishes with the Indians up the Yellowstone is published, and exhibits a course of conduct highly creditable to him. He outwitted the Indians in their attempts at fighting in ambush, and in a square, open fight, put them to flight with considerable slaughter. It is evident that Custer is the right man in the right place, and it is hoped the Government will permit him to deal with the treacherous red-skins as he deems best, until they have been made to fear the power which feeds them.

Winfield Courier, February 20, 1874.

A special dispatch from Cheyenne W. T. of Feb. 14, says: "A Cheyenne runner has just arrived there from Red Cloud Agency, saying that Red Cloud was killed last Monday night by a party of Sioux of whom he had complained for not returning stolen stock. He reported that nearly all the Cheyennes and Sioux have left the agency and that 150 lodges are now within fifty miles of Fetterman and will come in or send to that post. He reports plenty of buffalo in the Big Horn country and thinks the Sioux will go there. Two companies of cavalry were ordered from here to Fort Laramie today."


Winfield Courier, April 3, 1874.

The Indians made an attack on a ranch at Scott's Bluffs, Nebraska, Tuesday, killing one man and running off horses. The Sioux at Fort Laramie and the various Sioux agencies are reported very sullen and discontented. It is thought that they meditate immediate hostilities. Red Cloud and Spotted Tail are among those declared unfriendly.


Winfield Courier, April 17, 1874.

A correspondent of the Cheyenne Leader states that the United States Indian Peace Commissioners have returned from interviews with the Chiefs, Spotted Tail and Red Cloud, without having accomplished anything. They refused to consent to the removal of the agencies, and Spotted Tail wants his words written down "this time" to the effect that he has been "pestered so much by these flies from the Great Father that he won't talk to them any more."

[Reference made to Sioux and Pawnee fight at Pawnee Rock, Kansas, in next article.]

Winfield Courier, Friday, July 3, 1874. Front Page.

Special Correspondence.

DEL NORTE, COLORADO, June 10th, 1874.

As there are many readers of your valuable journal meditating a trip to the mines of Colorado, and knowing the great interest you take in furnishing your patrons with the latest and most reliable information of the passing events of the day, I thought it might be interesting to you, or otherwise, to hear a voice from among the snow clad peaks of the Rocky Mountains. I will not weary the reader with a tedious detailed account of the journey; but only notice the leading points en route to this place.

Wheeler, Captain Jack, Brown, and myself left Cowley County for Colorado May 4th, 1874, and passed through Wichita. Struck the A. T. & S. F. railroad at Hutchinson on the 8th inst., county seat of Reno; eight hundred inhabitants; an unusually windy day; a perfect land storm passed through the streets. Wheeler stole a hound, owner came and claimed his dogCno fight. Passed through place; temperance town; did not camp for private reasons. Soil poorCsand and gravel. Encountered a terrific hail storm, the green fields of corn and wheat withered before the cutting blast. Camped in Raymond, a deserted railroad town and one of the inhabitants regaled us with the past glories of the place, how it had run ten dozen houses in the flush times, and thirty-three murders had been committed in one year. The chivalrous inhabitants were too brave to live long.

Elmwood, small town; fine lands but no timber. Good schoolhouses on the line of the Fort Sarah railroad, abandoned; they are made of fine cut stone. The people's money wasted.

Cross big Walnut at Great Bend city, which is a snug little town, has a splendid courthouse and is surrounded by some of the best land in Kansas.

We nooned at Bull Chip Grove, in the vicinity of which wild lands are $5 per acre. We next came to Pawnee Rock, named from a big fight between the Sioux and Pawnee Indians many years ago, in which the latter were victors. Kit Carson, while standing here on guard, shot his own mule, mistaking it for an IndianCrather a bad joke on the mule, but a good shot for Kit.

Larnard [Larned] is a quiet town with no business, and the neighboring towns are staked out with buffalo heads.

Camped on Muskrat Creek next and shot three rats. It rained hard all night, and horse thieves tried to stampede our stock. The boys turned out of their blankets in the morning, wet and disgusted, but the cheering presence of the demijohn revived their then drooping spirits. Cars passed while taking a drink, engineer wanted some, could not stop. Saw two Indians and plenty of antelope. Four lead miners from Missouri joined the train, and stood first guard. It rained, blowed, and thundered all night. The next morning was pleasant, prairie lands good, shot twice at antelope, missed, too far off, rain again, mercy how the wind blows, no wood, no duck, no supper tonight, serious reflections about the comforts of home.

Rode over to Fort Dodge, no better, don't feel any better. Arrived at Dodge City, took everything out of the wagons to dry after the storm. Villainous looking set here, a few stock ranches around Dodge City.

Country getting high and rolling, camped at railroad tank, ten soldiers stationed here. The soldiers say that about four months ago a part of Indians fired into this tank, and a guard of ten men was immediately stationed at each tank on the line of railroad for the protection of section men. Emigration to Colorado this spring is sufficient to protect all soldiers stationed on the route. Went antelope hunting, no luck. Good lands. The river bottoms and plains are covered with sheep and cattle. Saw first sage brush and Spanish caynots, stood guard last night and think the boys throwed off on us about an hour. Killed eleven duck, Captain Jack shot the first antelope on the trip, they are good meat; three prairie dogs killed, nooned at a cool spring of water, all hands took a wash.

Camped on Arkinsaw [Arkansas] River; three men waded over to an island for wood in the still hours of night, and loud splashes were heard over on the island. An alarm in camp, all hands under arms except Glasford, who had to unload his wagon to find ammunition. We laid in wait for the enemy fifteen minutes and discovered that Bouroes [Burros] had caused the alarm.

We passed on by Syracuse, a few ranches, some poor lands, and the dilapidated little town of Sargent, situated near the state line of Kansas and Colorado.

Grenada, the terminus of the railroad, is a lively town and has a large depot. It also does an extensive wholesale business. A company of cavalry camped here for a few days.

Our boys are beginning to get disgusted with the monotony of the culinary department, but there is no help for it now. Saw large herds of stock grazing on both sides of the river.

Men working on irrigating ditch at Ella, don't think it will ever be much of a town as there is too much sand and gravel there.

Our next camping ground was near two abandoned Forts: Bent and Lyons, large droves of cattle going to Colorado.

Regular old salt grass now, and out of the buffalo range, none were seen on the trip. One of our horses was bitten by a rattlesnake, we drenched him with a quart of whiskey, lanced him, and burned powder on the wound. We then wiped off the green poison that raised to the surface after each blast, and old Tom is all right again.

New Fort Lyons is a large and extensive military post. But the old Fort was just as good a provision depot for the soldiers. The people's money wasted again.

The country is now dry and desolate, scarcely a blade of grass to relieve the wearied eye. There is an oasis ahead. Hurry up, boys, and we will graze our stock. How green the tall waving grass; how cool and inviting the shade of yonder cottonwoods; what a splendid camping ground. Halt! What is this notice? "No camping allowed on government reservations.@ So there is no help for it, we must drive on, no matter what the condition of the emigrant's stock. They are not permitted to pluck one blade of grass within the sacred limits of these reservations. We drive slowly on and in language more profane than poetic, we express our opinions freely of the manner in which government protects emigration.

This morning I rode ahead as usual and how very familiar did these old landmarks look; there to the northwest stands Pike's Peak, towering its frosty head high above the fleecy clouds; and there again to the southwest can be seen the snow-capped Spanish peaks, standing away out on the plains in cold relief. My ride from Las Animas to Pueblo was really delightful, as I passed through a beautiful country, and scenery characteristic of Colorado, one decided anomaly.

I observed the view on the west was particularly Californian, and on the east was as markedly central in appearance; the country to the west undulating and marked with lines of trees and foliage, skirting the streams, and irrigating canals led the eye far beyond to the foot hills; and they again to the snowy range, and lofty peaks towering to the skies, the interval interspread with pleasant houses of the farmers. Looking back or east a vast extent of plains dotted with grazing stock met the eye; such a sight as can nowhere be met with except in the great west.

Today we are getting well up to the foot of the mountains, dwelling houses comfortable and pleasant surroundings.

Arrived in Pueblo, nice little town nestled between the bluffs of the Arkansas; elegant private residences and delightful gardens, a large wholesale and retail business done here; a central outfitting point, supplying all the mining camps in southern Colorado narrow gauge R. R. to Denver City.

Stock raising the principle business of the inhabitants in the adjacent country; heavy rains in the mountains, road closed to Del Norte.

Wheeler, Brown, and Winfield party switched off for the mining town of Fairplay. I stopped at the Lindell Hotel. Landlord glad to see Californians come into the country, and requested me to recommend his house to the traveling public. My conscience forbids me: George Washington never told a lie and I cannot, after paying first-class prices for common hash house fare.

Pleasant weather again. The birds are singing gaily in the trees, and all nature seems refreshed; the great mountains covered with their white mantles, and it seems more grand and majestic than ever before.

As I started out on horseback for Del Norte, passing round the southern point of the snowy range, crossing the summit by the Sangree Christo, "Blood of Christ," I passed grand mountain scenery on every hand; but I am too tired to be romantic. The Spaniards in their search for gold discovered this pass upwards of one hundred and fifty years ago, a gradual descent from the summits to the far off Rio Grande. A grand panorama of mountains, hills, and valleys presents itself to the view as I rest beneath the tall pines, graceful poplars that grow on the summit, and discovered copper mine at "Dead man's camp,"

Fort Garland, two companies stationed here, arrived at last on the inundated banks of the Rio Grande; the river bottom is either crusted with white alkali, or deep sand; camped near Mexican stock ranch; good grass, slept with horse, lofty mountains covered with snow, nearly surrounding this nook in the valley.

The snow falls in the mountains in November and melts in July, very little land under cultivation, late frosts have an injurious effect upon early crops.

Arrived in Del Norte Sunday, June 7th, having traveled six hundred and sixty-four miles in thirty-four days. "What constitutes the town of Del Norte?@ There are two lines of disconnected houses one and three quarters of a mile long with a good wagon road between; the buildings are on every third and seventh lot, all the vacant ones are for sale. At some of the business houses I observed the following notice posted in a conspicuous place, "Town here, inquire within."

The celebrated San Juan mines are one hundred and ten miles distant from this point. The only communication between the two places is by a burro trail which crosses forty miles of deep snow on the crust. I have not been to the mines yet, but I have investigated the matter pretty thoroughly and examined large quantities of ore from the mines; they are low grade and what we call base ores on the other side of land, containing some silver, but it yet remains to be seen whether in sufficient quantities to pay for working where the seasons are so short and they have such big snows to contend with. The mines are numerous, large, and well defined, and of fuel for smelting purposes there is no lack. Machinery is now on the road to the mines, and I have no doubt that in one or two years from this date, the mines will be in full blast and pay well.





Winfield Courier, August 28, 1874.

Our last advices from General Custer's expedition furnish a new illustration of the hackneyed saying that where there is smoke there must be a fire, for they show that, in this instance, at least, popular rumor was right. It is well known that the sight of nuggets of gold in the possession of the Sioux Indians, and necklaces of gold scales, has often tempted our frontiersmen to penetrate, even by marriage and adoption, into the tribe of the Black Hill region, but that these attempts were always unsuccessful. The Black Hills are the sacred land of the Sioux, made so by tradition and by the rude law of the tribe. So earnest has been their seclusion on the part of the Indians that the absolute prohibition of the entrance to all white men was made the first condition of the Laramie Treaty, concluded in the year 1868. But the mysterious territory has now been explored, and the news of the mineral treasure there discovered will result in the speedy opening of this gold region. The people of BismarckCthe most advanced outpost of civilizationCare already preparing to make a rush for the new Eldorado, and these will only be the advance guard of an invasion resembling in magnitude that which amazed the world in the early days of California.

Winfield Courier, September 4, 1874.

About the 5th of this month, an expedition of five hundred pioneers is to start from Sioux City for the gold region of the Black Hills.


Winfield Courier, September 4, 1874.

New Gold Fields.

Gen. Custer's expedition after Indians in Dacotah Territory has developed the fact that untold mineral wealth exists in the Black Hills. The Black Hills lie about two hundred miles north of the Union Pacific railroad, and about three hundred and fifty miles northwest from Sioux City. Besides other minerals, gold is found in limitless quantities, in gulch and quartz. For years the existence of gold in that region has been known, but the country belongs to the Sioux Indians by treaty and no white man was allowed there. The whole country is ablaze with the news of the discoveries and several expeditions are preparing to take possession of the mines. Gen. Sheridan has issued an order forbidding people from going in there, but the probabilities are that the gold seekers will not heed this order.



Winfield Courier, September 18, 1874.

Gen. Custer's final official report to Gen. Terry recapitulates his former statements, and takes strong ground in favor of the immediate opening of the Black Hills for military reasons, endorses the part of gold discoveries, and suggests further operations next season. Nevertheless, professors Winchell and Donaldson asserted that Custer does not know of his own knowledge that any color of gold was found in the Black Hills.


Winfield Courier, March 11, 1875. Front Page.

WITCHER AND GORDON, two members of the party which left Sioux City for the Black Hills in October last, have returned to that place for reinforcements and supplies. The story of their adventure, as related on their return, is as follows.

The expedition was composed of twenty-seven men and one lady and her son. There were six wagons. The party were well armed, and supplied with provisions and mining tools. The expedition left Sioux City October 6; struck the Niobrara about 120 miles above its mouth and followed that stream some distance, then struck across the country to a point east of the Black Hills, on the Cheyenne River. Met a party of 200 mounted Indians, and held peaceable parley with them. After reaching a pass at the foot of the Hills, they struck into the mountains, and, after picking their way, reached a point within two miles of Harney's Peak in fifteen days from the date of their entry into the Hills. They erected a stockade, eighty feet long, and built log cabins from the abundant timber. They found that cold weather greatly impeded their prospecting. They sunk twenty-five prospecting holes and struck gold in every instance, from grass to bed-rock. They found numerous gold and silver-bearing quartz lodes, and some specimens that Mr. Witcher has brought back are pronounced very rich. The party never saw an Indian while in the Hills. Witcher describes the parts of the Hills they saw as having magnificent valleys, seemingly limitless forests of pine, abundance of elk, deer, and other game. The greater portion of the return trip was made through snow drifts, over a trackless country, in most stormy and severe weather. They discovered in coming out of the Hills a good natural road that shortens the way out by thirteen days. Their animals lived on grass they found beneath the snow. Witcher says he can take loaded ox-teams into the Hills from Sioux City in thirty days. The members left in the Hills are in good health and spirits. There is no evidence of other parties being in the Hills. Nothing was heard or seen of the two disastrous army expeditions sent out to intercept them.


Winfield Courier, March 11, 1875.


A Letter from a Former Resident of Winfield.

MINER'S CAMP, BLACK HILLS, Dacotah Territory.

MR. J. W. CURNS. Dear Sir: I am sitting in my cabin this night, and as a courier starts for Cheyenne on Monday, I thought I would write you a few lines and let you know what I am doing. A party of twenty-five men started from Sioux City on the 6th day of October, last, and reached this camp on the 23rd of December. We have built a camp and done some prospecting, which has proved very satisfactory. We find gold in every hole we dig, which reaches as high as fifteen cents to the pan. We have commenced to mine where we think it will pay. We started a rocker and run it about one hour and cleaned up two dollars in fine gold. But it is so cold that we cannot do much just now, but it bids fair now for a fine winter and spring. If we get as good diggings as we are satisfied we have, we will make at least ten dollars to the man per day.

I think this is one of the richest gold fields ever struck in this or any other country, as there is fine quartz cropping out all over, and not only gold but some of the finest silver ledges in the United States. About twenty miles north of here, the hills are covered with beautiful pine timber. In the fine valleys our oxen and horses have grazed right along ever since we got here on what they pick.

I will say to all those wishing to come to this Eldorado, that there will be one of our party in Sioux City, on or about the first of March, and expects to return immediately, but if there is a company it will be far the best route by way of Cheyenne, as there is no established route. Yet by taking a map you can see the direction as well as I can give. It would please this whole party to see your party in here by the first of April.

Winfield Courier, March 11, 1875.

Feb. 1st.

FRIEND CURNS: As the messenger did not get started to Cheyenne this morning, but will start in the morning, I will write you what we did today. We ran one rocker; one man rocked while one dug dirt for two hours and one half and got four dollars. We can get ten dollars if we can work all day. I should like to see some Cowley folks here by the first of April, so I will not have to leave here, as I think we can better pay large profits to those who wish to fetch goods here, than to go out and get them ourselves. Please tell all that wish to come to not wait, as the first will get the cream.

Anyone who will fetch a stock of goods here by the first of May will make at least five hundred percent, above all cost, and by the first of April he can double that amount. You can write or come to Sioux City and find when the messenger will return; but if you or anyone who wishes to will come to Cheyenne and come in with a mule train, it will be far the shortest route, as it is only 198 miles from Harney's peak, which is ten miles north of us. To reach us you must travel a northeast course, which will fetch you direct to our camp.

There are several who wished me to write to them, but you can show this to all who want to know the good news. I will close by asking you to answer this at Sioux City, Iowa, in care of Charles Collins, Times office, where all letters will be called for. But don't wait to write, but come right along and bring all the news.

If the editor of the COURIER will find room enough in his columns, he will do a great favor by publishing this letter.

Further information may be had by calling on J. W. Curns.

Good bye for the present.



Winfield Courier, March 11, 1875.


The letter from J. J. Williams, which we publish in another column, has given the gold fever to several of our citizens. The writer is well known here, and his statements are relied upon. He left here last fall for the hills and in a post script to his letter promises to correspond regularly with Mr. Curns, as to affairs in that interesting locality. Mr. Williams has had considerable experience in Colorado as a miner and knows what he is talking about. The government and the Indians undoubtedly will make an attempt to keep the white man out of that country.

Winfield Courier, March 11, 1875.

Capt. Hunt is making up a party for the Black Hills.

Winfield Courier, March 18, 1875.

Mr. Wm. Bartlow proposes to start for the Black Hills with his steam saw mill about the first of April.

Winfield Courier, March 18, 1875.

The St. Louis Democrat contains an interview in which Gen. Sherman says, most emphatically, that the miners will be kept out of the Black Hills by the military.

Winfield Courier, March 18, 1875.

The Chicago Inter-Ocean publishes the list of enterprising adventurers who, in defiance of the Indians, the military, and the threatening winter, pushed into the Black Hills last fall. The name of J. J. Williams, Winfield, Kansas, appears in the list.


Winfield Courier, March 25, 1875. Front Page.

The Secretary of War has addressed a communication to General Sherman, saying that all expeditions into that portion of the Indian Territory known as the Black Hills country must be prevented as long as the present treaty exists. Efforts are now being made for the extinguishment of the Indian title, and all proper means will be used to accomplish this. If, however, the steps which are to be taken towards the opening of this country to settlers are not successful, those persons at present within that territory without authority must be expelled.

Winfield Courier, April 8, 1875.

Armstrong Menor and son have gone to the Black Hills.

Winfield Courier, April 22, 1875.

Several parties in this city, confident that they will "strike it rich," will start for the Black Hills shortly.


Winfield Courier, April 29, 1875. Front Page.

[Black Hills]

A dispatch from Fort Laramie, 16th, says that Captain Meyer's company, who were sent after the mining party, at Harney's Peak, has secured the whole of them, consisting of fifteen men, one woman, and a boy. They were expected to arrive at Fort Laramie on the 18th. There have been heavy snows in the Black Hills, and high waters everywhere.


Winfield Courier, April 29, 1875. Back Page.


Notes From Along the Border.

The Sioux and the Black Hills.

[From the St. Louis Democrat, 21st.]


Commissioner Smith, in a recent conversation regarding the Black Hills and the probability of the extinguishment of the Indian title, said to a representative of the Omaha Herald:

Three delegations of Sioux are starting to Washington about this time, one of the Ogallallas, in charge of Agent Saville, of the Red Cloud Agency, another from the Brule Sioux, under charge of Agent Howard, of Spotted Tail Agency, and the third delegation is made up of chiefs from the Northern IndiansCthe Winneconjons, Sans Arcs and Unepapas, in charge of Agent Bingham, of the Grand River Agency.

They are going to Washington for the purpose of consultation, mainly upon the Black Hills question. Congress, however, made provisions for two new agencies to be established, into one of which the Northern Sioux are to be gathered, and the location of these agencies is another object of this visit.

After they have returned to their own country, it is expected a commission will be sent out from Washington, which will complete the negotiations in respect to the extinguishment of their title to the Black Hills, and also select a point in the reservation for the new agencies.

Regarding the making of a treaty, I do not think the chiefs will go on with sufficient authority to do that. Obtaining their consent to give up the Black Hills will be so difficult to accomplish that it will probably require considerable machinery to bring it about.

I think the object of their going to Washington is to secure in advance the cooperation of a considerable number of their prominent men when they conduct the negotiations with their tribes.

The Black Hills have been regarded as a kind of "sacred soil" and a common ground by all the Northern Indians. They have threatened hostility to any white man who should visit there at all. They have made it their common rendezvous whenever they contemplated any incursion or emergency. One of their strongest feelings is against any white man going to the Black Hills, and, of course, to induce them to give up that objection and to relinquish their own right to go there will require a great deal of persuasion. Their love for the Hills is simply because it is in the center of their reservation, the various bands of the Sioux being located on three different sides. They value it also on account of its comparative inaccessibility.

Mr. Smith is of the opinion that, while there may be rich gold deposits in the hills; the reports thereof have been greatly exaggerated. As a hunting ground for the Indians, it is worthless, the game being almost exhausted, and as there is a strong desire on the part of the Government to open the country to the whites, it is probable matters will be settled with all possible expediency.


Winfield Courier, May 6, 1875.

The party of miners who were brought out of the Black Hills by the military passed through Omaha on their way east, and hundreds more are on their way.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, May 27, 1875. Front Page.

The Black Hills.

The fever to go to the Black Hills in search of gold is abroad. The Indians, according to all precedent and regardless of treaties, will have to look up some other hunting grounds. The white man wants the gold, and the whole army won't keep him out of the land that promises to "pan out.@ We call it the march of civilization. When we desire to violate a treaty, we secure possession of territory occupied by Indians, select some remote territory, sign new treaties, sacredly giving our pledges never to intrude upon their new hunting grounds, which in the future will again be violated in the interests of what we call civilization. It is not this phase of the question, however, that we started to say a word upon, but to utter a caution to the many restless spirits among the young men on the farms.

With the glittering stories of these new gold fields where fortunes are to be easily made, and their labors having shown such meager results the past two years, it is only natural that a feeling of dissatisfaction may arise, and a hope be entertained that possibly the money would come easier in the New Eldorado. But there is another side to this which we only wish now to foreshadow. In the first place, the story of the great gold deposits of the Black Hills rests upon the most indefinite heresay and lacks practical proof. Far removed from supplies, with the government troops harassing all who may endeavor to prospect for gold, it seems to men of common sense that starting on such a venture is an evidence of lunacy. Beyond this there are suspicions that there is a future railroad enterprise at the bottom of the excitement, that this is the preliminary step to asking for a grant of land to build a branch road.

