[Starting with Thursday, February 19, 1880.]




Mr. Ryan has introduced a bill which is designed to take the place of one concerning which I have written you, and the purpose of which is to permit the several railroad companies that have constructed their roads up to the line of the Indian Territory to build through the Territory, to condemn the right of way to the extent of a hundred feet on each side of the track, and also take material from the adjacent lands, sites for depot purposes, etc. This is a sensible and practical measure, and one that ought to become a law. Should the bill become a law, the Santa Fe road would doubtless push its line from Arkansas City through the Territory at an early day. It will receive strong support whatever its ultimate fate may be.






We hear it intimated that an effort is on foot to secure a higher appraisement of property at the appraisement next month. If property has been rated too low heretofore there would be some excuse for an increase, if the advance could be and would be made all over the State. But we object to any increase in the valuation of property simply to give the county more money on which to vote bonds in aid of railroads. We do not think that any township in the county will endorse its trustees in a movement of this kind. We suggest to any who look that way "to look a leedle oud."




FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

We left La Junta at noon of the 8th, on an accommodation train made up of freight and railroad iron and two passenger cars. As yet no regular passenger trains have been put upon the road southwest from La Junta. TALKS ABOUT MAKING GOOD TIME THROUGH MOUNTAINS...Bald mountains, Sangre de Christo Peaks, Spanish Peaks. Before dark we passed El Moro, the terminus of one branch of the Denver & Rio Grande narrow-gauge railroad, crossing its track leading to its coal mines in a bank in sight to our left, and reached Trinidad, six miles farther.

Trinidad is a pretty town of some 3,000 in a gorge of the foot-hills of the mountains, with its residence adorning the slopes...a trading point of a large territory of stockmen. Its principal industry is the coal mining. Ex Saint joined him there. They went south to Las Vegas, the first 14 miles going up the winding gorges in the ascent of the Raton mountains, at the top of which is the famous tunnel which now supercedes the equally famous switch-back which was in use in raising the trains over the summit ridge while the work of excavating the tunnel was progressing. They arrived at Las Vegas Monday morning, the 9th, and found a two-story adobe hotel with neat, well-furnished, excellent rooms...took in town and also Hot Springs, six miles to the northwest in a mountain gorge. Said the Springs was almost complete...had a large and elegant hotel, mostly stone, in progress. The bath house was almost completed...30 bath-rooms. "We took a hot bath and ffound the spring water very much too hot for us untilo tempered down with cold water. There are in a cluster 22 of these hot springs, 13 of which are already improved and used to supply the bath-house with water, each of somewhat different mineral properties. Sulphur is readily detected in these waters but other minerals are not so readily apparent. The water is perfectly clear."

"Old Las Vegas is quite a city. Its buildings are quaint, being nearly all adobe, which looks very cheap and primitive to a Kansasan, but some of them are highly finished and well furnished. They are mostly one-story, but a few of them have two and even more stoires. The cathedral is a large structure of cut-stone, and presents a very imposing appearance. A Mexican bridal party was just leaving the chapel. Here we found John Roberts, who married into the Cochran family at Winfield, sick with measles. He was in a comfortable ranche, and had good attention. We had a visit from Mr. Morrley and lady, who are now living at Las Vegas. Mr. Morley is the trusted engineer of the Santa Fe railroad."

They left on Tuesday morning on the freight and construction train for Santa Fe...observed steam saw-mills in operation, sawed lumber piled up beside the track. "The railroad grade in many places was very steep, and the track quite crooked, winding around hills and ravines, and through deep and rocky cuts. At one part of the route the road passes down a deep, winding, rock gorge for several miles at a very steep grade, which altogheter looked frightful. We arrived at Gallisteo, the point of junction of the Santa Fe branch with the main line of railroad at 1 p.m. The branch was completed 18 miles directly north to Santa Fe, but no train was yet running on this branch, so we had to take a hack to Santa Fe, where we arrived at 5 o'clock, and put up at the Exchange Hotel, which is said to be the only hotel in the place where good accommodations can be had!