We say to the young men on the farm, don't let a bubble excite you. There are thousands of old experienced miners in the territory west of Kansas who will develop the gold of the Black Hills if there is any there. It will pay to stick to the honest labor of a farmer, rather than become a wandering adventurer, vainly hoping to find riches easier than by useful labor.

Kansas Farmer.


Winfield Courier, May 27, 1875.


A courier arrived at Sioux City, Iowa, on the 21st inst., bringing information that Gordon's train, consisting of 47 four-mule teams and 170 men, well armed, were captured on the 13th inst., by a detachment of 37 soldiers from Fort Randall, D. T., and are now en route to that post in charge of the troops. No resistance was offered to the troops. The point where the party was captured was in Nebraska, some 350 miles west of that place and 40 miles south of the Indian reservation. The party had given up the idea of going to the Black Hills and concluded to move on to the Big Horn country till the Hills were opened.


Winfield Courier, May 27, 1875.

In view of the fearful ravages of the grasshoppers last year, and the prospect that they will be as bad in many localities this year, the significance of the resolution offered by Mr. Manning, in the Congressional Convention at Emporia last fall, will be fully appreciated. That resolution was to the effect that the general government should appoint a commissioner to investigate the origin of these pests, and devise some plan for their prevention or destruction. The government will yet have to take the matter in hand, and the sooner the better. It is of vastly more concern to the western people to have their crops protected from grasshoppers, than the solution of the problem of gold in the Black Hills, and yet Uncle Sam makes haste to make a geological survey of that country to solve it. And that just for the gratification of a hand-full of greedy adventurers.

Winfield Courier, June 10, 1875. Editorial Page.

Red Cloud is becoming civilized. In Washington yesterday, he refused to have his picture taken unless the photographer paid him $25 for the privilege. He evidently understands the way of Washington as well as the white people.

Winfield Courier, June 17, 1875.

A. Menor has returned from the Black Hills. His party was turned back by the military after having their arms taken from them and their transportation burned.

Winfield Courier, June 24, 1875.

T. A. Blanchard, Esq., has returned from the Black Hills to await the opening of that Territory.

Winfield Courier, July 1, 1875.


Hon. John J. Ingalls honored Winfield last Saturday with a visit. In company with Hon. M. M. Murdock, he arrived here about one hour before sundown from Arkansas City, having entered the county on the west at Oxford. Immediately upon his arrival, our citizens began calling upon him. He was taken in a carriage around the town to the places of interest, and out upon the mound east of the village he obtained, as he said, "one of the most enchanting views his eyes ever beheld.@

Upon his return at dusk, callers continued to flock about him to form his acquaintance and do him honor. Finally so many citizens expressed a desire to hear some public declara-tion of his sentiments upon affairs of state and nation, the assembly was called to order by nominating Mayor Millington as chairman and the Senator spoke for a half hour or more, pleasantly, forcibly, and decidedly upon matters of interest to southwestern Kansas.

His compliments to our crops, soil, climate, and enterprising people were very flattering. He pledged himself unequivocally to aid in every possible way in opening railroad communication direct south through the Territory to the gulf. He spoke frankly and fully against the present Indian policy, whereby a barrier to commerce and national intercourse was being established to the south of us. He repudiated the present Quaker Indian policy, and avowed his purpose to withhold no efforts in attempting its overthrow and the establishment of a territorial government in the Indian Territory. He especially deprecated the effort now being made by the administration to transfer 40,000 Sioux from the north to the fair lands of the Territory south of us.

His opinions and purposes were heartily applauded, and his hearers felt that they had a man truly in sympathy with them as a representative in the councils of the nation. He assured his audience of a desire to become acquainted with their wants and necessities, and invited communications and information upon all important questions.

The social intercourse was kept up until a late hour.

On Sunday morning the Senator departed for Wichita, more than well pleased with his visit, our people, and our country.

It was the first visit either he or Mr. Murdock ever made to this section of the country, and they pronounced the region over which they had traveled the garden of the state.

By his short visit here, the Senator made many friends and won the confidence and esteem of all who met him.

Winfield Courier, July 1, 1875.

News from the Black Hills.

The scientific exploring party sent out by the government report the following.

Gold in large quantities and of good quality has been discovered in Custer's Gulch, on French Creek, and along this stream for a distance of upward of seven miles toward the source.

Since my latest advices sent to you at Chicago from the expedition of explorations, the plans of the scientific corps have been entirely changed, and Camp Jenney, on the east fork of Beaver Creek, has ceased to be the permanent point from which investigation radiates. We were to have been through the hills on Tuesday, June 9th, but were delayed.

Colonel Dodge, with three cavalry companies as a military escort, left Camp Jenney for the purpose of locating a permanent camp in some available place in the vicinity of Harney's Peak. The command marched almost due north along Beaver Creek, then northeast, when, at the end of the second day's march, Custer's trail was struck in the midst of snow and rain. That officer's line of march was pursued in a southeasterly direction along Castle Creek, where


were discovered.

The event induced Prof. Jenney, of the scientific corps, to remain in Castle Creek Valley for three days in order to prospect, a cavalry company being left with them. The place at which the geologists camped is located 1,400 feet east of the 104th meridian, and was named Camp Tuttle. With the remainder of the command, Colonel Dodge proceeded in a southeasterly direction until Custer's Peak was reached, and last Monday camp was reached on Custer's Gulch, and in close contiguity to the stockade built by the miners whom Captain Mix brought out of the hills this spring. On General Custer's cavalry camp ground prospects were speedily made, and


of gold that was a fine quality. This was done in the presence of your correspondent. The gold fever spread so rapidly that there was hardly one in the command who had not seen and panned out gold color from these placers or gulch mines. About Camp Harney for a distance of seven miles there are scattered along French Creek four different mining parties, numbering twenty-five men, that have taken up claims, from all of which good color has been panned. There are also


which promise rich returns, but the greatest stress should be placed on the gulch gold diggings. When gold was discovered the scientists were at Camp Tuttle, and only arrived here yesterday afternoon. They were somewhat astonished at the discovery. It is intended to make this the permanent camp, where the command will remain until the return of the supply train from Laramie.


Winfield Courier, July 1, 1875.

Dispatches from the frontier state that large parties of Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahos started on the warpath lately. The objective points are thought to be the Pawnee, Ponca, Ute, and Shoshone agencies, which have been warned of the impending raids. It is believed by men well posted in savage ways that the Sioux and other hostile tribes are preparing for a gigantic Indian war, and that the government will have to decide which course it will pursueCprotect the peaceful tribes and the settlers, or leave them to their fate and keep miners out of the Black Hills. The troops are not strong enough to do both.

Winfield Courier, July 22, 1875..

The Black Hills business is fizzling out.

Winfield Courier, August 12, 1875.

The miners are ordered out of the Black Hills in dead earnest this time by the Government. Two companies of cavalry and one of infantry are now en route, to carry into effect this order in case of opposition.


Winfield Courier, August 12, 1875.

The Government has at last found a practical solution of the vexed Indian question. The President insists on placing the Sioux tribe, numbering some 40,000 in the Territory just south of Kansas, notwithstanding the manly protest of Governor Osborn. If this be done, then the Indian question is speedily settled. There are not troops enough in the United States to keep these rascally Sioux on their reservation. Friend Enoch can't keep a handfull of peaceable Kaws at home, then what is he to do with 40,000 wild, war like, scalp-lifting Sioux? These Indians take to theft and plunder as naturally as a duck takes to water, and in order to find something to steal they must come over into Kansas, or cross to Missouri, Arkansas, or Texas. In either case, their doom is sealed. The war of extermination begins, and does anyone doubt the result? Of course not. Seventy-five thousand people on the Kansas border alone, each man a regular half-dozen Buffalo Bill's when his goods, say nothing of his hair, is the prize, will soon put the last redskin on his way to the happy hunting grounds.


Winfield Courier, August 26, 1875.

The Sioux Indians have unanimously resolved not to treat away the Black Hills country.

Three or four thousand Indians are expected to attend a grand council at Red Cloud shortly.

The miners in the Black Hills are most all leaving in obedience to military orders. They report rich mines.


Winfield Courier, December 9, 1875.

A railroad is to be built from Omaha towards the Black Hills next summer.

Winfield Courier, January 20, 1876.


Andy Corcoran, who resides here, returned some weeks since from the vicinity of the Black Hills. He intends returning there in the spring. Last Tuesday he received a letter from an associate at Sydney, the nearest railroad station, informing him that a miner was just in from the Hills with over $1,000 in gold dust of his own digging. The miner returned with several loaded teams for the Hills. Seth Blanchard, a brother of T. A. Blanchard of this place, is in the Hills and has been all winter. He writes home each week or two, as opportunity offers for sending letters to the railroad. He says several hundred men are in the Hills and that paying gold is there and that times will be lively in the spring.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 9, 1876.

Omaha, Neb., January 29. A large number of citizens have left here for the Black Hills during the past week. Many persons are arriving daily from the eastern route for the gold region. Much trouble is anticipated from Indians in that section this summer. The Arapahos, who have been south this winter, say they are all determined on a war for the possession of the Black Hills country, and are prepared for it. It is not thought that the Government will interpose to keep the miners out, but it may leave them to protect themselves.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 23, 1876.

Information has been received that Bear Wolf, a Crow chief, had been at Fort Pease, at the mouth of Big Horn; that he had a battle with the Sioux, killed six, and that forty or fifty Sioux are around Fort Pease, killing the inhabitants at every opportunity, five persons having already been wounded.

Winfield Courier, February 24, 1876.

KANSAS CITY, Feb. 21. A dispatch from the Kansas City Times special correspondent to the Black Hills, from Cheyenne, Wyoming, says: "A general concentration of troops is now being made at Ft. Fetterman, for an expedition, which will be commanded by General Crook, and will consist of eleven companies of cavalry; no wagons. All the available pack mules in the country are being gathered in and shod. The expedition is destined, either for the Big Horn region or for the removal of the Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahos from the Black Hills. All the cavalry at Ft. Laramie are under marching orders."

Winfield Courier, March 2, 1876.

Lazette News.

The Black Hills fever is still raging, and many are making preparations to start for the gold mines in a short time.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 8, 1876.

There is a prospect of a lively time on the frontier in the course of a few weeks. The Associated Press Agent at Omaha says he has official authority for the statement that the Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahos have been and are yet making extensive preparations for an outbreak.

They have been purchasing large quantities of ammunition and arms wherever they could get them, going as far south as the Indian Territory for this purpose. Most of the warriors have left the agencies, and a descent on the frontier settlements may be looked for at any time. Advices from Washington are to the effect that the War Department is making arrangements to proceed against Sitting Bull, who is one of the troublesome chiefs.

Winfield Courier, March 9, 1876.

T. A. Blanchard is going to the Black Hills.


Winfield Courier, March 9, 1876.

From the Black Hills.

We are permitted to publish the following letter, received by Mr. T. A. Blanchard, from his brother, Seth, who is in the new Eldorado. As so many are seeking information that is trustworthy, we give considerable space to the subject. The writer is well and favorably known here.

DEAD WOOD GULCH, BLACK HILLS, January 16th, 1876.

BRO. TOM: Your interesting letter, of December 5th, found its way to me, after many delays, a few days ago. Since I wrote last I have abandoned Castle Creek, and moved about fifty miles further north. We are now about eighty miles north of Custer City. I think this creek, and others in this vicinity, contain far richer diggings than have before been discovered in the Hills. Prospecting has not been very extensive here as yet, but enough has been done to convince miners that money can be made here, probably $10 or $15 per day, and some say as high as $50, with sluices, from two cents to fifty and seventy-five cents to the pan. Two parties are fixed for sluicing on a small scale on this creek, but owing to the cold weather can do but little. I am now engaged in putting up another cabin. Think I shall go into quarters here for the winter. Don't expect to take out much gold this winter, but will saw out lumber, dig ditches, etc., and be in readiness to go to work when spring opens. I think I might now venture to advise you to try the Hills in the spring, that is, if you are so situated that you can do so without any very great sacrifice, financially or otherwise. I am strongly of the opinion that you will stand a good chance to make two or three thousand here during the summer, and return in the fall if you wish. I wish you were here now, as men are pouring in by hundreds, but I guess if you leave home by the 1st of April, you will be in time. We are not posted as to what is being done at Washington in regard to the Hills, but are strong in the faith that we will not again be molested by the Government, but anticipate some troubles with the Indians in the spring. If you should decide to come, you had better come by railroad to Sidney, and from there you can easily get transportation to Custer City, or any point in the Hills. Supplies are already beginning to come in, and the probabilities are that by the 1st of May anything we need can be procured here at reasonable rates. Flour is worth $10 and $12 per hundred now, and other things in proportion.

I have had the pleasure of meeting J. J. Williams and W. W. Andrews, of Winfield. They are located in this Gulch.

The winter so far has been very mild, at least compared with Kansas winters. We are entirely exempt from those cold, chilling winds, as the country is a succession of hills, densely covered with pine timber, with the exception of an occasional patch of beautiful rolling prairie, from two to four miles across, which we call parks. Horses and cattle are doing well on the range. Pack ponies are indispensable here in the hills. While packing from Castle Creek to this place a few days ago, and while descending a very steep mountain, one of my ponies made a misstep and rolled something near a hundred yards down the mountain. Jim looked on in dismay to see his mate getting such a fearful fall. But, contrary to our expectations, on landing at the foot of the hill, she got up and quietly walked off. No serious injuries.

Tell Mary she can calm her fears, as far as my starving is concerned, for I not only have plenty of flour, fruit, coffee, tea, bacon, sugar, etc., to do me till the 1st of June, but also a good gun, and the country abounds in gameCdeer, elk, etc., so that instead of starving, our life in the Hills is one continual feastCalmost equal to a Harvest Feast at Bethel.



Arkansas City Traveler, March 15, 1876. Front Page.

The Black Hills.

Mr. Windom, (Rep., Minn.) in Congress, opposed the substitute. He said there were 1,200 or 2,000 persons now in the section known as the Black Hills. He believed the reports of gold there were well founded, and the Senate should not by this substitute compel those persons to leave that reservation.

Mr. Edmunds (Rep., Vt.) asked if they had any rights there.

Mr. Windom replied, technically no. He argued that the treaty with the Sioux Indians of 1868 had been violated by them, though the Government had faithfully complied with its part, and appropriated the million and a quarter annually for these Indians. At the end of the four years, the alternative was presented that the Government should continue to pay this million and a quarter or fight.

The Government had now tacitly given its consent to miners going to the Black Hills, as no efforts had been made during the last two months to keep them away.

He moved an amendment to the substitute providing that the provisions of this act shall not apply to that part of the Sioux reservation lying in and between the north and south forks of the Cheyenne River and east of the east line of Wyoming Territory. He said he was determined that the people of the United States should have the rights to go to the Black Hills and develop the wealth of that country.

Mr. Edmunds said if the Indians have violated the treaty, it was no excuse for any citizen of the United States going on their reservations, killing the Indians, and pocketing the gold. He argued that the gold hunters did not go to the Black Hills with the consent of the Government of the United States. On the contrary, the Government did all in its power to prevent them.


Arkansas City Traveler, March 15, 1876. Front Page.

Springfield, Dakota, Feb. 24. Wagon trains of every description are constantly passing here, bound for the gold fields. The different parties as they pass have from two to twenty-five wagons each. One party camped in town last night, and one could see camp fires of three other trains on the prairie west of here. Another Springfield party will start at noon today, consisting of seven wagons and twenty men. In this party are some of the best businessmen of this town, and they have better teams and outfits generally than any who have yet left here. The party is jubilant, and will be in the Hills in a few days.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 15, 1876.

DAVE LEWIS writes from the Black Hills that the IndiansCSiouxCattacked Custer City, killing one man and driving off all the stock.

Winfield Courier, March 16, 1876. Editorial Page.


Just how many citizens of Cowley are seriously intending to spend the summer in the Black Hills? The COURIER would induce every man to remain at home if it could. But the desire to go is spreading. It is unfortunate. A large majority of those who yield to the desire will recognize the misfortune when too late to avail anything. The regret will begin to creep over some when on the road and they will turn back. Others will not realize their mistake until they reach the Hills and find them swarming with 30,000 adventurers. Others more persevering will spend the summer in the delusive chase. Of the one hundred men or more who will go from this county, eighty percent will return in the fall. A few will engage in per-manent occupations along the route or at the Hills, and a few will never return. The Black Hills will furnish the sable robes of their everlasting sleep.

In money expended, in time lost, in opportunities wasted, three hundred dollars to the man is a low estimate of the loss that the hundred men from Cowley will experience. This amounts to thirty thousand dollars. . . .


Winfield Courier, March 16, 1876.

CUSTER CITY, BLACK HILLS, February 24th, 1876.

FRIENDS AT HOME: Being blessed with another chance to send out a letter, I will improve it. I left Dead Wood Gulch about a week ago, and arrived in the beautiful little city of Custer yesterday; and a lively little city it is, though only a few months ago it was a military camp, carefully dodged by the few miners then in the Hills. I have wandered around the town and surrounding country today, and for fine scenery and picturesque beauty, it certainly surpasses anything I ever saw, not excepting our dear old Winfield. The surrounding country is a succession of small parks, and groves of pines, with here and there a romantic looking cliff of granite, and altogether, closely resembling (in my imagination) the original Garden of Eden. While standing on an eminence overlooking the town, I counted 180 houses completed, and I should judge there is as many more under process of erection. A steam saw mill is at work near town, and those majestic pines are being rapidly converted into substantial houses. Lumber is selling at $60 per thousand.

On the route here we passed through Hill City, situated on Spring Creek, 18 miles north of this place. It has about one hundred houses, and is building up very fast, and it also has a saw mill.

A town is now being laid out on the northeast side of the Hills, near where Rapid Creek empties into the Cheyenne River, with the view of getting supplies from Bismarck or some other point up on the Missouri River, the route to strike the Hills at said town, on the Rapid.

There are, at the lowest calculation, two thousand men in the Hills, and the cry is, "still they come.@ In short, the country is being rapidly developed. Gold bearing quartz and silver ore has been discovered in several localities, which assays well. A stage line will be in operation soon, from Cheyenne to Custer City, via Red Cloud Agency.

We are not posted as to what Congress is doing toward the opening of the country, but we consider the Hills open to all intents and purposes.

I wrote to Tom some time ago, advising him to try the Hills. I gave the advice then reluctantly, and do now; but, at the same time, confidently believing he can make it successful. I am satisfied paying mines are here, and if you can spend the summer in the Hills without too great a sacrifice at home, why come ahead and come early.

As to the best way of coming, I can hardly say; but certainly it is not necessary to bring supplies, for even now they can be bought here at what I consider very reasonable rates, and by the time you get here will be much cheaper. I think it would be as well to come by rail to Sidney or Cheyenne, and there you can easily get transportation to Custer, and probably to any point in the Hills.

Would like if you could be here by the 1st of April or the middle at latest, as I have some claims which I have some doubts about being able to hold longer than that time. Unless a man stakes his own claim and applies in person for record, it is not respected. A mining claim is 300 feet of gulch.

It gives me infinite pleasure to hear that the Grange is still marching on toward success and victory. I have great faith in the organization and its principles, and though I have temporarily laid aside the plow, spade, and hoe, and taken up the pan, pick, and shovel, I look forward with pleasure to the time when I shall again be permitted to unite with you in the great work of reform in which we are engaged and in which I feel confident we will eventually meet with grand glorious success.

I have received several letters lately which are as yet unansweredCamong others, one from Speed and one from Burns. Give them my regards, and tell them I will answer as soon as possible, and that I shall be most happy to see them on Dead Wood. Would send you a specimen of Dead Wood gold, only I consider our means of sending out mail a little unsafe, so I will reserve it for my next.

Would like to write more, but my friends are ready to take their departure for Dead Wood, so I must close. Ben, if you and Tom come out, you had better not wait to hear from me again.

Yours, etc.

A. S. B.

Winfield Courier, March 16, 1876.

Tisdale News.

Jim Moses is going to start to the Black Hills next week.

Winfield Courier, March 16, 1876.

Black Hills Items.

A gentleman who knows the facts furnishes us the following items about the route to the Black Hills: Harney's Peak is 182 miles from Sidney, Nebraska, the nearest railroad point. Six six-horse stages run from Sidney to Custer City, making the trip in thirty hours. From a late Sidney paper we take the following items and Sidney prices: Flour $2.50 to $5, and corn meal $2.75 to $3 per hundred; butter, 40 cents; eggs, 40 cents; sugar 122 to 15 cents; potatoes, $1.00.

Custer City is situated in a small, picturesque park, hemmed in by mountains, Harney's Peak rising on one side, and near by. The townsite covers 640 acres, and this area embraces the whole of the park. The entire site has been laid off into lots, 50 x 150 feet, the prices ranging from $25 to $500 each. The principle street is named after Gen. Crook and is 200 feet wide. The other streets have a width of 150 feet, and the alleys are 30 feet wide. Four hundred buildings have been erected in Custer.

One wedding has taken place in the Black Hills.

A colony of 400 Philadelphians will soon start for the Black Hills.

There are now 4,000 people in the Hills, and the number is increasing at a very rapid rate.

A Chinese laundry has been established in the Black Hills, by three of the much despised celestials.

J. S. McCall, a miner from Montana, was killed and scalped by members of Sitting Bull's band, while riding along through the Hills, two weeks ago.

Blake's party of Californians have struck very rich diggings on French Creek, 9 miles east of Jenney's stockade, and are washing out $3 to the pan.

A number of men are collecting at Louisville, Kentucky, to go to the Black Hills, and the indications are that a large crowd will soon be ready to leave.

Chicago and Philadelphia have each caught the Black Hills fever. A party of 300 in Chicago and a party of 400 in Philadelphia are outfitting now and will start early next month.



Arkansas City Traveler, March 22, 1876. Front Page.

KANSAS CITY, MO., March 8. A special correspondent from the Black Hills, tele-graphs from Custer City on the 4th inst., via Fort Laramie, Wyoming, March 8, that a large party of mounted Indians made a sudden attack upon Custer, about one o'clock on the 4th inst., and succeeded in driving off all the loose horses that were grazing in the suburbs of the city. The Indians at the same time attacked an emigrant train at Pleasant Valley, nine miles below here. Every able bodied white man has been enrolled, and a party of sixty have just started in pursuit of the Indians, who have gone toward Red Cloud Agency. Charles Holt of Sioux City, was killed. A warm time is expected with the Indians now.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 22, 1876.

A party of 400 men have organized at Philadelphia to start for the Black Hills early next month.

Rich gold mines have been discovered in the Big Horn and Owl Creek mountains, Wyoming Territory.


Arkansas City Traveler, March 22, 1876.

Cheyenne, W. T., March 17. On the evening of the 15th Mr. Fielding came into Fort Fetterman from the camp at old Fort Reno, having left there on the night of the 13th. He brought letters, etc., from the men of the command. On the 7th General Crook left the main camp at Fort Reno, taking a pack train and fifteen days' rations for the cavalry and struck out after some Indians known to be north of that place, since which date nothing has been heard from him. On the way to Reno his command was attacked several times by Indians. One man was wounded but is alive yet. An infantry man is also wounded. There were no other casualties.


Arkansas City Traveler, March 22, 1876.

Mr. Allison, from the Committee on Indian Affairs, in Congress reported with amendments, a bill providing for an agreement with the Sioux nation in regard to a portion of their reservation. Ordered printed and placed on the calendar of the afternoon session. It covers the Black Hills. The object is to open them to settlers.


Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1876. Front Page.

Chicago, March 17. The following telegram was received at Gen. Sheridan's Headquarters, from Gen. Terry, commanding the Department of Dakota.

Mouth of Big Horn, March 6.

Arrived at Fort Peace March 4, and relieved the garrison. The Fort was evacuated today at noon. The original garrison consisted of forty-six men, of whom six were killed, and eight wounded. Thirteen had left and gone to settlements by night. I found in the Fort eighteen white men and one negro, and have brought them away; saw no Indians but found five lodges here of about sixty Sioux, who fled south. Think they were watching the Fort to pick up men venturing out. We start for home tomorrow.

(Signed) BRISBIN, Commanding.



Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1876.


The War with Sitting Bull Commenced.

General Crook=s First Engagement.

A Fight Between the Black Hills Miners and the Indians.


[Special Telegram to the Inter-Ocean.]

Cheyenne, W. T., March 22. Captain George Crook of the Third Cavalry, has just arrived here from Old Fort Reno, General Crook's base of supplies. On the 20th a courier arrived at Fort Laramie with the first news from Crook since he left Reno. Crook had an engagement with Sitting Bull on the 15th, near Fort Phil Kearney in which sixteen Indians were killed. General Crook lost two men. Sitting Bull ran off sixty of Crook's pack mules on the night of the 14th. Crook sends Captain Cook here to enlist 500 men to reinforce him. The Captain has already enlisted about 100 men, whom he picked up between here and Fort Laramie on their way to the hills. He has sent them to Crook, and is enlisting large numbers of Black Hillers here.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1876.

Fort Laramie, W. T., March 22. A party from Custer City arrived here last night. They report that ten days ago a fight occurred between the miners and Indians on Deadwood Creek, about sixty-five miles north of Custer.

The Indians have been committing depredations on the creek and have stolen a good many horses. The miners organized a party and pursued and attacked them in camp. A fight ensued in which thirteen Indians and one white man were killed. The whites, following up their success, ran into so large a camp of Indians that they were obliged to fall back to their permanent camp on Deadwood. The above news came into Custer on the 15th, the day before this party left Custer. Further trouble is anticipated.

It is reported that several Black Hillers wandered off during the recent severe storms, got lost, and perished.


Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1876.

Paola will send a delegation of twenty to the Black Hills.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1876.


Wm. Berkey, Joseph Rickels, Will. Berkey, Jr., John Purdy, and O. C. Skinner start for the Black Hills this morning.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1876.


W. H. Harrison has bought out Henry Work's barber shop, and will officiate in that capacity hereafter. Henry was seized with the Black Hills fever, hence the sale.


Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1876.

Senator Withers, from the Committee on appropriations, reported the House bill to supply deficiency for feeding Sioux Indians. He moved to strike out of the bill the words 100,000 dollars and insert 150,000 dollars. The amendment was agreed to and the bill passed. A bill providing for an agreement with the Sioux Indians for a portion of their reservation was taken up.

Winfield Courier, March 30, 1876. Editorial Page.

Lazette News.

The Black Hills fever has already taken off one party of four from here and another party will leave in a few days.

Winfield Courier, March 30, 1876.

A. J. REX left on foot with a huge carpet sack upon his back last Monday morning, bound for the Black Hills.

Winfield Courier, March 30, 1876.

T. A. BLANCHARD, BEN. MURPHY, and JOE STANSBERRY started for the Black Hills last Monday morning. Seth. Blanchard's last letter to his folks here contained such fabulous reports that we refrained from publishing it. Tom says, however, that Henry Ireton and Seth are "fixed.@ Tom promises to write a letter to the COURIER immediately after his arrival, and weekly thereafter.

Winfield Courier, March 30, 1876.

JOHN FUNK, of Rock Township, starts for the Black Hills this week. The majestic form of John Funk is familiar to every man in the Walnut Valley. Everybody knows "Funk," and nearly everybody likes him. His worst and only enemy he generally carries in his pocket. We have seen that enemy get the worst of John in many a fracasChave seen it send him home hatless and horseless at the dead hour of night; and as he plodded along through the mud, Shakesperian quotations and algebraic solutions flowed from him as naturally as electricity descends the zenith-pointed lightning rod. John is a natural-born orator and a rattlng good fellow, but he will never be President. We hope he will leave that "enemy" behind him, make a fortune in the Hills, and return within a year or two to the bosom of his family and friends. Vale, John.


Arkansas City Traveler, April 5, 1876.

Five hundred men have left Pittsburgh, Pa., with merely enough money to buy provisions, to bury their bones in the Black Hills. The suffering among some will be terrible.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 5, 1876.

Striking it Rich on Newton's Fork Near Custer City,

70 Cents to the Pan.

The Omaha Bee of the 21st inst., contains the following.

"Major Armstrong, of this city, has received a very interesting letter from his son, Robert, who has been in the Black Hills for three weeks. The letter was dated Custer City, the 27th of February. Among other interesting items he states that on the night of the 25th, considerable excitement was created by some new discoveries. Boyden & Berry, who are putting up a saw mill near Custer City, while digging a well, took out dirt paying 50 cents to the pan, before striking bed rock. This discovery was on Newton's Fork, a creek that is perfectly dry at present. The discovery was made late in the afternoon. Boyden & Berry and their employees waited until dark and then staked out 8,000 feet. The news soon became known, and then a lively stampede ensued. People were going backward and forward all night. Bob and a Mr. Young, formerly of Omaha, started out at 10:30, and after going through ravines, up hills, and down again, they met others coming back, who stated that claims had been staked out for four miles. Bob and Young staked out some claims and then returned to camp. He has nearly completed a cabin, 18 by 24, on his town lot, and proposes to throw it on the market for $150.

"There is but little mining going on at present, as the weather will not permit of work to any great extent, and the miners don't expect to do anything until spring fairly opens up."

Arkansas City Traveler, April 5, 1876.

The boys count it 700 miles to the Black Hills. One man drove from the Hills to Wichita, it is said, in a light buggy, in sixteen days.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 5, 1876.

LEAVENWORTH has two steam boats plying between their city and the Black Hills. "Nellie Peck" and "C. R. Peck" are the names of the boats.

Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, April 6, 1876.



Mr. Editors:

Some of our young men are victims to the Black Hills fever; some have started and others are getting ready to start, amongst whom we might mention the name of W. G. Scott. It is thought by some that Scott is contemplating a double blessedness instead.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 12, 1876.

Three hundred people passed through Atchison in one night for the Black Hills.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 12, 1876.

Gov. Osborn will on Tuesday next leave for the northwestern frontier of Kansas, where fears are expressed of an impending raid upon the settlers by Indians returning from the Black Hills country. The Governor will visit all the border counties and effectively organize the militia for a system of ready cooperative defense. It is a timely precaution, and Gov. Osborn's promptness and energy in preparing for the emergency is characteristic of his discharge of official duty. K. C. Journal of Commerce.

Winfield Courier, April 13, 1876.


CARBON, WYOMING, March 31st, 1876.

EDITOR COURIER: As I once was a resident of Cowley County, and being anxious to hear from my old home once a week, I herein enclose $2.00 for the COURIER for one year. From your papers I see some very flattering inducements for men to try the Black Hills. Also that a great many are talking of trying them. My advice is (if I am allowed to give it) to let the Black Hills alone and remain at home. Here the Hills are considered to be a grand humbug gotten up for a speculation, and I think we have a good chance to know, as men are coming out every few days and I notice never return although those who have claims there for sale try to encourage others to go, but stay away themselves. A word to the wise is sufficient. For my part, I would rather start for Cowley County than the Black Hills, and they are only about 175 miles from here.

Very Respectfully,


Arkansas City Traveler, April 19, 1876.

Fort Laramie, Wis., April 13.

A man named Rowser, who formerly belonged to the 14th infantry arrived here yesterday and reported that he and his party of five men were attacked by Indians just south of the Cheyenne River on the 7th inst. when returning from Custer City. One of the party named Mormon Storms, from Iowa, was shot through the shoulder, not seriously. The Indians are very numerous in that section. A great deal of stock has been run off.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 19, 1876.

OLD Mr. Campbell started to the Black Hills this week.


Arkansas City Traveler, April 19, 1876.

Concordia is going to organize a company of militia.

Twenty-six car loads of emigrants passed through Iowa in one day for the Black Hills.

The Indians are on the war path between Forts Fetterman and Reno, Dacotah Territory. Gen. Crook, from Fetterman, has started to give them battle.

Winfield Courier, April 20, 1876.

RICE has gone to the Black Hills.

BISBEE, the shoemaker, has started for the Black Hills.

UNCLE BILLY RODGERS and LEVI DOTY have gone to take a squint at the yellow dirt in the Black Hills country.


Arkansas City Traveler, April 26, 1876.

The bill to open the Indian Territory meets with considerable favor in the House, but could not pass the Senate.

In reference to the Black Hills, Senator Morrill, of Maine, submitted a resolution directing the Secretary of the Interior to communicate to the Senate any information in relation to the situation and disturbances on the Sioux reservation; and whether the military forces have been interposed therein, and if so, if it was by the authority of the Department of the Interior, and the reason for such interposition, which was agreed to. Much time has been consumed on the question of transferring the Indians to the War Department, and it is believed the motion will finally prevail. It is said they could be maintained at an expense of one and one half million less than the present plan.


Arkansas City Traveler, April 26, 1876.

Omaha, April 19. An official telegram to Gen. Crook from Fort Laramie yesterday, conveys that no Indians have left either Red Cloud or Spotted Tail agencies with their families. Some fighting with Crazy Horse on Powder River. A few men went out to bring in their own people and some of them have returned accompanied by northern Sioux. The Cheyennes at Red Cloud are alarmed and talk of going south. Indications are that the thrashing given Crazy Horse has affected the Oglala so favorably that they will likely keep quiet. Maj. Jordan is of the opinion that three hundred Oglala would go with the expedition against the northern Indians, if they were allowed to keep what they captured. The Northern Sioux have stolen their stock lately. The Indians at the agencies are remarkably docile. A few miners have been killed near Hill's lately.


Arkansas City Traveler, April 26, 1876.

A letter was received at the Governor's office yesterday from residents of Sappa, Decatur County. A delegation was sent from that place to Leota, Norton County, to meet Gov. Osborn, but he had left that place before they reached there; and so they made out a statement and forwarded it here. They state that a number of parties of Indians are prowling about the country, and evince no desire to communicate with the whites, and that the settlers are uneasy. They wish to be furnished with arms and ammunition. Decatur is an unorganized County lying west of Norton County.


Arkansas City Traveler, May 3, 1876. Front Page.

Mr. Milligan, of Scranton, Pennsylvania, who arrived at Fort Laramie, April 20, says that while coming in on the morning of the 16th, his party were attacked by Indians in the Rio Canon, near the Cheyenne River Ranche, about fifty miles from Custer. A few of the party escaped to the ranche. Mr. and Mrs. Metz, of Laramie City, were killed; a colored woman was taken prisoner; a man named Simpson was also killed. The bodies were buried next day. Mrs. Metz had been ravished. Three men were wounded: Grisham, from Missouri, mortally; Felton, from Missouri, and C. W. Bergesser, from Virginia City, Nevada, seriously wounded. The men are at Cheyenne River Ranche.

A party from the Black Hills today says that about five days ago three wagons were found at the entrance to Buffalo Gap on the Yankton road destroyed and the stock gone. Signs of a fight were numerous. Indians had undoubtedly attacked and destroyed the entire outfit.


Arkansas City Traveler, May 3, 1876.

Chicago, April 27. A dispatch was received by Gen. Sheridan from Gen. Crook, which says: The Indians at Red Cloud are on the verge of starving, owing to neglect in forwarding supplies. Unless immediate steps are taken to supply them, they will all leave the reservation. Fears are entertained that in their present temper, they will make a raid on the whites.


Arkansas City Traveler, May 3, 1876.

An Indian massacre took place on the flat between the Prairie Dog and the north fork of the Solomon, some time last winter. Last November Newton Lyle, of Jewell Centre, camped on the spot, which by the way, is an old camping ground for buffalo hunters, and there was no evidence of any trouble ever having taken place there. Two weeks ago he camped on the same ground with a gentleman by the name of George Beauchamp from Jewell Centre, and they found the skeletons of ten men and the charred remains of two wagons. Besides these there were quite a number of carbine cartridge shells scattered all around over the ground, the barrels of two carbines, several frying pans and skillets, and two mules running loose over the prairie with rope halters or lariats attached to their necks, and every indication that a bloody conflict of some kind had taken place there. The bodies were perfectly nude, and there were no books or papers to be found to indicate who the unfortunate men were or where they were from. This story, as improbable as it may seem, can be substantiated by David Blank and George Beauchamp, of Jewell Centre, Kansas; and yet some folks say it is all nonsense and buncombe to arm the frontier settlers against the Indians.



Arkansas City Traveler, May 10, 1876. Front Page.

SIDNEY, April 29, 1876.

Old Traveler:

Here we are at last at the last railroad point. We have been expecting to leave the railroad at every point since leaving Plum Creek. Everything is lovely, "and the goose hangs high" in camp. Every day we meet Black Hillers on the return, and everyone "bested.@ One man will call you aside and tell you of the trials and difficulties of life in the HillsCtelling you not to go; while another will button-hole you, and with apparently as much sincerity tell you what he knows, and advise you to go on. It is needless to say we always take the latter advice, because it suits us. Indian stories are all the go here, but "we boys" have seen one or two "Injuns."

From six men and one wagon, our crowd has grown to sixteen wagons and forty-eight men. We have had a very pleasant trip, with but two stormy days in all. It is 169 miles from this point to Custer City. Everything in the outfitting line is cheap here: flour, $2.90 for the best; bacon, 50 cents, etc. Our old friend Berkey has been elected Captain of this outfit. Joe Reckle shot himself through the hand, but is all O. K. now. In two weeks we will be in the Hills, there to try for ourselves if there is any gold.

The boys all bid me say they are "mighty worse," and bound for the Hills.

I am, truly, etc.



Arkansas City Traveler, May 10, 1876.

Omaha, April 29. Governor Thayer, of Wyoming, has arrived to confer with General Crook, relative to military protection to be afforded to the Black Hill stage line. He wants some of the stations on the route thoroughly protected, especially Red Canon and Hot Creek. The former is very deep, and when travelers pass through it, the Indians crawl up its sides and shoot down or throw down rocks upon them. The General has promised all the protection possible, and an order has been issued today to that effect.

A traveler from the west today says it is currently reported about Cheyenne that H. E. Brown was not shot by Indians, but by some persons he had put out of the train, and who revenged themselves by ambushing and shooting at the train, which resulted in the killing of Brown.

Winfield Courier, May 11, 1876.

The Indians are killing emigrants by the score and destroying trains and stealing horses and cattle in the Black Hills region.

Winfield Courier, May 11, 1876.

Messrs. Kirby, Ireton, Weekly, and Weekly have returned from the Black Hills. They only got as far as Cheyenne. There transportation got to be a big thing. A walk from there to Custer City, two hundred and ninety miles, was not very inviting, especially when every canyon was liable to bristle with "bloody Injuns.@ While they were at Cheyenne, the remains of the Superintendent of the stage company line, between there and Custer City, was brought in. He was killed by the Indians. All the stock was ordered off the line. Hay is ten and corn fifteen cents per pound. Those who are in the Hills will likely stay there this summer. Their supplies will probably go in on other than the Cheyenne route. The boys report that the U. S. troops do not protect the routesCthat they have no orders to that effect, and if they had, there is not enough of them in that locality to do it. They are disgusted with the Hills and have returned, per advice of the COURIER, to dig wealth out of the coming golden wheat harvest. The actual experience and information they got on the trip is all they have to show for the $130, per capita, expended.

Arkansas City Traveler, May 17, 1876.

HARRINGTON and Pat Curry, the boys who were with old Mr. Campbell from this county to the Black Hills, have returned. They thought the gold inducement would not justify the risk of losing their lives by Indians.


Arkansas City Traveler, May 24, 1876.

Government Troops for Decatur County,

Kansas. Gen. Pope's Orders.

In answer to the petition of the settlers in Decatur County, asking for a small Military Post to be established on the head waters of Sappa creek, General Pope has issued the following order.




Commanding Officer, Fort Hays, Kansas.

SIR: The Department Commander directs that you send out as soon as possible one company of cavalry equipped for field service, to scout slowly by the way of the Saline and Solomon Rivers to the head of Sappa Creeks, following these streams down to their mouths and visiting all the settlements along them.

This expedition is for the purpose of observing the movements of Indians and affording any necessary assistance of the settlers.

When the first company returns, you are to send another one out for the same purpose, and, in short, are to keep one company out scouting through the region named during the summer.

If you think proper you may send supplies (forage and rations) to Buffalo station under the charge of an officer or suitable non commissioned officer, and a small detachment for the use of the company in the field, which can send its wagons to that point from the Sappa Creeks.

This sub depot at Buffalo is to be kept up as long as scouting is going on.

A medical officer should accompany the scouting company.

At several times within the last two weeks, reports have come in from various sources, of the presence of roving bands of Indians in the section of country referred to. So far these bands have seemed to be peaceful, but their presence is a cause of alarm to the settlers who cannot be sure but they may at any time commit depredations.

In case any of these bands are met, they must be warned to leave the country, as their presence there is in violation of their treaty stipulations, and while away from their reservations they are liable to be considered hostile, and to be attacked at any time.

If anything important occurs, it can be telegraphed from Buffalo station.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant.

(Signed) E. R. PLATT,

Assistant Adjutant General.

Arkansas City Traveler, May 24, 1876.

ARMY officers are at Emporia, buying horses for the cavalry service.


Arkansas City Traveler, May 24, 1876.

The bridge over the North Platte River, between Sidney, Nebraska, and Custer City, was completed and opened for travel on the 13th. This throws open what is claimed to be the shortest road to the Black Hills.

Winfield Courier, May 25, 1876.

E. H. BELCHER, writing from Cheyenne, on the 13th inst., to Mr. Bangs, of this city, says: "This place is nearly dead. I shall leave for Colorado in a few days. Men are leaving the Black Hills by the hundreds. A party of one hundred arrived here yesterday. The Indians are killing men and stealing stock daily. I would not be surprised if they should clean out Custer City before long. I think there will be good mines found when the Indians are quieted down, but we will have a h__l of a fight before we get them quiet. If you, or anyone else who has any idea of coming out here, are making a living where you are, you had better stay there. Wait until next year anyway."


Arkansas City Traveler, May 31, 1876. Front Page.

Cheyenne, May 19. The last two companies of the Second Cavalry for Crook's expedition left Fort Russell this forenoon. They will cross the river at Laramie City, marching up the north side to Fetterman, to be joined by troops which leave the railroad at Medicine Bow, the whole force reaching Fetterman Wednesday forenoon. At this point, Col. Royal, of the 3rd Cavalry, will take command, under Gen. Crook, of the entire force.

At the halting place last night some five desertions occurred, the men taking their horses and equipments with them.

The latest arrivals from the Black Hills, Elderman Neal and J. D. Way, of this city, report that they met Raymond's outfit on Indian Creek. They were then engaged in a hot fight with the Indians, and succeeded in capturing about thirty-five head of stock, and driving off the red skins.

They also met about four hundred people with eighty wagons, northward bound, at Hot Creek. They rode into Fort Laramie unmolested.

These gentlemen are reliable authority, and state that on White Wood and Dead Wood Creeks, claims are being successfully worked, yielding ten to twenty dollars to the man; but beyond this district, the hostility and oft repeated attacks of the Indians on prospectors have almost paralyzed the efforts of the miners.

Gov. Thayer departed eastward today, to secure, if possible, additional troops to protect the frontier during the absence of the garrison forces in the Big Horn country; or, failing in this, at least to procure arms and ammunition for a militia organization.

A fire today on Green River, Wyoming, destroyed $7,000 worth of property.


Arkansas City Traveler, May 31, 1876.

The House Committee on Indian Affairs reviewed the Indian appropriation bill, and decided to report amendments increasing its amount by $600,000. It appears that Randall took the bill in hand and reduced it on his own responsibility about $1,500,000 below the estimates. He then submitted it to the committee as being substantially in accordance with the view of the Indian Bureau, and on this assurance it was passed. When the real facts became known, the committee gave the bill a closer inspection, with the result above stated.

Winfield Courier, June 1, 1876.

It is thought by some that Mr. Menor, who left here for the Black Hills last fall, was one of the forty killed by the Indians lately. Nothing definite is known of him since the last of March.

JOHN FUNK has returned from the Black Hills a fatter, sadder, and wiser man. He pronounces the hills a failure. He will settle down to the slow but sure process of digging wealth out of Cowley County soil.

The many friends of Tom Blanchard, Joe Stansberry, and Ben Murphy will be gratified to know that they have arrived safely at Deadwood Gulch, 80 miles north of Custer City, and are taking out plenty of gold.


Arkansas City Traveler, June 7, 1876. Front Page.

Omaha, Neb., May 29. A citizen of this place, just arrived from Custer City, says that on the 19th, that place was attacked by Indians, who burned the ammunition house, in the center of the city, which, in blowing up, destroyed several houses. His party, numbering 96 persons, left at daylight on the next morning, and cannot give the particulars. He buried John Shenck, of Yankton, who had been shot eight miles from Buffalo Gap, on the north side of the Platte, between Red Cloud and Sidney. He found the body of T. P. Hermann, of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, who had $7,500 in checks and $21 in greenbacks with him. The Indians left these, but stripped him of everything else and ran off his stock. He took the body to Sidney, and from there forwarded it home. The money was placed in the hands of Mr. Moore, a citizen of Sidney.

On the 17th, the Indians attacked a miner's cabin at midnight, at Rose Bud, between Custer and Dead Wood, and surprised and killed all the occupants, literally hacking them to pieces.

About four thousand people are in Custer in twelve hundred houses. Nothing can be done on account of the Indians. If a man goes a mile from camp alone, he loses his scalp.


Arkansas City Traveler, June 14, 1876. Front Page.

Omaha, June 5. Three herders were killed by Indians 25 miles south of Sidney, in this State, on Saturday last.

A dispatch received at headquarters today, dated the 4th, states that a courier arrived from Red Cloud this morning, says Yellow Robe arrived at the agency six days ago from a hostile camp of 1,806 lodges, on the Rose, but they were about to leave for Powder River, below the point of Crazy Horse's fight. The Indians say they will fight, and have three thousand warriors.

Arkansas City Traveler, June 14, 1876.

Topeka, Kansas, June 5. News was received in this city, today, that a courier came into Fort Hays, last night, from a detachment of the Fifth U. S. Cavalry, from which he had been scouting up the Solomon for the past two weeks.

The courier brings a report from Company D, to the commander at Fort Hays, for reinforcements.