"This is a good hotel, well kept on American principles by a Mrs. Davis, the widow of an army surgeon of considerable note. This hotel is worthy of a description, as being a good sample of the better class of New Mexican architecture. It is of one rather high story, occupying a block about 200 feet square; the walls are of adobe, a kind of brick of mud and gravel dried in the sun, but which would undoubtedly be washed down very soon if exposed to heavy rains. This wall is built around the square and another wall at a distance of 18 feet within the square is built parallel to the outer wall. The space between these two walls is divided into rooms about 18 feet square. An open court is left in the center of the block, which is cut in two directions by similar walls enclosing similar rooms. The space between any two parallel walls is regularly 18 feet, which constitutes the width of the rooms, but the length of the rooms varies from 15 to 40 feet. Each room has two doors, one opening into the street, and the other into the central area. Each room has one window, sometimes in the wall next the street, and sometimes in the roof. This being a first-class building, the walls are plastered outside and inside, good, smooth, strong joists are placed across from wall to wall overhead, and are covered with good boards, planed side down, which show in the room overhead. On these boards is piled the earth which constitutes the roof of the building. The rooms are papered and carpeted and furnished in modern style. They are easily kept warm in the cold weather, and said to be quite cool in hot weather. Outside the walls are plain and bare. All that is attractive is inside the walls.

"Some of the large stores and business houses are built in this style, and some of the private houses, built in this style, are furnished as richly as the best houses in Kansas. The great mass of buildings, and there are many hundreds of them, are not plastered outside or in, and look as unsightly as a sod fence, and look much like one.

"There are a few new buildings made of brick or stone with tin or shingle roofs, and in American style, but these are the exceptions. These are occupied by army officers, civil officers of the U. S., and others.

"We visited one two-story building, which is said to be the most ancient within the boundaries of the United States. When the Spaniards first visited this country in 1588 this building was very old, and tradition among the natives gave it a very much older date. It is believed to have stood six hundred years. The doors were holes in the wall about three and a half feet high, and the windows were little holes in the wall about a foot square.

"We visited one church which was completed in 1711. It is yet occupied, and was filled with pictures and statues of saints and scenes of Bible times, with the usual amount of paraphernalia connected with the Catholic ritual.

"There are several of these old churches, and there has been in progress of erection for several years a magnificent cathedral of cut-stone masonry, which, when completed, will have cost $100,000 and will be one of the finest and largest in America. A new college of San Miguel is a fine modern building of cut stone.

"Santa Fe is located near the foot of a range of mountains on the west side, about 20 miles east of the Rio Grande, on a high slope among the mesa, or foot hills. The surrounding ridges, slopes, and plains are barren except where made productive by irrigation; the ground is bare or only slightly covered with a very thin and short grass. In summer, and even in spring and fall, the surface gets very hot, which prevents rain, and the nights are always cold before morning. The slopes and benches are well dotted with dwarf pines and cedars, and the mountains have considerable forests of pines, furnishing plenty of material for building and fuel.

"It is amusing to see those little burros, which if their ears were taken off, would look hardly larger than sheep, come in loaded with great bundles of pine firewood strapped over their backs. These burros are the principle teams of the natives. Few horses, mules, or wagons are seen. The natives plow with a forked stick, and everything else is yet in the most primitive condition.

"But now is about the last chance to see this country in its present condition. The completion of the Santa Fe railroad will soon revolutionize the whole country, and a new civilization will be built over the ruins of the old. The sulky plow will soon supercede the forked stick, the mules and wagon will take the place of the burro, and lumber, brick, and stone will take the place of mud for building material. But the main rush will be to the mines, and those will stimulate the rude agriculture and mechanical arts of the natives.

"Santa Fe is the capital of the territory of New Mexico, and being much the largest town, we have described it more particularly, which description, on a smaller scale, will answer for almost any other town in the territory, except as Santa Fe is changed by being the seat of government.

"The territorial legislature was in session, and we visited both houses. The lower house was mainly made up of native representatives, and its deliberations were conducted in Spanish with an English interpreter. These men were bright and active, and many of them were first-class orators, if we might judge by their graceful and vehement gestures and flow of language. The council was made up largely of active and able Americans. The

U. S. Court was in session, and some important cases were on trial.

"We met many of the officers of the territory, by whom we were treated with great courtesy, and from whom we received valuable information. Our thanks are specially due to the Governor, Gen. Lew Wallace; to H. M. Atkinson, Surveyor-General, and Judge Sidney Barnes, District Attorney, for their kind attentions. We met Ex-Governor Geo. T. Anthony here, he having been here for the last few months in the interest of the Santa Fe road. We also met Mrs. Anthony, now here on a short visit. Among gentlemen from whom we received valuable courtesies, was Maj. Finley, of Emporia; who had been in the country a few weeks, and had learned the ropes. We met many old friends from other states who were here prospecting. We must not forget to acknowledge the very kind attentions of Miss Sue Barnes, daughter of the District Attorney and sister of Judge Campbell, and of Miss Davis, of the hotel.