The company had met and skirmished sometime with 200 Indians at a point 75 miles northwest of Hays, but had not enough troops to hold or capture them. Times.

Arkansas City Traveler, June 14, 1876.

From Ellis.

[Special Dispatch to the Commonwealth.]

ELLIS, June 7, 1876.

Captain Price has just returned from a twenty days' scout on the head waters of the Solomon and Sappa. He authorizes me to say that there is no truth in the dispatch about his being attacked by two hundred Indians, and sending a courier to Hays for reinforcements. He was out three weeks, marched three hundred miles, and never saw or heard of any Indians, except about one hundred and fifty women and children, who were en route for the Cheyenne Agency. His company, D of the Fifth Cavalry, are in their quarters at Fort Hays waiting orders. Four other companies of the same regiment are en route for the Black Hills. Pioneer.



Arkansas City Traveler, June 14, 1876.

Those who are interested in attracting emigrants to the Black Hills are again sending out their big stories about the "rich diggings" just discovered in some district by a company of prospectors from somewhere, and the enormous sums that have been washed out "to the pan.@ Let all these yarns be received with the customary degree of allowance, and let all those who may be tempted to go, consider the chances of losing their scalps as well as the chances of finding bags full of goldCand there are a great many more chances of the former than of the latter.


Arkansas City Traveler, June 14, 1876.

Denver, June 6. Eight companies of the Fifth cavalry, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Carr, passed through here today, en route to join General Crook's expedition.

Hunters from the headquarters of the Republican say that the Cheyennes and Arapahos are leaving in large numbers, bound north. It is supposed they are going to join the Sioux.

Winfield Courier, June 15, 1876.

ANDY GORDON and F. M. FREELAND are reported to be on their way home from the Black Hills.

Winfield Courier, June 15, 1876.

It has been reported here for some time that A. Menor and wife, of this place, who went to the Black Hills some time since, were killed by Indians.


Arkansas City Traveler, June 21, 1876.


OLD TRAVELER: As today is my lay-off day, and times are dull without any company, I will write you a few notes in regard to the land of gold. On the 16th we arrived in Custer City, and found a thriving town, nearly all the houses being of logs. On the 17th we started for this place, and now we are located on Castle Creek, forty miles from Custer.

The weather is warm, and we all have good health. The miners' law allows 300 feet for a claim, but we have claimed only 100 feet each. We have prospected but very little, but found gold at every pan. Today we start a ditch for a sluice. This creek is quite large, and has a fall of 55 feet to the mile. There are now but two sluices on Castle Creek.

It will, in my opinion, take quite a time to develop this part, but when it does come, it will be all right. As in all new places, provisions are high. Flour is worth $15 to $20 per 100; bacon, 35 cents; potatoes, 15 to 20 cents per pound, and everything else in proportion.

Grass is good, and horses doing finely. Woolsey, Reckle, and Purdy have gone to Dead Wood; also Gard Kennedy and Jake Cregor, from Sumner County, and Ellert Hedrick, formerly of Winfield.

Gold taken from this gulch is worth twenty dollars per ounce, while that from Dead Wood brings fifteen to eighteen dollars only.

I would not advise anyone to come to the Hills with the expectation of finding gold on every bush, but I do say that I think there is a fair prospect. Send us a TRAVELER and we will be happy.

Truly, etc. CHARLIE.


Arkansas City Traveler, June 21, 1876.

A Car Load of Choice Horses Burned Alive

On a Freight Train.

For more than a month past the government has been purchasing cavalry horses in Kansas City for use in the Crook Expedition against the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians.

A few days ago a number of these fine, fat animals were shipped westward over the Kansas Pacific, destined for Cheyenne and the military posts further north. The horses fared well, and were being rapidly borne westward over the plains in cattle cars at the rate of at least 15 miles per hour, when on Tuesday morning the accident below described occurred.

The train had just left Wild Horse Station, when a fire broke out in the loose hay in or near a car load of horses. The alarm was given at once, and the train stopped on the main track and an attempt was made to get the now frantic and suffering horses out of their fiery prison. But this was impossible. The car soon became one mass of fire, flame, and smoke. The cries and screams of the struggling animals are described as harrowing and horrible in the extreme. Kansas City Times.

Winfield Courier, June 22, 1876.

The friends of Jack Cottingham, of Timber Creek, will be glad to learn that he has arrived safely at Dead Wood Gulch, in north Black Hills. He reports provisions very high and gold tolerable plenty. From Mr. Lit. Cottingham we learn that all the Timber Creek boys have got through safe; also that Mr. Menor and wife, of this place, are safe at Dead Wood.


Arkansas City Traveler, June 28, 1876. Front Page.

The Black Hills.


MY FAMILY: I write, this beautiful Sunday morn, to inform you of our safe arrival in the gold hills. Joe is up again from the measles, which makes us all well, hoping this may find you the same. There is no humbug about there being gold here, but what we find is fine, and on what is termed bars; all old miners say if we can strike bed rock, we can make our fortune.

Castle Creek is nearly as large as Grouse, and runs swifter, having a fall of 55 feet to the mile. It is about 25 feet to the bed rock, and in order to go down we will have to get pumps sufficient to keep the water out. I am inclined to the belief that there is a fortune here, but it will take time and money to get it. We met 200 men going back, calling the whole thing a humbug, but the most were scared out at Indian reports. We have not seen any, only at and near Red Cloud Agency; they are in the Hills, but will attack only small parties. The most of the returning miners never turned a shovel of dirt, and a good many turned back before reaching Buffalo Gap. We saw the bones of one man, who had been killed in the Gap by Indians. He smelled so badly when first discovered that he could not be buried, so they piled rocks upon him. It was a hard sight; but such is life.

Will. has just come in with a fine specimen of quartz, which is rich and will some day make someone rich. If a man had money to live upon for one year, and set down on some of those places, his fortune would be made, but such is not the disposition of most men: they want to go forward, and those who follow will make the money. I would advise all to stay at home for awhile unless they come heeled with one year's provisions or money. Flour is worth $16 per hundred, bacon 35 cents per pound, corn meal 15 cents per pound, corn 13 cents per pound, etc.

One of the boys just killed a black tailed deer, which are plenty; also plenty of those black or brown bears, which are very large. I would like to give you a description of the HillsCit seems as though they were blown up by some terrible volcano, leaving deep gulches running in all directions, and having the finest streams of the coldest water. The mountains are covered with pitch pine and fir, with some poplar or quaking asp, which make the scenery the finest.

I have had but one letter from you, dated April 22. It costs twenty-five cents to get a letter from Cheyenne here, so when you write, write good long letters. We will probably look around before going to work. Gold is here, all over, and of the finest kind; sells for $21 per ounce.

We are going to work this morning, and will give you all particulars in a few days. Some of our men got ten cents at one pan yesterday. I was up in the mountain yesterday, and got so cold I had to come down. Plenty of snow and ice in the mountains. It is about such weather here as it is in March there, and the gooseberries are just leafing out. Direct letters to Custer City.


Arkansas City Traveler, June 28, 1876.


CHEYENNE, June 23. As intimated in the last dispatch, Gen. Crook's command left camp on the morning of the 16th instant, with four days' rations. They struck the right hand branch of the Yellowstone, into Montana, following down this creek. The next morning, when about five miles down, the Snake and Crow scouts brought in word from the front that the Sioux were in force in the hills; and by half past eight o'clock the command was in position, and an extensive firing was inaugurated along the north of the creek; the enemy, who had begun the attack, showing thereby their confidence in their ability to whip the command, retiring as the soldiers and allies advanced. The Sioux were all well mounted, well armed, and at times were prodigal in the use of ammunition. The fight lasted four hours when the enemy retired out of sight at every point.

All the wounded will likely recover. One Snake scout was killed, and three wounded; and four Crows were wounded. The dead bodies of thirteen Sioux were found on the field, and it is certain that a number more were killed, with the usual proportion of wounded. Gen. Crook's horse was shot under him.

The fight occurred fifty miles from the wagon and pack trains, and owing to the want of rations, and in order that the wounded might be cared for, it was necessary to return. The officers and soldiers all displayed marked gallantry. The nature of the ground making infantry advantageous, Gen. Crook has ordered five companies to join him at once. The cavalry in the meantime is continuing operations on the plains and in the hills should no definite information of the villages be obtained. There is one month's supply of rations in the

camp. The Crows have returned home, but the Snakes will remain. The rich game in the country on the Big Horn affords an ample commissary department for the Sioux.

Arkansas City Traveler, June 28, 1876.

Routes to the Black Hills are not inquired after just now. The short cut out of the Hills is what the boys are looking for.

Winfield Courier, June 29, 1876.

Andy Gordon is in with Max Shoeb now. He never looks up nor "talks back" when you mention Black Hills to him.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 5, 1876.

A. N. and W. P. Johnston returned from the Black Hills last Wednesday. These gentle-men, together with Harry Flood, M. Curry, and Chas. Tarry left this place on the 7th of last February, with one wagon. They arrived in Custer City on the 2nd of March, and on the 8th of last May started from that place with sixty others on their return from the land of gold. They were in the Hills upwards of two months, were so far north as Deadwood, eight miles from Custer, and prospecting in various directions around the latter place. They report but ten claims in the Hills that are paying wages and these, only when provisions are low. Outside of these, nothing has been discovered so far that will yield living wages. They are convinced of this from their own observations of numbers of old miners from Colorado, Nevada, and California, who, after prospecting so far as they could with safety, left the country.

From seven to ten thousand adventurers have gone into the Hills up to date, every man of whom, except the merchants and speculators, who could get back, has left; cursing his own folly, and the men and newspapers, who, by misrepresentations and wholesale lying, have led so many to destruction.

When the Messrs. Johnstons left, the population of Custer City numbered seven to eight hundred people, including thirty to forty families of women and children, and with few exceptions, all were in a destitute condition; and unless quickly relieved, would be in a starving condition. On the day of their departure, there were but four sacks of flour in the town, and this was held at sixty dollars a sack.

Town property is utterly worthless; houses that cost from seventy-five dollars to one hundred and seventy-five dollars, together with the corner lots, were traded for two or three meals of victuals, to keep their owners from starving to death.

They pronounce the whole thing an infamous fraud, gotten up by the soulless corporation of the Union Pacific and the towns along the line, for the purpose of reaping a harvest of blood and money from the betrayed adventurers who have flocked to the Hills.

The route from Cheyenne to the Hills is lined with graves of the murdered adventurers. Custer itself is surrounded by the Indians who threaten to scalp any man, woman, or child left there after a certain date, and the killing and scalping of prospectors are of daily occurrence. The inhabitants are out of ammunition and unable to defend themselves.

Notwithstanding all these facts, the authorities of the Union Pacific through the newspapers along the line and through circulars, and paid correspondents, are spreading broadcast through the land glowing descriptions of the discovery of gold, the agricultural and pastoral advantages of the country, and denying all reports of Indian raids and murders.

A man, by the name of Williard, who came out with the Johnston party, in consideration of a pass over the road to the East, signed a letter, written by the editor of the Cheyenne Sun, in which the fellow states that he had brought out $1,500 in gold, that the country was full of gold, rich discoveries were being made daily, and that there was no foundation for the reports of Indian massacres. He acknowledged to a son of ex-Gov. Blair, of Michigan, who met him on the cars, that he had signed the letter at the instigation of the Cheyenne Sun, and received a free pass over the road as a reward for his villainy.

There has never been a stage to Custer up to the present time, although the Cheyenne papers stated last winter that a daily line had been put on the route from that place to the Hills. The mails have been carried in by the freighters, and nine out of ten of them have been destroyed by the Indians and the carriers scalped. When the party left on the 8th of May, the snow was from one to two feet deep in Custer, and it is said that the cold is severe enough even in July to freeze water. Consequently, the country is totally unfit for cultivation.

This whole excitement of the Black Hills has been a scheme gotten up and fostered by the Union Pacific road and the towns along it for the purpose of speculation, and is heartless, cruel, and blood-thirsty. The government should put a stop to this wholesale lying and robbing, and make known authoritatively the true condition of the Hills. Our space forbids of a detailed account of the unfortunate adventurers and experience of these gentlemen. We believe that they are truthful and reliable men and their statements can be accepted.

Wichita Beacon.

Winfield Courier, July 6, 1876.

BEN. MURPHY, who went to the Black Hills with T. A. Blanchard and others, in the spring, returned from Deadwood to this place a few days since. Poor health caused him to return. He presented us with rich gold quartz.

Winfield Courier, July 6, 1876.

TOM, or T. A. BLANCHARD, sends a letter to the COURIER force, in which he says: All the discovered mines at Deadwood are taken; that all the paying dirt is occupied; that provisions are very highCflour $25 per hundred; that persons who are making a living in Cowley had better remain there.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 12, 1876.


In pursuance of the confirmation of the terrible state of affairs in the Indian country, General Pope issued orders yesterday at Fort Leavenworth, to the effect that the whole garrison, consisting of six companies of the Fifth Infantry, under the command of General N. A. Miles, will report themselves at once in readiness to march to the front.

Companies B, E, and K, which are now at Fort Leavenworth, will be joined by company F, which recently was ordered to Fort Gibson; company G from Fort Hays, and company H from Fort Riley. Company I will remain at Fort Leavenworth until relieved, probably, by a company of artillery from the East.

The command will be ordered to the mouth of the Big Horn River, and will start within a few days. The excitement in the city is yet intense, and several old army officers have telegraphed to Washington their willingness to begin at once to enlist volunteers, and have asked for permission to do so, feeling confident that one or more regiments can be raised in a very short time, composed principally of old Indian fighters and frontiersmen.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, July 12, 1876.

The Indian Battle on the Little Horn River.



The Most Disastrous Defeat that Has Ever Befallen

Our Troops While Fighting Indians.

Salt Lake, Utah, July 6. Advices from Bosler, Montana, July 3, at 7 p.m., states that Mr. Taylor, bearer of dispatches from the Little Horn to Fort Ellis, arrived this evening, and reports that a battle was fought on the twenty fifth ult., thirty or forty miles below the Little Horn.

Custer attacked an Indian village containing from 2,500 to 4,000 warriors on one side, and Colonel Reno was to attack it on the other. Three companies were placed on a hill, as a reserve. Custer and 15 officers and every man of five companies were killed. Reno retreated under the protection of the reserve. The whole number killed was 315. Gen. Gibbon joined Reno and the Indians left. The battleground looked like a slaughter pen, as it really was, being in a narrow ravine. The dead were much mutilated.

The situation looks serious. Gen. Terry arrived at Gibbon's camp on a steamboat and crossed his command over and accompanied it to Custer, who knew it was coming before the fight occurred. Lieut. Crittenden was among the killed.

The special correspondent of the Helena, Montana, Herald, writing from Stillwater, Montana, July 2, says: Custer found a camp of about 2,000 lodges on the Little Horn, and immediately attacked it. Custer took five companies and charged the thickest portion of the camp. Nothing is known of the operation of this detachment, only as traced by the dead. Major Reno commanded the other seven companies, and attacked the lower portion of the camp. The Indians poured in a murderous fire from all directions, beside the greater portion fought on horseback. Custer, his two brothers, nephew, and brother-in-law, were all killed, and not one of his detachment escaped. Two hundred and seven men were buried in one place, and the killed were estimated at 300, with only thirty-one wounded. The Indians surrounded Reno's command and held them one day in the hills, cut off from water, until Gibbons' command came in sight, when they broke camp in the night and left. The Seventh fought like tigers and were overcome by mere brute force. The Indian loss cannot be estimated, as they bore off and sacked most of their killed. The remnant of the Seventh Cavalry and Gibbons' command are turning to the mouth of Little Horn, where a steamboat lies. The Indians got all the arms of the killed soldiers. There were seventeen commissioned officers killed. The whole Custer family died at the head of their column. The exact loss cannot be known, as both adjutants and sergeants majors were killed. The Indian camp was from three to four miles long, and was twenty miles up the Little Horn from its mouth. The Indians actually pulled the men off their horses in some instances."

Arkansas City Traveler, July 12, 1876.


Chicago, July 6. Dispatches confirming Custer's fight on the Little Horn River, have been received at Gen. Sheridan's headquarters.


Fort Abraham Lincoln, Dakota, July 6. The town is draped in mourning, and a meeting of the Common Council and citizens was held this evening to take measures for an appropriate tribute to the gallant dead.


Toledo, Ohio, July 6. A special to the Blade from Monroe, Michigan, the home of Gen. Custer, says that the startling news of the massacre of the General and his party by the Indians created the most intense feeling and sorrow among all classes. Gen. Custer passed several years of his school in Monroe, and his parents have resided there many years. His wife is a daughter of Hon. Daniel L. Bacon, a prominent citizen of that place, and is now at the post recently commanded by Gen. Custer.


St. Louis, July 6. A telegram from Gen. Ruggles, at St. Paul, to Captain Green Hale, commanding the cavalry at the arsenal here, gives the following as the names of the officers killed in the fight between the Sioux and Gen. Custer's command: General Custer, Colonel Custer, Colonel Keogh, Colonel Yates, Colonel Cook, Lieutenant Smith, Lieutenant McIntosh, Lieutenant Hodgson, Lieutenant Reilley, Lieutenant Porter, and Lieutenant Sturgis. Lieutenant Horrington is missing.


Chicago, July 6. An Inter-Ocean special, under date of Bismarck, Dakota Territory, July 1, says that information has been received from the Sioux expedition, dated at the mouth of the Big Horn, July 1st, which says that Custer left the mouth of Rosebud with twelve companies to follow the Indian trail of a large band of hostile Sioux. They followed up in the direction of the Big Horn. The Indians were making for the eastern branch of Little Horn. Gen. Terry with Gibbon's command of five companies of infantry and four companies of cavalry, started to ascend the Big Horn to attack the enemy in the rear. On the morning of the 25th two Crow scouts brought intelligence of the battle of the previous day, and upon receipt of the news, the command commenced the march in a southerly direction, where smoke could be seen, which indicated that Custer had fired the Indian village. Next morning the column entered a plain bordering on the Little Horn, where had recently stood an immense Indian village three miles in length. The ground was strewn with the slaughtered horses, cavalry equipments, and the dead bodies of nine Indian chiefs. The clothing of Lieutenants Sturgess and Porter was also found, pierced with bullets. Further on was found the body of Lieutenant McIntosh.

Just then a scout arrived with the intelligence that Col. Reno was entrenched with the remnant of the Seventh Cavalry on a bluff nearby waiting relief. The command pushed on and found Reno with the remainder of the seven companies. Reno's command had been fighting since Sunday noon, the 25th, until relieved by Terry on the night of the 26th. Terry's arrival caused the Indians to retire. Reno knew nothing of the fate of the other five companies, which had been separated from them on the 25th to make an attack under Custer's command, at a point about three miles down the right bank of the stream.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 12, 1876.

OLD MR. CAMPBELL has returned from the Black Hills. He says the great trouble is that most people expend all their money in getting there, and then have none to work on.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 12, 1876.

The Washington correspondent of the New York Tribune, speaking of the bill to transfer the Indian Bureau to the war department, says:

There was quite a heated passage between Senator Ingalls, who is the chief advocate of the transfer, and Mr. Morrill, of Maine, who, at the time he spoke, had not been confirmed as Secretary of the Treasury. Mr. Ingalls insisted that the War Department is not a slaughter house and the officers are not all butchers; that the continued tirade against the bad faith of the Anglo-Saxon with the Indians is unjustifiable, and that the American continent is not designed for the exclusive use of a few millions of savages. The Black Hills war, he said, is exclusively brought about by a peace policy, and the Indian never had been and never would be civilized; when he becomes so, he is no longer an Indian. Mr. Ingalls said that sentiment is a simple thing for those who have no Indians in their States.

Winfield Courier, July 13, 1876.

Thanks to W. W. ANDREWS for a copy of the Dead Wood (Black Hills) Reporter.


Winfield Courier, July 13, 1876. Editorial Page.


314 Officers and Men Massacred.

In June last an expedition of about fifteen hundred Government troops started into the Sioux Indian country, west of the Black Hills, to conquer the hostile Indians. Gen. Terry had command of the expedition. Having information of the location of about 25,000 Indians, Gen. Terry attempted to converge his forces, which were in two detachments, upon the Indians on the 26th of June.

Custer had command of one column, of about nine hundred men. He came upon the Indians in camp upon the Little Big Horn River, in Montana Territory, about two hundred miles northwest of the Black Hills, June 22nd, and at once attacked them. Major Reno, in command of three companies, attacked the Indians from one direction; Capt. Belton, in command of three companies, expected to, but did not get into the fight.

Custer, with five companies, containing over three hundred men, rashly attacked the Indians at another point. The camp was three miles long and a mile wide. A portion of the Indians turned upon Reno and whipped him with heavy loss on both sides, but Reno retreated and was saved by the timely aid of Capt. Belton's command, who joined Reno and all entrenched themselves and fought the red skins from the 22nd to the 26th, when they were relieved by the remainder of Terry's command under Gen. Gibbon.

Of Custer's fight little is known. He attacked the Indians at another point. Not a man escaped to tell the sad particulars. Every officer and man was killed. There were 327 enlisted men, 14 commissioned officers, 2 assistant surgeons, 5 citizens, and 3 Indian scouts. Among the killed are Gen. Custer, Col. T. W. Custer, Col. McKeagh, Col. Yates, Lieut. Col. Cooke. The dead bodies were found and buried after the Indians left. It is a startling and unexpected massacre. Great excitement prevails in the country over the news, and especially in the war department. The Government is hurrying troops thither from all quarters, and it is probable that some earnest work will be done before long.


Winfield Courier, July 13, 1876. Editorial Page.

A Frightful Disaster.

The defeat of the United States troops, by the Indians, on the Little Horn River, reported this morning, is the most crushing ever received by American soldiers at the hands of Indians since St. Clair's defeat in 1691. In the fight with the Miamis, St. Clair lost, out of 1,400 men, 894 killed, wounded, and captured, and a disorderly retreat was made by the remainder. In the fight on the Little Horn about the same proportion of the forces engaged were killed outright, and the remainder escaped sure destruction by the arrival of reinforcement. Up to St. Clair's time Braddock's defeat was considered the most disasterous in the annals of Indian warfare. Braddock, 1,460 men, lost 877 killed, wounded, and captured. In more modern Indian warfare the only parallel to Custer's defeat, is that of Maj. Dade, in the Florida war, where, out of a force of 108 men and officers, only two persons escaped.

In the battles cited, Braddock and St. Clair were surpised in the open field and Major Dade fought behind a slight breast work, but in the fight on the Little Horn, our troops attacked the Indians on their own ground, and, it would seem, with some knowledge of the position, and were not only defeated, but, as far as the principal attacking force was concerned, annihilated. Never before in a fight with Indians were five strong companies of cavalry, in the expressive phrase of the frontiersman, "wiped out."