"The weather, since we approached the mountains, has been dry and quite cold until yesterday, when we had a severe snow storm. A person needs plenty of warm clothing to keep him comfortable out of doors. Today we start our wives homeward and ourselves down the Rio Grande to visit the various mines among the mountains to the east and to the west of that river, of which we cannot write until another time. So we close, and send this in by Mrs. M."

SANTA FE, N. M., Feb. 13, 1880.




FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

When Mr. Millington reached Topeka last week, he consulted the State Superintendent on the question of bonds and registration, and the following is the opinion of the State officers on this question.

"It is Lemmon's opinion that there is no need of registration for the school-bond election. He says that the board of commissioners for the investment of the Permanent School Fund examined the matter thoroughly and carefully in connection with the Wichita school-bonds, voted without registration, and the commissioners decided to buy the bonds, and held that they were better without than with registration. The Attorney General is a member of the board, and he held to that opinion.

"Lemmon also says that the voters in the district outside the city have a right to vote at either of the polls, and that if they were not permitted, it would invalidate the bonds, and they would be refused by the board."

This, it seems to me, is a solution of the difficulty. Do not register at all, but permit all in the district to vote who are qualified electors.





FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

Since the day of the last election we have talked with men from all parts of the county, and we hear of but one opinion regarding that change. The act is considered by one and all one of the worst pieces of legislation done last winter. No sensible reason can be given for taking this election from the one in November. The cost to the county will run up towards a thousand dollars. If the waste of time by voters in the precincts over the state could be counted, the cost would be simply enormous. What folly, what stupidity then, to make a new election when the old one answers every purpose? What were our representatives doing when this bill came before them for consideration? Why could not Governor St. John veto this measure on the grounds of economy? Our people are struggling under many burdens; they are bending every nerve to throw off personal and local debts; they want economy in each and every department of county and state government, and they are restless under our numerous elections and the consequent expenses. Yet in the face of this, our legislators call into life an additional election with its vast array of additional expenses! Cowley county had three votes on this bill before it became a law. Cannot someone find how our representatives stood on this measure? An indignant people should demand the repeal of this abominable law.




FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

It is said that the quarrel between Small, Hedges, and Hewes, which took place just north of the county line last week, was attributable to whiskey. It seems that Hedges had been to Douglass, where he had been drinking. On his return, when near the house of Mr. Hewes, Hedges' dog and Hewe's dog got to fighting. Mr. Hewes went into the road and tried to separate the dogs. This did not suit Hedges, who thereupon left his wagon, and with a knife began an attack on Mr. Hewes, cutting him in several places severely. To stop the quarrel Mr. Smalls tried to separate Hedges and Hewes; Hedges gave his hand a backward thrust which drove the knife through Smalls' throat, cutting him from ear to ear, and cutting the jugular vein. It is said that Smalls bled to death in four minutes from the time he was cut. It is not necessary to state that Cowley county will not be called on to foot the bill of the trial of the murderer in this case. Butler Co. has that luxury. In the meantime, the license law still puts "an enemy in man's mouth that steals his brains," and the people foot the bills.




FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

M. G. Troup is home again.

I. N. Lemmon's school, district No. 108, is out.

The Central Hotel is occupying its new addition.

George Gray, an old citizen of Winfield, died Tuesday evening.

Ed. G. Cole is fitting up his building and will move his drug store this week.

True & Morris have become the proprietors of the old Buckingham grocery.

District 113, near Baltimore, has erected a school-house and will soon have school.

Miss Fannie Pontious has completed her first term of school in 22, Richland township.

Two car loads of freight came in on the S. K. & W. Sunday evening, one for S. H. Myton and one for Oxford.

Quite a colony of Indianians, friends of Mr. Allison, came in on the S. K. & W. last week. They will locate in Cowley.

We were pleased to meet Mr. Huston, of Bourbon county, Kentucky, last week. He is a young lawyer and will likely locate with us.

Mr. Wm. Turner, of Bolton, killed a calf four months old that weighed net 220 pounds. This gets away with the average Winfield calf.

The county commissioners will meet March 2nd, for the purpose of approving the bonds of the township officers elect, and such officers are requested to have their bonds filed by that time.

Some wretch has had the meanness to steal the unabridged dictionary belonging to district 94. The thief broke a window light so as to raise the window, and thus entered the house.

Mrs. Millington returned home from Santa Fe Sunday evening. She left Mr. Millington at that place, getting ready to plunge into the mountains for a two week's ramble among the mines.

Mr. Henderson has now secured possession of both the horses stolen from him by the jail breakers. The best one is nearly ruined and he is out $100 in cash. This, to a poor man, is about as bad as a fire.