General Custer was a dashing fighter and had been far more fortunate in his campaigns against Indians than the average regular army officer. The mode of attackCi. e., in two divisionsCwhich proved so disastrous on the Little Horn, was successful on the Washita in the fight at Black Kettle's village; but in the latter fight the Indians were surprised in the early morning, and fought on foot, while on the Little Horn they were mounted and evidently prepared. It would seem now, that Custer, elated with his previous good luck, made a mistake which has so often proved fatal before, he miscalculated the courage and resolution of the Indians. He adopted the "one to five" theory fashionable in the South at the outbreak of the Rebellion, and paid the penalty of his mistake by the loss of his own life, and the lives of his kinsmen and of three hundred of his men. Commonwealth.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 19, 1876.

Omaha, Neb., July 13. Recent dispatches from the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies state that the affairs are very uncertain. Owing to the recent news of Custer's defeat, the Interior Department are issuing nothing but corn and flour, having failed on beef entirely.

Scouting parties have been withdrawn from the Agency at the bridge on the Sidney route. There is still one company of troops at the bridge.

It is not probable that the Indians will make trouble at the agencies, as they are their only refuge in case they are overpowered.



Arkansas City Traveler, July 19, 1876.

[From the Chicago Tribune.]

The present Sioux war, precipitated by Sitting Bull and his large and formidable gang of roving and desperate savages, ought to be the last Indian war the Government will be called on to prosecute. There is one way, and only one way, to make it so. It is to drive the Indians now occupying the northern Territories into a common reservation in the Indian Territory, and to exterminate all the savages who refuse to go. The temporizing policy may as well be abandoned once for all.

The overflow of people from Europe and the Eastern States has already begun to spread over Colorado, Wyoming, Dakota, and Montana. Already Kansas and Nebraska are pretty well settled, and after passing the 100th degree of longitude, a far larger area per family is necessary for the support of those who locate on the western plains, on account of the barrenness of the country and the scarcity of rain. The attractions of the minerals and the opportunities for stock raising in the Territories will increase the emigration there steadily and rapidly. It would be folly to resist it, and cruel to subject the emigrants to an unequal frontier struggle with roving bands of hostile Indians. These Territories can only be made safely inhabitable by ridding them of the savages, and the interest of civilization demand that this shall be done.

Fortunately, this policy may be carried out without doing the Indians any injustice; on the contrary, it will be the most humane to them, and will provide for their future more permanently than any other. The Indian Territory, lying between Kansas and Texas, and just west of Arkansas, has a larger area than the State of Illinois, and is ample for the accommodation and support of all the aboriginal population of America, which does not number more than 300,000 persons. The climate is warm and well suited to the outdoor life which the Indian pursues. Having them all together, they can be better and more cheaply supported; the Territory can be thoroughly guarded and the excursions of wild Indians quickly checked; the climate, soil, and associations will make the Indians incline more rapidly to agricultural pursuits; and all the civilizing influences of education and religion can be brought to bear upon them in a degree not possible while they are scattered about in small tribes and at large distance.

This is the plan upon which the war against the Sioux should be prosecuted. Having conquered them into submission, all the other Indian tribes of these Northern Territories will peacefully submit to the change, glad of the assurance of protection against the outlaw Indians which it will carry with it. As to Sitting Bull and his followers, there is no excuse for the development of the slightest sentimentalism. His present force consists of all the hostile bands that have been harassing the whites and the peaceful Indians in that country for the last twelve or fifteen years. They have been marauding, plundering, and murdering ever since the Spirit Lake massacre in Iowa and the Sioux massacre in Minnesota. They have made war on the commerce of the Upper Missouri for years. They have frequently attacked the Crows, Shoshones, and other friendly tribes. They have absorbed the appropriations of millions to use as resources for further fighting.

The present war, indeed, has grown out of the confession of the Peace Commission that they are powerless to do anything more with the Sioux, and is prosecuted at the special request of the Indian Department. Had he not been vigorously attacked now, Sitting Bull would probably have induced the entire Sioux Nation to join him, and this might easily have led to a general Indian war. Such a result can be surely avoided by the policy of concentrating or "corralling" all the Indians of these several Territories into the Indian Territory, giving them separate and adequate reservations, and exterminating those who will not acquiesce. The peaceable treaty Indians will probably rejoice at the change, as it will give them for the first time something like certain protection against the savage Indians. If this policy be adopted, the necessary regiments should be filled up to their full strength, and such a force thrown against the hostile tribes as will bring them into quick submission.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 19, 1876.


W. B. SKINNER received a letter from his son, dated Sidney, Dakota Territory, July 4, in which he expressed his determination to start for Colorado as soon as possible, as times were none of the best there. Mr. Felton received a letter from Joe Rickels last Thursday evening, we think, stating that Mr. Berkey and his son, Will, started for home the day he wrote; that he and Uncle Richard Woolsey had traded their wagons, teams, and everything for a claim, and were working a lead paying from three to ten cents per pan; that Uncle Richard's sight has improved wonderfully from the time he first saw "pay dirt;" that he was erecting a shop, and both were determined to "see her through." These letters, however, were written before the late Indian fights, and it is possible they may change their minds.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 19, 1876.


Indians Make a Fatal Raid Upon Miners.

Burlington, Iowa, July 15. C. W. Hanscome, a reliable man, who came here today from Custer City, near which place he has been at work on a dry gulch claim, says the claim was paying $20 per day per man.

On the 20th of June, the Indians raided their camp, capturing nine horses and killing the following of the company: A. M. Carter, of England, Wm. Brown, Henry Brown, Cowell Valentine, John Huff, and W. M. Page.

Two men, Hanscome and Cook, cut their way through and escaped; and returning next day, found their comrades terribly mutilated and scalped, and the provisions gone.

Hanscome has forwarded the remains of Carter to Liverpool, and Cook remained to guard the property until the return of Hanscome, who is here to secure provisions and machinery.

Hanscome reports the Black Hills very rich.

There was a rumor in Custer City that Gen. Crook's command was being held in bay to the east of Custer.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 19, 1876.

Washington, July 15. Upon voting a pension to the widow of Gen. Custer, Mr. Williams, of Michigan, asked leave also to introduce a bill granting a pension of $80.00 per month to the father and mother of Generals Custer, Rusk, and Ainsworth. Objected to on the ground of its irregular way of coming before the house.

Mr. Cannon suggested that the committee on invalid pensions should at an early day report a bill granting pensions to the children of the men who fell under the lead of Custer.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 19, 1876.

New York, July 15. Gen. Custer had a life insurance policy for $5,000; Capt. Yates, $5,000; Keogh, $10,000; Lieut. Calhoun, $5,000; Crittenden, $10,000; Porter, $5,000.

Winfield Courier, July 20, 1876.

Congress will grant Mrs. Custer, wife of the late General, a pension of fifty dollars per month.

It is thought that Sitting Bull's band, in the fight with Custer, obtained about $20,000, the soldiers having just been paid.

Congress will appropriate $200,000 for the construction of two military posts in the Sioux country.

Rain-in-the-face, an Indian who had a personal grudge against Gen. Custer for once forcibly arresting him on the charge of murder, is the one to claim the horrible honor of killing the hero. The General slew six Indians with his own hands, shooting three with his revolvers, and stabbing three in a hand-to-hand encounter. Rain-in-the-face shot Custer through the head and then cut his heart out of his dead body, put it on a pole, and a great war dance was held around it. The Indians claim to have lost seventy, among the number were many noted chiefs.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 26, 1876.

The nomadic Berkey and son, Will, returned from the Black Hills last Sunday, with their "scalp locks" still hanging to them.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 26, 1876.

It is said that Sitting Bull's Indians were much better armed than the brave cavalrymen whom they slaughtered. Their superb Henry rifles were more than a match for the carbines of the soldiers. They could keep safely out of range and pick off the blue coats at their leisure.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 27, 1876. Front Page.


He was a very severe disciplinarian, and it was only by the most supernatural daring in the face of the enemy that he was able to maintain a place in the esteem of his men. A story is told which will illustrate this, and which we have not seen in print. We have it from soldiers of the Twenty-third Ohio, who were out on picket, and saw it. It was when RosserC("this new Savior of the Valley," Sheridan called him)Cfollowed the rear guard of the Army of Shenandoah so pertinaciously down the valley, after the advance in 1864. Sheridan was finally irritated at Rosser's impudence, as he kept pounding away at our pickets with his cavalry, in front of Starsburg, and finally ordered Custer's division out, to drive him back. They passed through our picket lines, Sheridan and his staff along, to see the thing start off right. Rosser's cavalry was drawn up within plain sight of our lines. Custer formed his cavalry for the charge, and then rode out towards Rosser, slowly, all alone. Custer was a very striking figure, with his long yellow hair floating over his shoulders, his red necktie, his dashing Huzzar jacket, and wide-brimmed, bandit-looking hat thrown backward upon his head. He rode slowly out, entire clear of his command, toward Rosser, many yards to the front, then halted and lifted his hat, and made a royal cavalier salute to Rosser, dropping his hat to the horse's side. He then rode slowly back, placed himself at the head of his command, and ordered the charge. The charge was so sudden and impetuous that Rosser was swept before it like the wind, and he was followed at a run to Rood's Hill, miles distant, without ever having a chance to reform, and with only one piece of his artillery left. Sheridan used to say, laughing, that one piece of artillery went over Rood's Hill so fast that only one wheel touched the ground.

[Note: Thomas Lafayette Rosser [1836-1910], C.S.A. General, resigned from West Point May 1861 as the war approached. He was in command of the Laurel Brigade at Buckland Mills in October 1863, defeating his erstwhile good friend and classmate, Custer. The two generals became hard-bitten rivals after this, clashing in the Shenan-doah Valley and in the retreat from Petersburg to Appomattox. After the war he was in railroading and was chief engineer in the Indian Territory, where Custer=s command was deployed to protect his construction. The men became close friends once again.]

Another story concerning Custer=s childhood was related by C. M. Scott, editor of the Arkansas City Traveler, August 30, 1876, after he visited the Centennial and other localities back east, including his home town of Cadiz, Ohio.


Among the old burnt clay hills, there is a cherished memory of the past, respected by great and small, where the lamented General Custer spent his early life. We listened with great interest to the stories of Gen. Custer's boyhood, told by an eyewitness and familiar acquaintance of the family, who said the General and his brother used to ride into the town of New Rumley barefooted, on a bareback horse; and recalled the time when the Principal of the Hopedale Normal School ordered Custer from a fence post he was sitting on. Custer replied: "Professor, the day may come when I may be in authority, and you not, and I shall remember you." Time rolled on, Custer was appointed a cadet at West Point, war broke out, and the Professor one day found himself a Captain under command of General Custer, who asked him if he remembered the circumstance of years ago. The Professor did, and resigned his commission.



Winfield Courier, July 27, 1876.

Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and Black Moon, three noted chiefs of the Sioux, are said to have been killed in the fight with Custer. It is also reported that the Indians admit a loss of nearly four hundred.

Winfield Courier, July 27, 1876.

Thanks to T. A. Blanchard for a copy of the Deadwood Pioneer, from which we learn that one claim washed out $2,500 in one day.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 2, 1876.

In our humble opinion, there is but one measure the enforcement of which would result in the speedy settlement of the difficulty with those Sioux Indians up north. Phil. Sheridan may be ordered there with his paltry 3,000 troops; Governor Osborn may take a dozen trips to the northern frontier; company upon company may be ordered from Fort Leavenworth and other military posts; Crook and Terry may scour the country until Gabriel blows his B flatCbut so long as the Kansas Militia, Cowley County Division remains inactive, just so long will murder and bloodshed be of daily occurrence. Call 'em out, Governor, and end this foolishness.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 2, 1876.

CONSIDERABLE EXCITEMENT was created on our streets last Friday evening by the announcement that Uncle Dick Woolsey, late of this place, had struck a lead in the Black Hills country. The authority for the rumor was a special to the Inter-Ocean dated Bismarck, Dakota Territory, July 25, saying that assays were made of the quartz from the Woolsey lode, eight miles from Deadwood, yielding from $2,500 to $5,059 to the ton. Everyone was rejoiced to hear of Uncle Richard's success, until informed by Berkey (who has "ben thar") that it was another Woolsey, supposed to be a distant relative of our uncle. "'Twas ever thus in childhood's hour."


Arkansas City Traveler, August 9, 1876.

Chicago, August 5. Advices received at General Sheridan's headquarters this morning, state that a fight occurred between a party of herders and a band of Indians, near Fetterman, on the 4th inst., in which one of the latter was killed. The whites succeeded in capturing a considerable number of ponies.

Cheyenne, August 5. On its return trip from Deadwood, the stage was attacked by Indians at Indian Creek. The stock was stolen, mail bags cut open, the coach destroyed, and one of the passengers wounded.

A camp of fifteen Indians was surprised and attacked at old Bridger ferry, forty miles north of Fort Laramie, by a party of herders. One Indian and two ponies were killed, and fourteen ponies captured. Baker and Davis train, returning from the hills, was attacked near Owens' ranche, twenty-five miles south of Fort Laramie, yesterday, losing ten head of horses.

A sergeant of the Eighth cavalry and a number of ranchmen started in pursuit of the Indians, but failed to overtake them. There is considerable excitement among the stockmen in the valley, and horses are being corralled.



Winfield Courier, August 10, 1876.

The truth about Custer is that he was a pet soldier, who had risen, not above his merit, but higher than men of equal merit. He fought with Phil. Sheridan, and through the patronage of Sheridan he rose, but while Sheridan liked his valor and his dash, he never trusted his judgment. He was to Sheridan what Murat was to Napoleon. While Sheridan is always cool, Custer was always aflame. He was like a thermometer. He had a touch of romance about him, and when the war broke out he used to go about dressed like one of Byron's pirates in the Archipelago, with waving, shining locks, and a broad, flapping sombrero.

Rising to high command early in life, he lost the repose necessary to success in high command.

Why, I remember when were chasing Lee, and had him up against Appomattox, Custer rushed into the rebel lines and wanted Longstreet to surrender the whole army to him. You see, Custer imagined that if he could frighten Longstreet into a surrender, all he would have to do would be to turn over the whole rebel gang to Grant; but Longstreet, who had wonderful sense, quietly told the furious young man that he did not command the army to surrender it, and that Lee was off to see Grant on the same business.

Then Custer must rush into politics, and went swinging around the circle with Johnson. He wanted to be a statesman, and, but for Sheridan's influence with Grant, the Republicans would have thrown him; but you see we all liked Custer, and did not mind his little freaks in that way anymore than we would have minded temper in a woman. Sheridan, to keep Custer in his place, kept him out on the plains at work! He gave him a find command, one of the best cavalry regiments in the service. The Colonel, Sturgis, was allowed to bask in the sunshine in a large city, while Custer was the real commander.

"A General," in Cincinnati Commercial.



Winfield Courier, August 10, 1876. Front Page.


A Crow Scout, the Only Survivor,

Describes the Horrible Slaughter.

The Helena (Montana) Herald, of July 15, gives the following account of the slaughter of Custer and his troops, told by a Crow Indian scout known as "Curley," who was attached to the ill-fated general's command, and whom the Herald believes to be the only survivor of that terrible occasion.

Custer, with his five companies, after separating from Reno and his seven companies, moved to the right around the base of a hill overlooking the valley of the Little Horn, through a ravine just wide enough to admit his column of fours. There was no sign of the presence of Indians in the hills on that side (the right) of the Little Horn, and the column moved steadily on until it rounded the hill and came in sight of the village lying in the valley below them. Custer appeared very much elated and ordered the bugle to sound a charge, and moved on at the head of his column, waving his hat to encourage his men. When they neared the river the Indians, concealed in the underbrush on the opposite side of the river, opened fire on the troops, which checked the advance. Here a portion of the command were dismounted and thrown forward to the river, and returned the fire of the Indians.

During this time the warriors were seen riding out of the village by hundreds, deploying across his front to his left, as if with the intention of crossing the stream on his right, while the women and children were seen hastening out of the village in large numbers in the opposite direction.

During the fight at this point Curley saw two of Custer's men killed, who fell into the stream. After fighting a few moments here, Custer seemed to be convinced that it was impracticable to cross, as it only could be done in column of fours exposed during the movement to a heavy fire from the front and both flanks. He therefore ordered the head of the column to the right, and bore diagonally into the hills, downstream, his men on foot leading their horses. In the meantime the Indians had crossed the river (below) in immense numbers, and began to appear on his right flank and in his rear; and he had proceeded but a few hundred yards in the direction the column had taken, when it became necessary to renew the fight with the Indians who had crossed the stream.

At first the command remained together, but after some minutes' fighting, it was divided, a portion deployed circularly to the left, and the remainder similarly to the right, so that when the line was formed, it bore a rude resemblance to a circle, advantage being taken as far as possible of the protection afforded by the ground. The horses were in the rear, the men on the line being dismounted, fighting on foot. Of the incidents of the fight in other parts of the field than his own, Curley is not well informed, as he was himself concealed in a ravine, from which but a small portion of the field was visible.

The fight appears to have begun, from Curley's description of the situation of the sun, about 2:30 or 3 o'clock p.m., and continued without intermission until nearly sunset. The Indians had completely surrounded the command, leaving their horses in ravines well to the rear, themselves pressing forward to attack on foot. Confident in the superiority of their numbers, they made several charges on all points of Custer's line, but the troops held their position firmly, and delivered a heavy fire, and everytime drove them back. Curley said the firing was more rapid than anything he had ever conceived of, being a continuous roll, as he expressed it, "the snapping of the threads in the tearing of a blanket.@ The troops expended all the ammunition in their belts, and then sought their horses for the reserve ammunition carried in their saddle pockets.

As long as their ammunition held out, the troops, though losing considerable in the fight, maintained their position in spite of the efforts of the Sioux. From the weakening of their fire toward the close of the afternoon, the Indians appeared to believe their ammunition was about exhausted, and they made a grand final charge, in the course of which the last of the command was destroyed, the men being shot where they lay in their position in the line, at such close quarters that many were killed with arrows. Curley says that Custer remained alive through the greater part of the engagement, animating his men to determined resistance; but about an hour before the close of the fight, he received a mortal wound.

Curley says the field was thickly strewn with dead bodies of the Sioux who fell in the attackCin number considerably more than the force of soldiers engaged. He is satisfied that their loss will exceed six hundred killed, beside an immense number wounded.

Curley accomplished his escape by drawing his blanket around him in the manner of the Sioux and passing through an interval which had been made in their lines as they scattered over the field in their final charge. He says they must have seen him, for he was in plain view, but was probably mistaken by the Sioux for one of their number, or one of their allied Arapahos or Cheyennes.

The most particulars of the account given by Curley of the fight are confirmed by the position of the trail made by Custer in his movements, and the general evidence of the battle field.

Only one discrepancy is noted, which relates to the time when the fight came to an end. Officers of Reno's command, who, late in the afternoon, from high points, surveyed the country in anxious expectation of Custer's appearance, and commanded a view of the field where he had fought, say that no fighting was going on at that timeCbetween 5 and 6 o'clock. It is evident, therefore, that the last of Custer's command was destroyed at an earlier hour in the day than Curley relates.






[Starting with Page 203...]

In 1873 Sitting Bull, Sioux master politician and war chief, blocked surveys of a Yellowstone River route for the Northern Pacific Railroad.Twice, Lieutenant Colonel George Custer had to fight off Sioux assailants in tenacious encounters.

The next year, 1874, Custer explored the Black Hills, a sacred area to the Sioux. The hills had been ceded to them in 1868 as their land "forever," part of the Great Sioux Reservation. But some of Custer's men found gold in the Black Hills and miners began to prospect its streams by the summer of 1875. The Army removed the pioneer party of miners from Gordon's Stockade, near modern Custer, but others only followed. So many men slipped past patrols that a gold rush occurred as public pressure to open the hills to legal white settlement increased. The Army was soon swept aside and, to the anger of the Sioux, Custer City and Deadwood became boomtowns reminiscent of California's Mother Lode of 1849.

That same year, George Custer's brash young brother, Tom, captured a rising Hunkpapa, Rain in The Face. The warrior later made his escape, swearing that he would eat Tom Custer's heart.

The Government offered to pay the Sioux six million dollars for their holy mountains. Some Indian leaders were amenable to selling the Black Hills, in any case lost to them already, but they wanted five times that paltry sum. Others would not hear of selling the sacred place for any price. So, between the railroad building and the Black Hills gold rush, the Sioux drifted back onto the warpath, ignoring the Government's orders to return to the reservation.

By the time that the proud Centennial Year of 1876 rolled around, to be celebrated with a great world's fair in Philadelphia, the Sioux and Cheyennes were preparing a celebration of their own. It would show their independence of the Great White Father in the East and his Long Knives on the Western Frontier. By 1876, 50,000 Indians were in rebellion. Only 15,000 were bona fide warriors, and probably no more than 4,000 took the field against the bluecoats.

The War Department sent its very best man, Crook, to put down the Sioux and their Northern Cheyenne allies. The Sioux natural military genius, Crazy Horse, married to a Cheyenne, helped to make the ties strong between Sioux and Cheyennes as war approached.

General Crook had ten companies of cavalry and two of infantry. His field commanders were polar opposites: the reckless Custer and the timid Alfred H. Terry. Crook was supposedly only an observer in the field, but usurped command from his nominal expedition head, Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds. He did not want to be slowed down, so he left his 80-odd wagons behind (also his pack-mule train) as he hurried out of Fort Fetterman, located in the east central part of Wyoming Territory not far removed from Deadwood and Custer City, in Dakota TerritoryCnow part of South Dakota. Crook departed from Fort Fetterman on a clear day, March 1, 1876. The Bighorn Expedition on the Bozeman Trail met with a more formidable foe than even the Sioux: a series of northers which roared down the trail, freezing the troopers although they were bundled up in long underwear, blanket-lined overcoats, fur caps, and buffalo robes.

Reynolds, on the point of Crook's column, halted his advance when his scouts reported a Cheyenne and Sioux encampment in a cottonwood grove under the bluffs of Powder River. The Colonel's squadrons drove into the village only to meet a punishing rifle fire. Reynolds dismounted his men in the village and had them dig in as the advantage shifted to the attacked. The Colonel had the Indians' food supplies and pony herd, but warriors on the bluffs pinned down the soldiers with a steady fire. Reynolds lost his nerve and ordered a retreat back to the main force. He let the Indians retake their ponies and he moved his men out so fast that he left behind either two dead men or one dead trooper and one wounded manCthe latter to be tortured to death by the Sioux. His total losses were two dead and six wounded.

Crook, furious with Reynolds, abandoned the advance in order to return to base and prefer charges against Reynolds. Crook's Crow scouts reported that the humiliation of Reynolds on Powder River had greatly increased the recruiting of warriors by Crazy Horse. Unknown to the Army, it would face in the Rosebud-Bighorn country the greatest concentration of warriors in the entire history of America's Indian wars.

After refitting, Crook left Fort Fetterman again at the end of May, 1876, with more than 1,000 cavalrymen and infantrymen and almost 50 officers. He had many teamsters and packers, too, and he carefully armed them as auxiliaries. In the field, he added Crow and Shoshone scouts, 262 of them. His column was one of three comprising Sheridan's pincers movement in imitation of the successful Red River campaign of 1874 and 1875. The General wanted to split the rumored large force of Indians into several smaller bands, then deal with them separately. So he had Colonel John Gibbon move eastward from Montana to make contact with General Alfred Terry (and Colonel Custer), moving westward from Fort Abraham Lincoln.