Last week Mr. J. E. Jarvis, of Sheridan township, brought in a four year old steer, which tipped the beam at 2,210 pounds. At 3-1/2 cents per pound, this would bring $77.80. How is that for a four-year-old?

Mr. S. H. Tolls, one of Pleasant Valley's best farmers, is helping Mr. Lee in his implement house.

Last Tuesday we were shown the plans for Baird Bros.' new store room. If the building is finished according to plans laid down by the architect, Mr. John M. Bannon, it will be one of the finest store rooms in the city.

If the school bonds are voted, many are in favor of moving the frame building, now being used to the southeast part of the district, to accommodate the children in the Loomis and Howland addition. This would be a wise move.

We had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Carruthers, agent of the S. K. & W. road at this place, Monday. Mr. Carruthers is a clever, intelligent gentleman, and is putting forth every effort to popularize his road with our merchants and the traveling public.

Mr. M. Meyer who, it will be remembered, had his team drowned in the Walnut about a year ago, died on Tuesday.

Ford & Leonard, of Burden, are paying 20 cents per pound for butter, and 8 cents for eggs. They afford a market for most of the produce raised around there.

The Library and Reading Room Association has secured the west room in the Winfield Bank, entrance on the north side of the building, from Ninth Avenue. All persons not having been called upon will please send to this room, next Saturday afternoon, donations in the way of books, periodicals, papers, and furniture. The ladies having this enterprise in charge are exceed-ingly anxious to make this room the most attractive of any in the city. Let all the friends of this noble enterprise send in something to beautify and furnish the room.

W. J. Hodges has purchased in the southwest part of town sixty acres of ground, of which he is using ten acres for a sheep corral. There is a small lake of pure water and sufficient shelter for the sheep in the brush. Early this month he purchased from John Stalter six hundred head of graded Colorado sheep. They are in splendid condition and without a blemish of any kind. They cost him $4.35 a head, which is an advance of two dollars on the price of a year ago. Mr. Hodges is fattening them for the New York market, and expects to ship them some time next month. Adjoining the sheep corral, there is one for hogs, on which he has nearly five hundred head. Monitor.


Winfield Courier, February 19, 1880.

Last week Sheriff Shenneman got on the track of Rhonimus, the escaped cattle thief. Rhonimus had relatives in Elk City and dropped in to see them; but the constable had been notified of his escape, and was on the lookout for him. As soon as the constable learned of Rhonimus' presence in the vicinity, he laid his plans to capture him. Rhonimus, hearing that he was in a bad fix, made a break for his horse, but was compelled to leave it and take to the timber on foot. The constable telegraphed to Sheriff Shenneman, who started at 1 o'clock Friday night and by Saturday was on the thief's trail. After following for some time, all trace of the thief was lost, and Mr. Shenneman returned home Sunday. The horse, belonging to Mr. Henderson, was recovered; but was too lame to bring along and was left at Elk City.




FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

Married at the residence of Rev. S. Ferguson, five miles northeast of Winfield, Feb. 10th, 1880, by Rev. J. Cairns, Mr. Henrry Rowland and Miss Emma A. Ferguson.

Henry is a well known and highly respected young man in our community. The bride is a daughter of Rev. Ferguson, of Walnut township.




FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

The Commissioners met last week and canvassed the vote for township officers. The result will be found in another column. Among other things they changed the boundary lines of Vernon and Ninnescah Townships, by cutting off 1 mile from the north part of Vernon, and attaching it to Ninnescah. They also made arrangements to build an addition to the jail to be used by the sheriff as an office, and rented the upper part of the jail from the city for $10 per month. It will be occupied as heretofore by the jailer. An order was made to have four more binding rods put in the courthouse.




FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

Old Mrs. Clarke, who lives on Posey Creek, in Pleasant Valley township, was arrested last Saturday on complaint of Charles H. Payson, charged with having committed adultery with a man named McCrate. The case was tried before 'Squire Boyer, and was the most disgusting affair that ever encumbered the docket of a criminal court. If one-half the facts that come to our ears are true (and the neighbors seem to think they are), this Clarke outfit ought to be drummed out of the community. COURIER.


The above is a sample of the fairness of the COURIER. Here is a woman who trusted all the money she had to Payson, and he converted it to his own use, and because she prosecuted and had him disbarred for it, he got up this charge against her. She was tried before a jury of twelve men, good men, everyone of them, and they found her not guilty, and that the complaint was malicious. Why is it that the COURIER is ever defending such men as Payson, and assaulting poor, ignorant, and defenseless people like this unfortunate woman? It can only be accounted for upon the theory, that "birds of a feather flock together." If this poor woman is to be drummed out of the community for merely being charged with the crime of adultery, what shall be done with the man who robs her? The COURIER is quick to assualt Mrs. Clarke, but its columns are closed to anything reflecting upon Payson, who took advantage of her. Monitor.