As the columns converged, Crook, moving northward, planned to roll back the Sioux on the Terry-Custer column. Crook leapfrogged his strung-out column along the dusty Bozeman Trail, sending his infantry ahead, but soon to be passed by the horse soldiers. Both reached bivouacs ahead of the supply train and rearguard. When he entered hostile territory in mid-June, Crook halted his wagon train under a strong guard of 100 infantrymen, then made 200 of their companions into mounted infantry or quasi-cavalry, to take along.

At Tongue River a courier from Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse warned Crook not to cross a symbolic line scratched in the dirt. If he did cross, he would have to fight.

Crook was surprised while his troops were having a coffee break on the morning of June 17, 1876, on the Rosebud by the Sioux. Only the splendid fighting of his Shoshones and Crows prevented a disaster. Crook sent Captain Anson Mills to seize Crazy Horse's village, which he mistakenly thought lay just to the north, but called it off when his main force was battered; Mills swung around behind the hostiles and forced them to abandon the battlefield. Crook admitted he had 10 dead and 21 wounded; but Chief Scout Frank Grouard gave a casualty count of 28 killed and 56 wounded. The neutralizing of Crook by Crazy Horse, who lost no less than 36 dead and 63 wounded in the fray, guaranteed Custer's utter defeat at Little Bighorn. Gibbon and Terry would eventually meet, but it would be too late to save Custer's 7th Cavalry, the heart of Terry's force.

Custer's 7th Regiment had officers who were real fighters: Captains Frederick Benteen, Myles Keough, and Tom Custer. A brother of Col. George Custer, Tom Custer had won not one but two Medals of Honor in the Civil War. However, Col. Custer's second-in-command, Major Marcus A. Reno, though a Civil War veteran, was untried in Indian warfare.

While Gibbon camped on the Yellowstone at the mouth of the Rosebud, Reno scouted the Powder and Tongue River valleys. Terry's base was the mouth of Powder River. A pow-wow in the cabin of the steamer, Far West, was called by Terry on June 21, 1876, to outline his strategy to Gibbon and Custer. Terry was worried that he could not catch the enemy in order to defeat him. He wanted Custer to time his cavalry attack so that Gibbon's slow-moving infantrymen would be in position in the north to block any flight of the Sioux. Terry issued written orders so that there would be no misunderstanding of his plan, which was to bottle up the hostiles in the Little Bighorn Valley between Custer and Gibbon.

Custer, in buckskins, led between 600 and 700 horse soldiers. His Arikara scouts did not know the country, so he borrowed six of Gibbon's Crows. But he declined Terry's offer of four troops of the Second Cavalry and a Gatling gun platoon. He did not want to be slowed down by the horse-drawn artillery and he certainly did not want his beloved 7th Cavalry to share victory honors with the Second Regiment.

The stage was set for the debacle when Crazy Horse engaged Crook at Powder River, forcing Crook to pull back. And the ambitious Custer was much more overconfident than the plodding Crook, so successful during the Apache campaigns.

Custer was later accused of direct disobedience of orders. There is no doubt that he bent them badly, ignoring Terry's instructions to ascend the Rosebud to its head before turning west after the Indians, whose trail had been found by Reno's scout. (This delay would give Gibbon's foot soldiers time to get into position to support the cavalry in the Little Bighorn Valley.) Instead, when the hostiles' trail left the Rosebud for the Little Bighorn drainage, Custer followed it. This rashness compounded his initial mistake of underestimating terribly the number of his foes. A tragedy of errors was thus set in motion.

To be fair to Custer, not even his Indian scouts dreamed that he was opposed by such enormous numbers of warriors. He had chosen the single moment in history when 3,000 braves, at the very least, were gathered to fight together. Many were armed with Winchester repeating rifles against the troopers' single-shot Springfield carbines. And, for once, the Indians' strategy was to stand, and not fall back into one of their usual running fights. Finally, the warriors were led by such men as Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Gall, and Rain in the Face.

Custer knew that the Indians had spotted him and were, probably, aware of his strength. For his part, he was completely unaware of the fact that he was outnumbered five to one. He had not even been able to see the Indian village from a high point he called Crow's Nest. (Actually, the Indians occupied a series of populous villages in the valley of the Greasy Grass.) But, once more, ego and ambition overruled prudence, even common sense.

If Custer ever considered a withdrawal, which is unlikely, it was probably too late to effect it now, in any case. He decided to smash straight through the enemy, but this time, incredibly, he guaranteed disaster for himself by fragmenting his regiment. Leaving one troop (company) to guard the pack train, he kept only five for himself. Suicidally, he split off three troops under Benteen in a scout to the south and three more with Reno.

Reno was to chase a party of 40 Sioux into the upper end of the village. Custer promised to support the Major with "the whole outfit.@ Custer, however, hesitated after his promise to Reno, then apparently changed his mind. Rather than riding to Reno's support, Custer veered off to the north to strike the lower end of the village.

Everything went wrong. Reno charged as ordered, but could not make a dent in Chief

Gall's huge force. There was no sign of Benteen, supposedly ahead of Reno, or of Custer supporting him from the rear. Reno did the best that he could with just 112 men. He retrieved his men from the outskirts of the village, where Sioux swarmed like angered ants from a nest. He dismounted his troops in a patch of timber, but Indians infiltrated his line. Seeing a trap closing on him, he ordered his men to remount and fell back across the stream to dig in on a bluff above the river.

Reno's withdrawal, sane enough, was held against him in the later court-martial in which he was used as a scape-goat for Custer's disaster. He had lost only a couple of men, so far, and may have panicked. Some say that he led the retreat instead of covering it from the rear. Worse, some of his troopers were left behind, trapped in the cottonwoods. A lieutenant wanted to go back for them, but Reno forbade it, as Indians counted coup by dragging soldiers from their mounts as they splayed through the shallow Little Bighorn. Quickly the toll began to rise. In just 45 minutes on June 25, 1876, Reno lost half of his command in dead, wounded, and missing.

Meanwhile, Custer came in sight of the first village and found it to be an armed camp. He rushed a courier to Benteen, ordering him to join him and to bring extra ammunition. "Bring packs! Bring packs!" he scribbled on the note that he gave to his orderly. Custer then charged, but soon hauled up in the face of overwhelming odds and led a withdrawal to a high grassy ridge. It was Gall who pushed him back, but now Crazy Horse struck from the north while another force left Reno's shattered command to be in on the kill.

Benteen topped a rise and saw soldiers surrounded on a bluff. He took them to be Custer's men, so he galloped to their aid. So it was that the captain kept Reno from being overrun. When both officers heard shooting from downstream, they knew that Custer was also engaged.

Reno did not know what to do. Should he risk going to Custer's aid, as some of his officers insisted, now that he was reinforced? Or should he stay put in his defenses? After all, Custer was supposed to come to the support of his second-in-command, not vice versa. But Custer had ordered Benteen to reinforce him, not Reno. And the latter, at least on paper, had a stronger force, six companies, than his commanding officer.

Finally, a captain who was either very brave or fool-hardy, Thomas B. Weir, could no longer tolerate Reno's inaction. Against the latter's orders, he began to ease his way back down the bluff to the Little Bighorn. Benteen followed Weir's troop and, grudgingly, Reno gave the command to follow suit. But progress was very slow, since Indian fire continued. Also, the wounded had to be carried in blankets for want of stretchers.

Helping Custer was a forlorn hope at best. Reno's force was too battered. It was too late, anyway. Crazy Horse, apparently employing more Cheyennes than his own Sioux, had already surrounded and destroyed Custer's entire command. It took him only an hour. Crazy Horse was helped by Gall after he split his force, but easily kept Reno and Benteen pinned down while assaulting Custer at the same time.

"Custer's Luck" was over, forever. Every man of his command was killed and most were mutilated by the victors. Rain in the Face, as he had promised, cut out Tom Custer's heart and ate of it.

Crazy Horse and Gall turned to destroy Reno and Benteen. They easily chased them back to their bluff. The troopers fought well to save their lives but, even in rifle pits, they suffered 18 more deaths and had 43 wounded. Enemy fire did not slacken until nightfall, when the besieged soldiers watched a wild scalp dance below them, illuminated by the glare of campfires. In the darkness the officer and 16 men trapped in the copse of cottonwoods slipped safely through Reno's lines.

With the first light of dawn, the siege was tightened. Benteen and Reno had to throw back two assaults. Bravely, Benteen led a few counterattacks to keep the Sioux and Cheyennes at a respectable distance.

That evening the Indians withdrew, setting a grass fire to screen their movements. Their scouts had spied the approaching relief column of Terry and Gibbon. The puzzle is why they did not swamp Reno and Benteen, or harass Terry. For the only time in history, they had sufficient warriors to do the trick.

Terry had been alerted by his scouts to the disaster. Ironically, Reno and Benteen as yet did not realize that Custer's force had been destroyed to the last man of the original 215. The Army buried the dead, took 52 wounded men in wagons, and fell back to Fort Abraham Lincoln. Reno's casualties were 47 killed and 53 wounded. Estimates of Indian losses ran all the way from 30 to 300.

The shock waves of the Custer calamity rippled across the entire country from the grassy plains of Montana and Dakota to New York, New Orleans, San Francisco.

The Army looked for a live scapegoat since the real blunderer, Custer, was now a dead man and martyr. Reno seemed to be a good bet because of his vacillating. He was censured and a court of inquiry found that he had done less for the safety of his men than certain subordinates. This was true enough. But the decision of the court was that there was nothing in his conduct, otherwise, deserving reproach. Nevertheless, a humiliated Reno took to drinking, was court-martialed in 1880, and dishonorably discharged.

Grant blamed Custer for the needless sacrifice of so many men. Sherman agreed, stating that Custer should never have broken his regiment into three pieces in the face of overwhelming numbers of IndiansCeven in such unconventional warfare as that practiced on the Western plains. Sherman also correctly laid some of the blame on Crook's mismanaged pincers move and retreat a week before Custer's Last Stand.



Winfield Courier, August 24, 1876.

Custer=s Last Trail.

Some Cheyenne Indians coming from the north to their agency in the Indian Territory gave to Agent Miles the following account of Custer's fight with Sitting Bull.

The soldiers first came upon a camp of about fifty lodges on the Rose Bud, who being appraised of his approach, made a hasty march to the Little Big Horn, going into camp at the extreme north end of the main Sioux and Cheyenne camp. Custer, crossing the Rose Bud, discovered the deserted camp and took the trail, attacking the last mentioned camp just before daylight, killing some men, women, and children, the camp stampeding or retreating in the direction of the main camp. Just at daybreak Custer came down on the camp with a charge, but in the meantime his attack had been sounded throughout the entire camp, and preparations had been made for his reception. Custer led the charge from the camp of fifty lodges in the direction of the main village, but was met with such a terrific fire from the Indians who had by this time gained superior advantage from the hills, as to force him into and across a big "slough," or "bayou," a point well known to all the northern Indians, in which many of his horses mired and sixty of his men were killed and afterwards dragged out by the Indians, and stripped of all valuables and generally scalped.

Custer, with the balance of his troops, endeavored to cross the river and make his way out through the hills on the opposite side of the river, but was unable to do so on account of the steepness of the bank. Failing in this, and as the Indians believe, fully realizing the trap into which he had been drawn, he recrossed the river thinking that he might possibly cut his way back through the Indian camps and escape by the way he came in, but the Indians claim to have forty warriors to every man of Custer's, and once demoralized, was an easy prey to the enraged Sioux and Cheyennes only waiting to exterminate the whole party. After the return from the attempt to cross the riverCthe struggle was a hand to hand fightCCuster leading his band to the right and then back down the river to the point where they were first forced into the "slough," where they were so completely surrounded so as to be unable to escape in any direction, and most of those remaining were dragged from their horses and killed. Custer and a few others did succeed in riding through and over his enemy, and reached an eminence near by only to be met by thousands on the surrounding hills where he met the same fate of his whole command.

The Indians say that after the troops were driven into the "slough," they were completely demoralized and were an easy prey, showing or giving but little resistance; each one seemed trying to escape instead of trying to fight.

They report that Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull were not killed, and that less than sixty Sioux and Cheyennes were killed, the greater portion being killed during the first fire before day-break. The whole engagement did not last more than one hour from the time of the first charge.

Winfield Courier, September 7, 1876.

Major John D. Miles, agent of the Cheyenne and Arapahos, came up from the Territory last Monday accompanied by his daughters. The Major lately wrote a very succinct and graphic account of Custer's last battle, which article was accompanied by an accurate plan of the battle and published in the Lawrence Journal. The Major informed us that he got the account from some of his own Indians, who were upon the ground. Nearly three hundred returned in one body, about two hundred in another, and three in another. What puzzles us is how these Indians, belonging to Major Miles' agency in the Indian Territory, found out that the United States troops were after their brothers nine hundred miles away to the north. We believe the Major's Indians disclaim taking any part in the Custer fight, but of course they did. Wichita Eagle.



Winfield Courier, September 14, 1876.


People will never tire of reading of the sad fate of Custer. Here is the latest, from Minnesota, dated Sept. 7.

The Pioneer Press and Tribune will tomorrow publish an interview with an old trapper named Ridgely, who claims to have witnessed the Custer massacre, being a prisoner in Sitting Bull's camp and seeing every movement of the troops. He was taken prisoner last March and kept in the camp of the Indians ever since until the Custer massacre; he was treated kindly. He says Sitting Bull organized not to fight the whites, but to drive miners from the hills. Previous to Custer's attack mounted couriers had for eight days watched his forces, its division into squads being noted with extreme delight. Ambuscades were immediately prepared, and while the Indians stood ready for attack, many of them clambered on the hillside overlooking Custer's line of march.

The Indian camp was divided by bluffs, many of which ran towards the Rosebud and in the direction of one of the available fords on the river to the camp. By this ford Custer followed to the water's edge. There were but 25 Indians visible to Custer, but there were 75 double lodges behind the bluff not visible. Custer attacked the smaller village and was immediately met by 1,500 or 2,000 Indians in regular order of battle. Every movement was made with military precision.

Custer began the fight in the ravine near the ford and fully half of his command seemed to be unhorsed at the first fire. The soldiers retreated toward him and in the rear were shot down on the way with astonishing rapidity, the commanding officer falling from his horse in the middle of the engagement, which commenced at 11 a.m. and did not last more than 45 minutes.

After the massacre of Custer's force, the Indians returned to camp with six soldiers, and these six were tied to stakes at a wood pile in the village and burned to death. While the flames were scorching them to death, Indian boys fired red-hot arrows into their flesh until they died. Sitting Bull exultingly remarked that he had killed many soldiers and one damned general, but did not know who he was.

The squaws then armed themselves with knives and visited the battlefield, robbed and mutilated the bodies of the soldiers.

While these soldiers were being burned, the Indians turned their attention to a force, evidently Reno's, attacking the lower end of the village. Ridgely says Custer's command had been slaughtered before a shot was fired by Reno's force, attacking the lower end of the camp about 2 p.m. The Indians returned in the evening, and said the men had fought like the devil, but they did not make a statement of their losses. They said the soldiers had been driven back twice, and then piled up stones and the attack was unsuccessful.

The prisoners were kept burning over an hour, but Ridgely was not permitted to speak with them, and so is unable to know who they were. One was notable from small size and gray hair and whiskers.

Reno killed more Indians than Custer, who fell in the midst of the fight, and two Captains, it is believed Gates and Keough, were the last to die. Right after the massacre the Indians were wild with delight. Many got drunk on whiskey stolen from the whites. The squaws performing duty as guards for the prisoners were becoming drowsy. Ridgely and two companions escaped, secured ponies, and began the long journey homeward. The party ate game and laid in the woods four days to avoid the Indians. On their way the horse stumbled, breaking Ridgely's arm, but the party finally reached Ft. Abercrombie, and thence Ridgely came here. He describes Sitting Bull as a half breed, large size, and very intelligent, with a peculiar gait.






Arkansas City Traveler, September 13, 1876.


The Massacre of Gen. Custer's Command,

As Seen by an Eyewitness.

Minneapolis, September 7. The Pioneer, Press, and Tribune will tomorrow publish a report of an interview with an old trapper, named Ridgely, who has been a long time in the Yellowstone country, and claims to have witnessed Custer's massacre, being a prisoner in Sitting Bull's camp, and seeing every movement of the troops.

He was taken prisoner last March, and kept in the camp of the Indians ever since. Until the Custer massacre he was treated kindly. He saw Sitting Bull, who organized the Indians not to fight the whites; but to drive the miners from the Hills.

Previous to Custer's attack, mounted couriers from Sitting Bull's camp had for eight days watched his forces. His division was divided into small detachments, and Custer's approach was observed with extreme delight; and while the Indians stood ready for an attack, many of them clambered on the side hill overlooking Custer's line of march.

The Indian camp was divided by bluffs, the point of which ran towards the Rosebud, and in the direction of the only available ford on the river to camp by this ford.

Custer followed their trail down toward the edge. There were but twenty-five Sioux visible to Custer, but there were seventy-five double lodges behind the bluffs not visible.

Custer attacked the smaller village and was immediately met by 1,500 or 2,000 Indians in regular order of battle. Every movement was made with military precaution. Custer began the fight near the ford, and fully one-half of his command seemed to be unhorsed at the first fire. Then the soldiers retreated toward the hills in the rear and were shot down on the way with astonishing rapidity, the commanding officer falling from his horse in the middle of the fight, which commenced at eleven o'clock and did not last more than forty-five minutes.

After the massacre of Custer's force, the Indians returned to the camp with six soldiers, and these six were tied to stakes at a wood pile in the village and burned to death. While the flames were torturing them to death, the Indian boys fired red-hot arrows into their flesh until they died.

Sitting Bull exultingly remarked that he had killed many soldiers and one damned General, but did not know who he was. The squaws armed themselves with knives and visited the battlefield and robbed and mutilated the bodies of the soldiers.

While the six soldiers were being burned, the Indians turned their attention to the force, evidently to renew and attack the lower end of the village. Ridgely says that Custer's command had been slaughtered before a shot had been fired by Reno's attacking the lower end of their camp about 2 p.m.

The Indians returned in the evening and said the men had fought like the devil. They did not make a statement of their losses. They said the soldiers had been driven back twice, and they piled up stones, and the attack was unsuccessful.

The prisoners were kept burning for over an hour; but Ridgely, not being permitted to speak with them, was unable to state who they were. One was noticeable from his small size and gray hair and whiskers.

Reno killed more Indians than Custer, who fell in the midst of the fight. Two captains, believed to have been Gates and Keogh, were the last to die.

Right after the fight the Indians were wild with delight. Many got drunk on whiskey stolen from the whites, and squaws performed the duty as guards for the prisoners. The squaws became drowsy; consequently Ridgely and two companions escaped. Securing ponies, they started on the long journey homeward. The party ate game, and laid in the woods four days to avoid the Indians. On the way Ridgely's horse stumbled, and he broke his arm; but the party finally reached Fort Abercrombie, and thence Ridgely came here.

Ridgely describes Sitting Bull as a half-breed, large in size, very intelligent, with a peculiar gait.





Back to newspapers....dates do not correspond with Custer Massacre items.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 16, 1876.

Four companies of the Fourth Artillery at San Francisco have been ordered to Cheyenne.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 16, 1876.


WASHINGTON, August 11, 1876.

The following is General Sheridan's letter to General Sherman, transmitted by the President to Congress, today, with his message, asking for more cavalry or volunteers.

CHICAGO, August 5, 1876.

Gen. W. T. Sherman.

I have not yet been able to reinforce the garrison at Red Cloud, at Spotted Tail, or at Standing Rock, strong enough to count Indians or to arrest and disarm those coming in. I beg you to see the Military Committee of the House, and to urge upon it the necessity of increasing the cavalry regiments to one hundred men more to each company.

Gen. Crook's total strength is 1,774; Terry's 1,873.

To give this force to them, I have stripped every post from the line of Montana to Texas. We want more mounted men.

We have not exceeded the law in enlisting Indian scouts; in fact, we have not as many as the law allows. The whole number in this division is only 114. The Indians with Gen. Crook are not enlisted, or even paid. They are not worth paying. They are only with him to gratify their desire for a fight and their thirst for revenge on the Sioux.

[Signed] P. H. SHERIDAN, Lieutenant General.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 16, 1876.

The enlisted men who survived the fight on the Little Horn have petitioned the President to promote Major Reno to be Lieut. Col., vice Custer, and Capt. Benteen to be Major vice Reno. They say these officers saved the lives of every man of the Seventh Cavalry now living who participated in the battle. This disposes of the stories about Reno.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 16, 1876.

The New York Tribune's Sioux war correspondent says that Gen. Crook values one mounted Sioux as equal to two cavalrymen, considering that it requires one man in four to hold horses; and he considers one infantry soldier, armed with the Springfield needle gun, as equal to six mounted Sioux.

Winfield Courier, August 17, 1876.

Gen. Sheridan in his letter to Gen. Sherman, which was transmitted to Congress by the President on the 10th, asking for more troops, says that Gen. Crook's full strength is 1,744, and Terry's 1,873, and every post from Montana to Texas has been stripped to make up these commands. He wants 100 men to each company. The whole number of Indian scouts is 114, not as many as the law allows. The Indians with Gen. Crook are not paid, and are not worth paying. They are with the troops merely to gratify a desire for Sioux blood.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 23, 1876. Front Page.


A Succinct and Connected Statement of the Several Mining Districts of the Black Hills. A Man of Experience Takes an Inspection Trip

Through the Country with a Pick and Pan.

[From the Sioux City Journal.]

Judge H. N. Maguire, of the Black Hills Pioneer, Custer City, arrived here yesterday, on his way to the East. A Journal reporter called upon him at his hotel, for the purpose of gathering something of a connected statement concerning the development of the several districts of the Black Hills. The Judge is an old resident of mining countries, a writer upon mining topics, and a gentleman of most conservative and careful character.

He started the middle of last June with pick and pan for a systematic investigation of the various prominent sections, which he kept up until about three weeks ago, personally visiting and examining them all. Below we give some of the descriptions and accounts of the regions.

Judge Maguire started at Crook City, where he found considerable developing work being done, but comparatively little gold being taken out, owing to the depth at which it lies, and the great labor necessary to take it out. The prospects there are good, however, for excellent returns as soon as proper appliances can be secured for working the claims, the holders of which are very confident.

In the vicinity of Bear Butte, ten miles east of Crook City, a large vein of argentiferous galena has been discovered and those versed in silver mining and acquainted with what constitute indications of the presence of ore, are of the opinion that the section abounds in silver, which may also be said of the vicinity of Rapid Creek.

From Crook City he went twelve miles above to Deadwood, where he found a town of from 2,500 to 3,500 inhabitants. But few claims were opened, all of which were paying well, some from $500 to $2,000 per day, clear of all expenses, operating with two eight-hour shifts of six or eight men to the shift, and the others from wages up to the above figures. The immediate availability of the ground at Deadwood is what has given this location its reputation, it being situated so as to be easily worked; but Judge Maguire is of the opinion that when the deeper ground of other sections is developed with proper machinery, it will produce even better than the shallower diggings of Deadwood. New claims are continually being opened there with uniform success.

Around Gaysville, in the direction of Falsebottom Creek, the Ida Gray Quartz District is entered, which undoubtedly contains many true and permanent fissure veins. The gang matter of the Ida Gray ledge is from five to twenty feet in width, with well-defined walls, and the ledge may be traced by its croppings from end to end, 1,500 feet. Considerable work is being done there.

Further north, and west, he reached Gold Run, Iron Creek, Bear Gulch, Nigger Gulch, and other camps, where very coarse gold is being obtained; but the diggings in that region are "spotted," the ground not being uniformly productive. The development there has not yet been sufficient to show adequately the richness of those places, but judging from the comparatively large amounts of coarse gold which are being obtained, there is no question that next season will see wonderful results of operations there.

Thirty-five miles south he reached the Rapid Creek District. Here he found claim owners hopefully holding on to their ground, but without means for its development. By prospecting on the hills, bars, and in the main channel of Rapid Creek, he became satisfied that the contents of the region will amply pay the miners when proper machinery for working it is secured, and thinks that in all probability this will yet prove the richest part of the Hills. The gold found is both coarse and fine, and of great purity, worth $22 per ounce, while that of other sections goes in trade at $19.50. Nuggets are found worth from $1 to $10, which brings to mind the story told by Mrs. Galpin, of Standing Rock, an intelligent and highly cultivated Indian woman, which is to the effect that many years ago she was in the country, and one evening when the party, along with which was Father DeSmet, camped upon what is now known as Rapid Creek, she with some other squaws went to cut tepee poles. During their errand, she picked up a piece of metal which she showed Father DeSmet, asking him what it was. He replied: "This is the white man's money, and you must never tell that you have found it here, for if you do, he will come and drive your people away from the country and take it for his own." In order for obtaining the best results of which the Rapid Creek region is possible, it will be necessary to dig a ditch and do considerable extensive fluming, as all the metal that is now secured is at the expense of carrying the dirt some distance to the creek in order to obtain water for washing it, and in view of the fact that fair returns are had by this means, it is easy to see that a flume leading the water to the dirt will make the diggings enormously profitable. There is plenty of timber in the immediate section, which will make the construction of the flume comparatively inexpensive.

A few miles southwestward, toward Custer City, Judge Maguire came to the Spring Creek mines, where he found great energy, and the miners hopefully trying to open up their deep ground. They were reaping good returns in coarse and fine gold of great purity.

At French Creek, fifteen miles further, the stream on which Custer City is located, there is but little doing, the miners awaiting the result of negotiations which are now in progress for the construction of a twelve-mile ditch and for procuring the machinery necessary for prosecuting deep diggings, the claim holders themselves not having sufficient capital for carrying on the work. French Creek gold is the purest in the Hills.

Custer City, notwithstanding the stampede to the Deadwood country, seventy-five miles distant, is not by any means a dead town. At the recent election for a provisional city government, over 200 votes were cast, and the number of families is considered sufficient to warrant the establishment of a school there the coming winter. A majority of the houses are vacant, but the owners do not feel disposed to sell them for any nominal figures, feeling that it must for some time be an important distributing point for much of the territory in the Hills, the merchandizing business even now being of considerable proportions. It has one of the most beautiful locations for a town in the country. Over fifty distinct ledges are recorded in the Custer mining district, one-half of which are being continuously worked, and the other half are represented under the mining laws. In addition to the prospects for gold, there are flattering indications of the existence of silver ledges in the vicinity, and mica deposits are receiving great attention, the owners of which have received assurance that they will prove most remunerative.

Judge Maguire remarks that the most experienced and cautious persons may err in making an estimate as to the possibilities of a gold or silver mining country; but he gives it as his judgment, based upon a candid and personal examination of the principal localities, that 50,000 miners can find permanent and profitable employment in the Black Hills region. Besides this, they will have access to the country to the northwest of them, in the Bear Lodge and Red Water region, where flattering indications have been frequently discovered that the whole country is rich with gold and silver, and indeed clear up to the noted silver sections of Clark's Fork, and to the great falls of the Yellowstone.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 23, 1876.

One thousand muskets for the Kansas militia are expected at Topeka from Washington.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 23, 1876.

St. Paul, Minn., August 18. Captain Collins, of the 11th Infantry, arrived at Bismarck from Fort Buford last night. He fails to confirm the squaw reports of the recent battle between the Indians and Terry's forces. Scouts from Terry's columns, two days out, arrived at the supply department, at the mouth of the Rosebud, on the 11th inst. They report that Terry's command met the head of Gen. Crook's command early on the 10th. Crook's men were following a large Indian trail in the direction of Powder River. Upon a short consultation of Gens. Terry and Crook, the commands were united, and proceeded on the trail that Crook was following.

The Fifth Infantry was detached from Terry's column and ordered back to the stockade, with instructions to take 40,000 rations, and embark on the steamer "Far West," and patrol the Yellowstone River as far as the mouth of Powder River, and ascertain whether or not the Indians had succeeded in crossing the Yellowstone. If not, they are to prevent them. In the meantime, Terry will come down with their combined commands and force a battle. It is not positively known whether the Indians are on Tongue River or Powder River.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 23, 1876.

An Order for Recruits.

Washington, August 17. An order has been issued from the War Department to hasten the recruiting of twenty-five hundred men for cavalry regiments. The principle recruiting stations are at St. Louis, Chicago, Indianapolis, Buffalo, Boston, and New York. Branch offices have been opened in several western cities, in order to secure the required number of men as soon as possible.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 23, 1876.





WASHINGTON, Aug. 16, 1876.

Sealed Proposals For Furnishing

30,300,000 Pounds Beef on the Hoof,

3,950,000 Pounds Flour,

2,645,000 Pounds Corn,

994,000 Pounds Bacon,

1,112,000 Pounds Hard Bread,

50,000 Pounds Salt,

74,000 Pounds Soap,

20,000 Pounds Lard,

150,000 Pounds Pemmican,

350 bbls. Mess Beef,

825 bbls. Mess Pork,

And for transportation of Indian supplies, will be received at the Lindell Hotel, St. Louis, until noon of Wednesday, September 6th.

Further particulars will be furnished on application to this office, to the Lindell Hotel, St. Louis; to Wm. Nicholson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Lawrence; C. H. Bostwick, Cheyenne; or to the Commissaries of subsistence, U. S. A., Sioux City, St. Paul, or Omaha.

J. Q. SMITH, Commissioner.


Winfield Courier, August 24, 1876. Front Page.

The Murdered Journalist.

From the Cincinnati Enquirer.

Leander P. Richardson, correspondent of the Springfield Republican, who was killed and scalped by the Indians at Little Horn, was a son of the late Albert D. Richardson, war correspondent of the New York Tribune, and the writer of several interesting books. The latter, it will be remembered, was shot some years ago by a lawyer named McFarland, who accused him of estranging his wife from him. Mrs. McFarland had previously secured a divorce from her husband, and was married to Richardson by the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher while Richardson was on his death bed. Young Richardson had no liking for the public schools and was sent to a military academy at Farmington, Maine. He afterward learned to set type and worked as a compositor, then in the Tribune counting room, and for awhile as a reporter on the Chicago Inter-Ocean.

For awhile he assisted his uncle in editing the Boston Congregationalist, and then accepted a position on the Springfield Republican, intending to visit the Indian country, and afterward take a trip around the world. The death of the father was less bloody than that of the son, the latter's body having been pierced with at least twenty bullet holes and otherwise terribly mutilated. Mrs. McFarland RichardsonCbetter known as Abby Sage RichardsonCis still living, but is said to have a hard struggle to maintain herself by literary labor and dramatic readings. McFarland is a skeleton of his former self, and is said to be on the verge of lunacy. He was for years very dissipated. Young Richardson was a son by his father's first wife.

Winfield Courier, August 24, 1876. Front Page.

Gen. Custer.

Custer was the youngest major-general ever commissioned in any army of ancient or modern times, and was more rapidly promoted than any man in military history. In two years after he graduated from the Military Academy, he was in command of a division of an army, and received his commission as a major-general before he was twenty-three years old. He captured more cannon and flags than any man during the war.

"That man will die at the head of his command," said General Meade, one day during the dark days of our civil war, when he had seen General Custer draw his sabre and lead a gallant charge.

Winfield Courier, August 24, 1876.

An order has been issued from the War Department to hasten the recruiting of twenty five hundred men for cavalry regiments. The principal recruiting stations are at St. Louis, Chicago, Indianapolis, Buffalo, Boston, and New York. Branch offices have been opened in several western cities, in order to secure the number of men as soon as possible.

Winfield Courier, August 24, 1876.

There is a growing conviction in the West that the military authorities have greatly underestimated the strength of Sitting Bull's army. A frontiersman who has lived among the Sioux Indians for years, writes that at the Little Big Horn fight, 15,000 Indians were opposed to Custer's handful of cavalry, and that 700 were killed and 300 wounded before the last soldiers bit the dust. Two hundred of the wounded Sioux, he says, are in camp on Porcupine Creek, about fifteen miles from Standing Rock. This information he obtained from the Indians, and he believes their statements.


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 30, 1876.

Chicago, August 23. A dispatch just received at military headquarters here says an Indian arriving yesterday at Standing Rock Agency, on the Missouri River, reported that about ten or twelve days previously a severe fight took place between the troops and Indians, at a point north of the Black Hills, and that the loss on both sides was heavy, but the troops had possession of the field. The Indians broke into bands and dispersed over the country, with the troops in pursuit.


St. Paul, August 23. A Pioneer special from Bismarck says a white scout named Burke has just arrived from Mount Rosebud with dispatches. Crook and Terry, after making a junction, and following up the main Indian trail, left their wagons, tents, etc., took thirty-seven companies of cavalry and eight of infantry, and were making forced marches, expecting to overtake the Indians before they reached the Yellowstone River. Night before last


appeared on the opposite bank of the river from Berthold Agency and demanded supplies. Upon being refused they opened fire, which lasted about fifteen minutes. They then withdrew and struck south toward Fort Lincoln.


Later dispatches just received from the commanding officer at Standing Rock, says that Indians from Sitting Bull's camp report a terrible battle between Sitting Bull and Terry and Crook's combined forces. The Indians were repulsed and have scattered. Terry and Crook, however, are reported as having sustained quite as heavy losses as the Indians.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 30, 1876.


We learn from Mr. Harry Duffy, who returned yesterday from Fort Laramie, that what was known as the Caldwell surveying trip to Salt Lake, has been abandoned on account of the Indians and the fact of not having a proper escort. He left the remainder of the party at Laramie, and thinks they will remain there for a short time. He reports that the Indians about Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies are very impatient and restless, and seem only to be waiting to get an opportunity to evade the vigilance of the authorities to break away and join the war parties. He says the mountaineers who are coming into the outposts are very much annoyed by small bands of prowling Indians, whose only object in life seems to be to steal horses.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 30, 1876.

The Utes who deserted Lieutenant Spencer at Cheyenne River, arrived at Rawlins, turning over their arms to Sheriff Rennie.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 30, 1876.

The Commissioner of Indian affairs has given permission to Sheridan to raise 100 Pawnee scouts for the Sioux war.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 30, 1876

A battalion of independent rangers and Indian fighters is being raised in Atchison. The men are to furnish their own horses and clothes, an application will be made to the government for arms.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 30, 1876

Assistant Adjutant General Crum has just received a dispatch from Fort Brown, Wyoming Territory, stating that a Shoshone Indian had left Gen. Crook on the 10th instant well down on Tongue River. He thought Gen. Crook would strike the Indians on the 11th or 12th.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 30, 1876

The horrors of the Custer massacre are somewhat alleviated by the announcement that one of the men who fell in that terrible fight was a book agent of twenty-two years' standing, who had gone to the frontier to sell "Blatherick's Life of Erysipelas," in thirty monthly parts, fifty cents a number. Burlington Hawkeye.

Winfield Courier, August 31, 1876.

Col. C. C. Carpenter has been ordered to report at Fort Leavenworth for instructions relative to raising volunteers for the Indian war. Carpenter is too well known in the west to require introduction. He is a brave and good soldier, and during the war commanded Gen. Fremont's body-guard, the "Jessie Scouts," in Missouri and Virginia. A few weeks ago he wrote to Gen. Sherman, tendering his services to raise a regiment of Indians from the Indian Territory. He proposes to enlist every redskin of any tribe reporting to him at Chetopa or Baxter Springs, and all the white frontiersmen, buffalo hunters, and plainsmen that may choose to join him.


Arkansas City Traveler, September 6, 1876. Front Page.

If Sitting Bull was a cadet, and was abused at West Point, as stated, he ought to reflect that the whole country is not to blame for it.

Arkansas City Traveler, September 6, 1876.

All but twenty-seven of the Utes who left Fort Fetterman, after having been feasted and armed, and having indulged in numerous war dances, deserted at Cheyenne River, taking with them the arms which were furnished them to fight the Sioux.

Arkansas City Traveler, September 6, 1876.

Hard Rope, one of the distinguished Osages, says that Gen. Custer did not know how to fight Indians, and that ever since the killing of Black Kettle, he has known that Custer would some time meet his fate at the hands of Indians.


Arkansas City Traveler, September 6, 1876.

Omaha, August 31. A. A. Jones, agent of Clark's Pony Express at Deadwood City, arrived from Sidney this morning. He says the Indians raided the road between Custer and Deadwood. On the 20th they killed Weston Smith, a minister, and three miners named Jake Brown, Pallins, and Mason, carrying off their stock. On the 22nd they made a raid on a party five miles south of Custer City, and killed James Kidd, Samuel Wallace, J. Weilley, and Thompson. The Indians are supposed to be Northern Sioux from the hostile camp. On the road to the Agencies, Jones says, the country is full of Indians. No truth in the statement of Deadwood being corralled.

Winfield Courier, September 7, 1876.

JOSEPH STANSBERRY left the Black Hills three weeks ago and arrived home last Tuesday-a-week. He brought some gold home with him, and is looking very well. He reports the Cowley County boys mostly doing well.

Winfield Courier, September 7, 1876. Editorial Page.

Satanta, the aged Kiowa chief, now confined in the Texas penitentiary, was so overjoyed on hearing of the slaughter of Custer and his command that he begged to be allowed to go to the assistance of Sitting Bull, and could hardly conceal his rage when his request was denied.


Arkansas City Traveler, September 13, 1876.

Chicago, Sept. 4. The Inter-Ocean's Bismarck special says the latest by couriers arriving today from the Indian expedition is as follows.

The general feeling among both officers and men is that the campaign has been and is likely to prove an immense wild goose chase. No Indians have been seen of late, with the exception of occasional small bands making their appearance for the purpose of stealing, or harassing small parties engaged in moving supplies on Yellowstone.

The main column has not succeeded in overtaking slippery Sitting Bull, and is not likely to this season.

Orders have been received by Terry for the establishment of a camp at the mouth of Tongue River. The 22nd and 5th infantry and 5th cavalry will occupy these quarters.

On August 27th the 7th cavalry were on O'Fallon's creek. Crook had started the day before with his command for Glendine Creek, and Gibbon with the greater part of Terry's command was moving toward the Yellowstone, near O'Fallon's Creek.

Terry has returned to Powder River with his train and the Sixth Infantry, to prepare for crossing his whole command to the north bank of the river. Terry will endeavor to strike the Indian trail near Sitting Bull, then turn east along the north bank, striking down the south bank at the creek, and by this continued movement they expect to bring about a collision with the Indians, who are along the banks of the river.

The steamers Josephine and Yellowstone were both near Powder River some days ago, and a private on the Yellowstone was killed.

On the 29th a deserter by the name of Pickens was picked up by the Josephine, badly wounded. He and another soldier named Pequiet, of the Sixth Infantry, when four days out from the command, were attacked by Indians; Pequiet being killed, and Pickens escaping into the bushes, where he stood the Indians off for forty-eight hours.


Arkansas City Traveler, September 20, 1876. Front Page.

Cheyenne, Wyoming, Sept. 10. On the 8th instant Harry Benson, at Kane's ranch, on Pumpkin Creek, near Sidney, was fired on by three Indians, at short range, one of the balls passing through his chest. He ran to the ranch, a short distance off, and got his gun and returned the fire. The Indians, taking refuge in a washout, drove him back into the ranch, where he sat eighteen hours with his gun across his knees and cartridges in easy reach, determined to sell his life dearly if again attacked. Parties have gone with a conveyance from Sidney to bring him in, and it is hoped that his wound will not prove fatal.

Five hundred recruits arrived here yesterday.



Arkansas City Traveler, September 20, 1876. Front Page.

Gen. Sherman and Secretary Cameron started from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Saturday, on a tour of inspection to the West.


Arkansas City Traveler, September 20, 1876.

The terms of the proposed new Indian treaty were read to the savages at the Red Cloud Agency by the United States commissioners on Thursday last. Addresses were made by Bishop Whipple and Col. A. G. Boone, and after rations for a feast were issued the council closed.


Arkansas City Traveler, September 27, 1876.

Gen. Terry came upon an Indian village a few days ago, when a fight ensued, in which two or three soldiers and several Indians were killed. The village was destroyed and a large amount of stores that the Indians had accumulated for the winter, captured, also a large number of ponies. Among the goods captured were a large number of arms and equipments taken from Custer's command.

Terry's and Crook's commands are on their return from the Indian country to their base of supplies for the winter.


Arkansas City Traveler, September 27, 1876.

The sudden fall of water in Yellowstone River stops navigation and now supplies for troops at the new post must be hauled in wagons from Fort Buford, thus showing that even nature now aids the Sioux.


Arkansas City Traveler, October 4, 1876.

The Sioux treaty requires the Indians to be removed to the Indian Territory, and the Black Hills to be sold to the whites. They will be followed by a sufficient body of soldiers, who will have to be stationed along the Kansas line.


Arkansas City Traveler, October 4, 1876.

Red Cloud Agency, Nebraska, via Sidney, Nebraska, September 22. This evening the commission consummated the treaty with the Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahos at this agency, the Indians agreeing to the proposition made them on the 7th inst., without change of a single word, which proposition has already been published in full.

The following named Indians were selected by their people to sign for the Ogallalas after the treaty had been read over, and interpreted, before signing.

Red Cloud

Young Man Afraid of his Horse

Red Dog

Little Wound

American Horse

Three Bears

Fire Hunter

Quick Bear

Red Leaf

Fire Eyes

White Cow

Good Bull

Sorrel Horse

Weasel Bear

Two Dance

Big Foot

Bad Wound

High Bear

Slow Bull

The Cheyennes and Arapahos will not sign until tomorrow, after which the Committee starts at once for Spotted Tail Agency to consummate a treaty there.

To the surprise of the Commission, after they had affixed their signatures of the treaty, the Indians hung back and speeches were made by a number of them before they would touch the pen and make their marks.

Red Cloud said: "I am afraid of the President, and you men who have come here to see me are chief men and men of influence; you have come here with the words of the Great Father, therefore, because I am his friend, I have said yes to what he has said to me. I suppose that makes you happy. I don't like it that we have a soldier here to give us food. It makes our children's hearts go back and forth. I want Major Howard for my agent. I want you to send word to Washington so he may come here very soon. If my young men come back and say the country is bad, it will not be possible for me to go there. As for the Missouri River country, I think if my people should move there to live, they would all be destroyed. There is a great many bad men there and bad whiskey, therefore I don't want to go. There is a great many of my relatives who have no money, and if they are employed to go to the Indian Territory to look at the country, I hope they will be paid out of the money of the Great Father that you have with you."

Young-Man-Afraid-of his Horse said: "This is the country where I was born. I have never made any man's heart feel bad. I have thought that the Great Spirit intended that I should live here and raise my children. I had wished that the Great Father should take care of me and that I should live here with my children and these white people who have married among us. I gave notice that it would take me a long while to learn the labor, and I expect the President will feed me for a hundred years, perhaps a good deal longer. You never heard of me behaving badly."

With this he took a pen in hand, and as he made his mark, he said: "This is to signify that the Great Father has fed and clothed me for a hundred years and given me wagons and cattle."

Fire Hunter came up holding a blanket over his eyes, signed blind-folded, and returned to his place in silence.

Big Foot, who had been engaged in agriculture for several years, said: "I am a farmer. I wanted a hundred wagons, but I have not seen them, yet I am the man that is going down to see that country."

Crow, with a good voice, refused to sign the treaty, and walked away with quite a show of indignation.

All the others who had been selected and were present, offered to put their cross on the paper, a copy of which was given them at their request.


Arkansas City Traveler, October 4, 1876.

The treaty with the Indians at Red Cloud has been signed by most of the head chiefs, some refusing to sign however. Those who signed, did so, conditionallyCthat if the Indian Territory was suitable to their taste, they would go; if not, they would hold the country they have.

Winfield Courier, October 5, 1876.

The telegraph announces that Gen. Terry's command has been broken up and is now on its way out of the Sioux country. It is stated that the losses to his division during the campaign in killed and diabled amount to twenty-five percent.

Winfield Courier, October 5, 1876.

The Cherokee and other civilized Indians are greatly excited over the proposed removal of the Sioux into the Territory. They say that they have never given the Government consent

to thus have their treaty stipulations violated, and they propose to solemnly protest against such action. It's their funeral.

Winfield Courier, October 5, 1876.

The Peace Commissioners have succeeded in corraling a number of the hostile Sioux long enough to tell them of the wondrous fertility of the soil and the happy hunting grounds to be found in the "South country.@ Prominent chiefs, who have been most noted in the recent fights, agreed to send a delegation of young men to the Territory to look at it, but if they reported the country as bad, they would not move. They still claim the Hills as theirs, and that the soldiers and gold hunters have no rights there. They insist on having a talk with the Great Father before they make a move in any direction.

Arkansas City Traveler, October 11, 1876.

The troops are still pushing the Indians further into the mountains.

The Indian Commissioners held their first council with Red Cloud on the 8th instant.

Winfield Courier, October 12, 1876.


We will endeavor to submit our views concerning the proposed removal of the Sioux tribe of Indians, from the Black Hills to the Indian Territory in next week's issue. On certain conditions and restrictions we are in favor of the change. We have neither time nor space this week to give the question the attention it deserves.

Winfield Courier, October 19, 1876.


Another Side to It.

It is proposed to remove that portion of the Sioux Indians, under the leadership of Red Cloud and Spotted Tail, two semi-civilized chiefs, to the Indian Territory. These two tribes comprise, all told, not to exceed 10,000 people.

The Indian Peace Commissioners have promised them protection, should they conclude to leave their present territory and remove to a more congenial clime. Some of their young men are now looking at the country with a view of reporting on the feasibility of the change. This is all there is in it, the furore and hub-bub of a few patent newspapers, to the contrary notwithstanding. These men always howl at any change the Government seeks to make, and proceed at once to curse the "administration.@ Two years ago they prophesied an Indian war on our frontier, they depicted the sufferings of the settlers along the border, "when the blood-thirsty savage should reek vengeance on women and children, burn and destroy property, and turn our county into a barren desert.@ Each picture drawn was followed by anathemas of the administration. Their cries of alarm sounded along the entire line of the State. The people were in arms, militia companies were raised, armed, equipped, and rushed to the "defenseless border.@ It was "a time that tried men's souls.@ Watch-fires burned from the Verdigris to the 100th Meridian. The noble militia proved equal to the expectation of their friends. They made a rush through the Nation and in one short day capturedCthirty one Kickapoo squaws. The war was ended, peace was declared, and since which time these "patent" newspapers have been quiet on the Indian question.

The Sioux, sought to be transferred to our border, are as civilized as the Kickapoos, Osages, or Pawnees, that now live south of us. They are wards of the Government, and they will be fed, clothed, and treated as such, just the same as the Indians before mentioned. The Government has at its disposal an area of land, embracing over three and a half millions of acres, which it obtained through treaty from the Creek Nation in 1866.

This land originally comprised the west half of their domain, and is without doubt the finest body of land in the Territory. It is about 100 miles to the south of us here. If there is not room enough for the "blood-thirsty Sioux" on this area, the commission have, at their disposal, ten million acres lying between the 98 degrees and 100 degrees of west longitude, next to Texas, and extending up Red River into the Wasatch range. This latter body of land alone would give to each member of Red Cloud's and Spotted Tail's tribes a nice little tract of 1,000 acres.

Should the entire Sioux tribe; estimated at 40,000, be induced to give up their gold, their hunting grounds, and renowned Black Hills, and take up their permanent abode here, there would still be room enough, as each individual member would have to spread himself over 250 acres of surveyed land to occupy it all.

The talk about their removal being "a blow to the commercial interests of the Southwest" is all "bosh.@ It would be the best possible thing that could occur for Cowley and Sumner, the two leading grain producing counties of the State. We would have 40,000 consumers at our very door, not one of which would be a producer.

Does anyone presume to say that this would not be a benefit to our county? Forty thousand Indians will consume, in one year, 480,000 bushels of wheat alone, saying nothing about the corn, beef, and other supplies necessary to keep up the agents and agencies. Does anyone presume to say that this would not be a benefit to our border counties, should they have the privilege of furnishing these supplies to the Government? Bring on your IndiansCbring 10,000, 40,000, or 100,000, and fill the entire western part of the Territory with them. Convert Cowley County's border into "outfitting posts" and her interior into a Government granary; build railroads from the posts to the agency and from there to the Gulf, and we will realize a day of prosperity never known before.

Civilize the "blood-thirsty Sioux" by daily contact with U. S. soldiers and other elements of western civilization. Let the Government take care of its wards in a manner it may deem best; the "border" is able and willing to take care of itself. Their approximation to us will not drive one man from the county, and it may be the means of bringing in a great many dollars.

Arkansas City Traveler, October 25, 1876.

Our readers have noticed that a treaty (?) has been made by the United States Government with the Sioux Indians, by which they are to be removed to the Indian Territory, to the south of us. There is one provision, and that is the "Young men" are to go there and see if they like it. We have tried for some days to get time to say a word on this subject, but politics have crowded most everything else out. * * * It is only a question of time when the Indian Territory will be organized into a State Government. It must be done. The grain of Kansas must have competing ports, not competing lines, in order to get cheaper transportation. When the country is settled, and not till then, will there be built up a port at Galveston to compete with the ports on the Atlantic seaboard. It is but half the distance there that it is to New York. But this is a subject that we shall refer to in the future. Topeka Commonwealth.

Arkansas City Traveler, October 25, 1876.

Cheyenne, Oct. 13. Gen. Merritt left Custer City with five hundred men on a scout today. Their destination is not positively known, but it is surmised to be the Belle Fourche fork of the Cheyenne River. The remainder of the command is still at Custer.

The party of Indians who killed Monroe near Fort Laramie, a few days since, also raided the ranch of Nick Jones, on the old Redford road, stealing twenty-five horses. Monroe's body was pierced by eight balls.

Winfield Courier, October 26, 1876.

Capt. Ryan, in his speech at Peru, Chautauqua County, among other things said: "The location of the Sioux and other hostile tribes in the Indian Territory would make a market for our surplus produce and be of material aid in developing our resources. The Government would also be obliged to locate two or three forts along the border for the protection of the people of Kansas, and that would likewise be of some benefit to the counties along the border."

The Captain's head is always "level."

[Note: Capt. Ryan was a prominent Republican political figure from Emporia.]

Arkansas City Traveler, November 1, 1876.

The Lawrence Journal reports 100 Sioux at Omaha, en route to the Indian Territory, where the tribe will doubtless locate. These 100 spyers out of the land will be in attendance on the Indian Fair, at Muskogee, where it is hoped they will gather some useful information. Dr. Nicholson, superintendent of Indian affairs, is with the United States Commissioners at Omaha. Indian Journal.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 1, 1876.

Advices have been received at the War Department that General Terry will immediately leave Fort Abraham Lincoln in pursuit of hostile savages.

Winfield Courier, November 2, 1876.

We omitted to mention that our old friends, Tom and Seth Blanchard, two boys that were here when this county was made, have returned from a trip to the Black Hills. They struck "pay dirt" as soon as they arrived there, and have been handling it ever since. They will go back to their claims in the spring and run them another summer. To hear the boys talk about "bed-rock," "drifting," "pay-gravel" and the like, makes us forget that they used to be county officers of this county.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 8, 1876.

From the movements of General Sturgis and Terry, with cavalry, artillery, and infantry, on the Sioux country, they would have the world believe just now that they have struck something leading to the extermination of the Indians and the glory of American arms.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 8, 1876. Front Page.

St. Paul, Oct. 31. The Pioneer Press has a special from Bismarck which says that Gen. Miles had a successful fight, after an unsuccessful council, with Sitting Bull, on the 21st and 22nd, on Cedar Creek, killing a number of Indians and wounding many, his own loss being two wounded. He chased the Indians about sixty miles, when they divided, one portion going toward the agency and Sitting Bull toward Fort Peck, Gen. Miles following.

Gen. Hazen has gone to Fort Peck with four companies of infantry and rations for Gen. Miles.

Sitting Bull crossed the river below Peck on the 24th, and had sent word to the agent that he was coming in and would be friendly, but wanted ammunition.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 8, 1876.

St. Paul, Nov. 4. A Pioneer Press special, dated Camp in the Field, on the Yellowstone, Oct. 27, via Bismarck, Dakota, Nov. 4, says: Gen. Miles, commanding the troops on the Yellowstone, after fighting, defeating, and pursuing Sitting Bull and the confederated tribes under him, this day accepted the surrender of four hundred lodges of Indians belonging at the Cheyenne agency, these tribes surrendering five of their principal chiefs as hostages and guarantee of their faithful compliance with the terms of surrender. These bands are to go at once to the agency, where, upon their arrival, they will submit to the requirements of the Government. The Indians held as hostages left this evening for St. Paul under the charge of a strong guard.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 8, 1876.

"Sitting Bull asked permission for his warriors to visit Fort Peck, to trade for ammunition. If disappointed there, K. C. Journal of Commerce, says that he should address his request to Hamburg Butler, who in consequence of the disbandment of Democratic rifle clubs will have more ammunition than he can use.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 8, 1876. Front Page.

The new territory, which it is proposed to make out of the northern portion of Dakota Territory, and call Pembina, will encompass 73,000 square miles, about one-third more area than the State of Illinois, and start out with a population of some 12,000 inhabitants.

The Missouri, Yellowstone, and Red rivers will contribute to its commerce, furnishing 2,000 miles of navigable waters to its resources. Pembina will be an extremely Northern Territory, but promises to become a useful sister in the Union galaxy, as a wheat growing and stock raising district.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 8, 1876.

Gen. Crook captured 480 lodges of the Red Cloud and Red Leaf bands, and made Spotted Tail chief of the Sioux in place of Red Cloud.

Winfield Courier, November 9, 1876. Editorial Page.

The delegation of "blood-thirsty" Sioux Indians, mentioned in another column, were in Wichita last Saturday. The Beacon office men still retain their scalps.

Winfield Courier, November 9, 1876.

We learn this (Thursday) morning that the "blood thirsty" Sioux will camp on Sand Creek, twelve miles north of here, tonight. Where is that "blood curdling war whoop" that Allison predicted would resound through the valley?

Arkansas City Traveler, November 15, 1876. Front Page.

Deadwood City, Black Hills, has one editor and twenty saloons. After the editor had visited all the saloons to glean the news, his paper is so intoxicated that it doesn't come out, and the Deadwooders don't miss it until they want paper for gun wadding.


Arkansas City Traveler, November 15, 1876.

Last Friday afternoon sixteen wagons, loaded with ninety-six Sioux Indians, including about one dozen squaws, passed through this place and camped on the Walnut. They were under charge of Col. A. G. Boone, Major E. A. Howard, and Dr. J. W. Daniels, who accom-panied them to the Territory to select a location.

Col. Boone has been fifty years in the Indian service, and was the party who extinguished so many Indian titles in Kansas. Dr. Daniels was acting commissioner for the United States. Major Howard, their former Agent, is disbursing agent.

The Indians were not pleased with the country between here and Wichita on account of the scarcity of timber and the flatness of the prairie lands, and expressed themselves in favor of a hilly or mountainous place for their future home.

In the evening, accompanied with Messrs. Haywood and McLaughlin, Indian contractors, the Mayor, Mr. Brown, and our worthy Representative of the Legislature, we paid the camp a visit, and were cordially received. In the officer's tent we were introduced to the famous chief, "Spotted Tail," and in the camp met "Red Dog," "Young Man Afraid of his Horses," "American Horses," and others, among them two Cheyennes and four Arapahos.

They were all large, powerful men, and wore a look that one would not like to meet alone on the prairie.

From Dr. Daniels, we learned that "Spotted Tail" is only a nickname, and that the great chief's real name was "Bear Legs.@ "Red Dog" derived his name from his coming into camp on all fours, being so badly wounded and covered with blood that he resembled a red dog. "Young Man etc.," explains itself. He was the owner of a number of horses, and was always so uneasy for fear they would be stolen, that he was given that name.

The Sioux expressed their desire to see the Osages, and an effort will be made to meet them on the trail as they go to Cheyenne Agency. The Agents did not want them to see the Pawnees, as they are deadly enemies, and the sight of them would be apt to make them discontented.

"Spotted Tail" is said to be an intelligent, shrewd man, and one of the most remarkable full blood Indians living. He seldom says much and depends solely on his own judgment. On his person he wears several medals from President Grant and other distinguished men. We

noticed small boys with them that wore hair piping, costing from $50 to $300, and some ornaments of no meager value.

The company went from this place to the old Kickapoo Agency, thence to the Cheyenne Agency, and from there to the Sac and Fox Agency, then to Muskogee, and then home by the way of the M. K. and T. Railway.

We have not learned what has been decided on, but think they will be located not a great distance from the State line.

There are about 25,000 of them in all, and it is expected from 10,000 to 15,000 would be brought down in case they are satisfied. In that event, a post of not less than five companies of soldiers would have to be stationed along the line, which would give consumers sufficient to raise the price of wheat, oats, and corn equal to that at Wichita or any railway town, and would be the next best thing to a railroad, and that, too, without any tax on the people.


Arkansas City Traveler, November 15, 1876.

A Pioneer Press special, dated camp in the field, on the Yellowstone, Oct. 27th, Bismarck, Dakota, Nov. 4th, says:

Gen. Miles, on the Yellowstone, after fighting, defeating, and pursuing Sitting Bull and the confederate tribes under him, this day accepted the surrender of four hundred lodges of Indians belonging to the Cheyenne agency, these tribes surrendering five of their principal chiefs as hostages and guarantee of their faithful compliance with the terms of surrender. These bands are to go at once to the agency, where upon their arrival, they will submit to the requirements of the Government. The Indians held as hostages left this evening for St. Paul under the charge of a strong guard.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 15, 1876.

W. J. HOBSON, of this city [Wichita], was awarded the contract for transporting the Sioux and their officers on their tour through the Indian Territory. Eagle.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 15, 1876.

THE SIOUX INDIANS AND COMMISSIONERS will have a rough time of it in the Territory during the storm. The freighters, too, will fare hard, as many of them were not prepared for exposures.

Winfield Courier, November 16, 1876. Front Page.

The Sioux.

Ninety-six Sioux Indians, from the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail Agencies, passed through Topeka yesterday, on their way to the Indian Territory. They were under the charge of Col. A. G. Boone and J. W. Daniels, commissioners on the part of the government. Major Howard, formerly an agent of the Sioux, accompanies the party, as disbursing agent.

Spotted Tail, principal chief of the Sioux nation, and Red Dog, Man afraid-of-his-horse, and American Horse, and other chiefs, are of the party, and there are also twelve women among them.

They are all tall, muscular, and stout, and are said to be fair specimens of the average Sioux. None of the men are less than six feet in height. This delegation is going to the Indian Territory to inspect that country, with a view of locating there if everything suits. They represent ten (10) thousand Sioux who will remove thither if the delegation reports favorably. They have ceded the Black Hills to the government and in return therefor is to maintain all the peaceable Sioux until they can become self-sustaining.

Spotted Tail is said to be one of the most intelligent, and the shrewdest full blood Indians in America. He has longed for civilization for some time, and wants his people educated. He and his delegation are enjoying their trip. They took the cars at Sidney, Nebraska, last Thursday night, and they will leave the railroad at Wichita. From the latter place they will be transported to the Indian Territory in wagons. They are pleased with the appearance of Kansas. Col. Boone says there are more agricultural productions to be seen on one of our farms than in the whole Sioux country. The Sioux will be compelled to leave their present locality. Game has played out and the country is too poor to cultivate. Commonwealth.


Arkansas City Traveler, November 22, 1876.

W. J. Hobson, of this city [Wichita], to whom was awarded the government contract for carrying the Sioux Indians on their tour of inspection through the Indian Territory, received a letter from Col. A. J. Byon, who has the outfit in charge, dated Arkansas City, Nov. 11, and reads as follows.

"Getting on well. Have not taken a second pull, or broken a ham string since we left Wichita. Teams look well, with plenty of hay and corn. Everybody feeling good. Splendid weather and roads in excellent condition. All we ask is a continuance of the same. They are still voting for Spotted Tail down in these parts. We passed two hundred wagons loaded with wheat for Wichita between here and your place. Arkansas City is a nice little place with very clever people and the promise of a good future.@ Wichita Eagle.

Winfield Courier, November 30, 1876. Front Page.

The New Territory.

The new Territory, which it is proposed to make out of the northern portion of Dacota Territory, and call Pembina, will encompass 73,000 square miles, about one-third more area than the State of Illinois, and start out with a population of some 11,000. The Missouri, Yellowstone, and Red Rivers will contribute to its commerce, furnishing 2,000 miles of navigable waters to its resources. Pembina will be an extremely northern Territory, but promises to become a useful sister in the Union galaxy as a wheat growing and stock raising district.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 6, 1876.


Only the Gentle Sioux, Homeward Bound.

St. Joseph, Mo., Dec. 2. Spotted Tail, now chief of the Sioux nation, and the 96 Sioux braves sent to examine the Indian Territory, with a view to the removal of the Sioux nation there, passed through the city this p.m., homeward bound, in charge of Col. A. G. Boone and Dr. J. W. Daniels, a Sioux commission and disbursing agent, and Maj. Howard. They have been five weeks from home.

A St. Joe Herald's interview says the delegation took wagons at Wichita, 424 miles through the Territory to Muskogee, on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas road, driving twenty-five days.

At Okmulgee, two chiefs of the Creek nation made speeches, and Spotted Tail replied. The Indians say nothing, being under bonds to those at home to say nothing until the return of the commissioners. They say they see that the Indians are placed with the country, and think if the right men are sent to treat with them, the whole of Spotted Tail and Red Cloud agencies, 12,000 in number, will move to the Territory without any trouble in the spring. The Indians liked their trip.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 6, 1876.

JOE RICKELS is making a good salary picking his guitar for a restaurant in the Black Hills.


Arkansas City Traveler, December 20, 1876.

Senator Ingalls submitted a resolution requesting the Secretary of the Interior to report to the Senate immediately what effort the Government had made to remove the Sioux Indians from their present reservation to the Indian Territory.

A few weeks since one hundred of these Sioux passed through Wichita, stopping here for a few days. They went to look at the country, and we believe they report that it is in all respects satisfactory to them; at least Colonel Boone, who had them in charge, intimates as much. He has gone to Washington.

There is considerable opposition in this State, also upon the part of Kansas City, to the removal of these Indians into the Territory; not that any trouble is anticipated, but from the fact that such a policy tends to the postponement of the opening of the Territory to settlement.

As far as Wichita and her interests are concerned, we are not averse to the proposed change for many reasons not necessary to mention at this time. So long as we continue to be the head of wagon transportation for supplies to agencies and forts, we can afford to be patient over the impatience of others adversely affected. Let 'em come. Eagle.

And so long as the people of Cowley County have to haul their wheat fifty miles to market, when it could be made into flour and sold to the Indians here, and every fat beef or hog that is raised finds a ready market for cash, we say "Let 'em come."

Arkansas City Traveler, December 20, 1876.

A military order has been issued from the War Department, calling a general court martial to be held at Cheyenne on the 15th inst. Maj. Gen. Pope will preside. Several interesting trials are looked for, during which some officers of considerable rank from other departments will be investigated.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 20, 1876.

The officer in charge of the Sioux Indians reported the cutting of timber in the Territory to the Commissioners of the Interior.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 20, 1876.

ED. FINNEY returned from the Osage Agency last Monday, where he had been for several weeks assisting in the payment of the Osages.

Winfield Courier, December 28, 1876.

The Western Union Telegraph company has completed its line to the Black Hills, and an office was opened for the transaction of business at Deadwood, Dakota, on the 2nd inst. Rate from Leavenworth $3.75 for ten words.

Winfield Courier, December 28, 1876.

Gen. Crook denies that Sitting Bull is a leader among the Sioux. He says that newspaper correspondents gave him his high reputation and that in fact he has never been more than an insignificant warrior with a few thieving followers.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 3, 1877. Front Page.

Miners in the Black Hills.

General Crook's annual report says: The miners in the Black Hills did not violate the Sioux treaty till long after the Indians had ceased to regard it, and they have not suffered as much from the Sioux since they went to the Hills as they did while living on the border.

He also calls attention to the fact that his command, of less than one thousand, fought and beat Sitting Bull's band in the battle of the Rose Bud several weeks previous to Custer's disaster. He seems to think the Government has treated the Sioux nation with unparalleled liberality, which they have repaid by raids along the border of their reservations, limited only by the endurance of their ponies.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 3, 1877.

Red Cloud's Friendly Indians on the War Path.

Cheyenne, Wyo., Dec. 30. A courier in Ft. Laramie, from Red Cloud agency, reports that two couriers, a mail carrier and a wood chopper, left Sage Creek early Christmas morning. Two hours before sundown they were struck by a party of thirty friendly Indians within sixteen miles of Red Cloud, who killed the two couriers, named Dillon and Reddy; and also mortally wounded the mail carrier, who had two sacks of matter; and likewise severely wounded the wood chopper.

The wounded only arrived at Red Cloud day before yesterday. Being exposed during the interval to intense cold, they were severely frozen. They report hearing more firing in their rear an hour after being attacked. It is supposed that other parties not yet reported were attacked.


Arkansas City Traveler, January 3, 1877.

The Black Hills Territory is to be constituted by act of Congress, and miners are to be invited to take possession. They need very little invitation, however. Most of them will invite themselves if the Indians will only hold off.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 3, 1877.

O. P. JOHNSON, AN INDIAN SCOUT OF CONSIDERABLE RENOWN, dropped down from the Centennial last week. He expects to join McKenzie's command, and go north after Sitting Bull. O. P. has seen considerable service as a scout, and is recognized as one of the best in this section. At one time he was with Custer during the trouble in the Territory, and later acted with Gen. Miles.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 3, 1877.

Gen. Custer's camp pet during the last Yellowstone campaign was a famous dog, which had been given to him by a Bismarck Judge. Ten days after the massacre on the Little Big Horn, the dog returned to Fort Lincoln, a distance of 500 miles, in search of his master.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 17, 1877.

Eleven miners came into Camp Brown on the 6th after supplies, from the head of Wood River, Wyoming Territory, and brought coarse gold with them. They report about thirty men now in the diggings, working with rockers, making ten dollars per day and upwards. One man found a nugget weighing thirty dollars. The party report no snow on the mountains, and very little in camp. They will return immediately.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 24, 1877.

The Black Hills Pioneer says: "Five months ago where there was a tangled mass of pine and other brush, there stands the city of Deadwood, a city of three thousand inhabitants. The city is a mile long, has over two hundred business houses, a mayor, and a municipal government.


Arkansas City Traveler, February 21, 1877.

Deadwood, Feb. 15. During the last week a number of reports of Indian depredations have been coming in from small towns adjacent here. Today these rumors assumed an alarming aspect, and substantiated news of the simultaneous attacks in different directions leads to the belief that the Indians are surrounding this vicinity. Nolen's large cattle train was captured entire near Bear Butte yesterday.

Fletcher's herd of mules was also captured in the same vicinity. Montana ranche, a short distance from here, was attacked about the same time, the Indians capturing all the stock. Wigginton's herd of horses, near Crook City, were all captured, Wigginton wounded, and his assistant killed. Considerable stock in the vicinity of Spearfish were also run off.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 26, 1879.

A band of twenty-five Indians raided a camp of three hunters on Cheyenne River, 30 miles east of Rapid City, Dakota Territory. The Indians captured one gun, one horse, and all their provisions and blankets. The hunters say the Indians had a band of 100 horses, and were making northward.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 5, 1879.

A courier arrived at Fort Meade, Dakota Territory, bringing news that two freight trains were attacked by Indians a few miles from Rapid City. He states that the Indians fired several volleys into the town, and prevented the citizens from going to the rescue of the teamsters. Another band of Indians attacked Sulphur Springs station on the Bismarck road, killing one man and running off four horses. Two companies of the 7th cavalry, under command of Capt. French, started from Fort Meade in pursuit of the marauding savages. The general opinion is that the present depredations were made by Little Wolf's band of Cheyennes, making its way to Sitting Bull's camp.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 5, 1879.

The Reno court of inquiry, it is understood, report that evidence was not adduced to warrant court martial.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 9, 1879.

At a Cabinet meeting it was decided to call the attention of the British Government to the report that Sitting Bull, now an Indian of the Dominion of Canada, proposes a raid upon United States settlements. Under our treaties, and the agreement reached by the joint commission of the two governments, which visited Sitting Bull's camps in 1877, it was agreed between these representatives of the two governments that Sitting Bull should be regarded and treated by both parties in the future as a Canadian Indian. It will be held by our authorities that the Canadian Government is as responsible for his movements and acts as for those of any other tribes of Indians inhabiting that territory.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 9, 1879.


A Deadwood, Dakota Territory, dispatch says: Little Wolf and his band of Cheyenne Indians, numbering thirty-five lodges with two hundred and fifty ponies were captured by Lieut. Clarke of the Second cavalry, with eighty-five men on Box Elder creek, near Yellow Stone River.