The idea that the above item was calculated to "defend Payson," is simply absurd, and will not receive a second thought at the hands of sensible men. If he has defrauded this woman out of her money, he is no less guilty than if he had stolen from respectable people. Of the Clarke outfit, we have but few words to say. From the admission of parties, this man McCrate was once the husband of Mrs. Clarke, and is the father of several of her children. He still lives with them, apparently master of the premises, although he is passed off as a brother-in-law. Mr. Clarke is a decript old man, nearly deaf, and easily imposed upon. These simple facts, even if they were not backed up by evidence of a nature too revolting to appear in print, would be enough to brand them as the lowest of the low. Numbers of the best citizens of Pleasant Valley township have, during the past three weeks, complained to us of the Clarke's; but we have refrained from speaking of the matter until convinced that the community would be better off without them. Brother Conklin is in poor business when he puts this outfit up as a picture of "injured innocence," and installs himself as their champion. If he needs must have some subject at which to direct the effervescence of a too fertile brain, we would humbly suggest that he give us a few "grammatical criticisms." They would at most be harmless and equally as foolish.




FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

ED. COURIER: I have been asked by several parties to give a legal opinion concerning the title to the school district, in what is known as the schoolhouse block, and whether the Winfield Town Association, in which the legal title rests, could convey the fee in said block to any other party, while the school district remains in possession of it?

Without designing any ostentatious display of legal ability, I will, with your permission, make my answer public through your columns, as many others undoubtedly feel an interest in the question.

The townsite of Winfield, as is well known, was entered by the Probate Judge of the county, under, and by virtue of, an act of Congress, and by an act of the Legislature of Kansas, "for the use and benefit of the occupants thereof." Every actual occupant of the town, owning an improvement at the time of the entry, was a tenant in common with every other such occupant, in all of the unimproved portion of the town. It is true, in this case, all such unimproved lands were conveyed by the Judge to the said Town Association, but that did not affect, really, the rights of the occupants in the same. The law would say, that the Town Association held the land as trustee, in trust for the occupants.

But, suppose the Town Association, under these circumstances, had "set apart" for public use, certain squares, or blocks of ground, say for churches, schools, or public parks; or proposed to donate grounds for such purposes, and the town, or city, authorities had accepted the offer and improved the same for park purposes; or the respective churches had received the donation and erected their buildings thereon; or the school district the same; and whether the proposed gifts were by written instrument or by parol, what lawyer would say that the Town Association could afterward lay claim to such donated and occupied lands and convey them to other parties? Certainly none of respectable qualifications.

And I may go further and say, that if the Town Association possessed an unqualified title in fee simple to the lands, and should propose, verbally, to donate a portion of them to a school district for school purposes, and the district should accept the gift, take possession and improve the same as agreed upon, it would be impossible for the Association to convey the land in fee to any other party, even if no record existed showing the transaction between the Association and the district. Because the actual possession of the district, with its improvements, imparts legally, as good notice to the world of its equitable title, as if such title had been conveyed by deed and duly recorded in the Register's office of the proper county. And such is the situation of our present school-house site in Winfield.

But the Winfield Town Association proposes to grant such title as it possesses to the school district by deed absolute, and without any reservations; and has already placed such conveyance, as an escrow, in responsible hands, to be delivered when the present school building shall have been completed, as originally required, and agreed upon. When this is done, the school district will possess an unqualified title, both legal and equitable, and can sell and convey the same if deemed best, although it would puzzle one to invent a valid reason for ever wanting to change the public school from the present locality to another one. In my view, it is not in the nature of things, that the present school site will ever be too valuable to be used for school purposes.





FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

We have received instructions from the Land Office that a party desiring to enter land may take the evidence of his witnesses, and his own testimony, before a Notary Public, by stating in his publication notice the officer before whom, and the day when, he will appear with his witnesses. We are fully prepared to transact all business in this line.


Atty's at Law.


Notary Public.




FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

The following is a list of cases that will stand for trial at the adjourned December, A. D. 1879, term of the district court of Cowley county, beginning on the 4th Monday, February 23, 1880, and have been placed on the trial docket in the following order.


State vs. Daniel O'Leary.

State vs. James Fahey.

State vs. Charles H. Payson [2 cases].

State vs. Richard Rhonimous [2 cases].

State vs. Williams James.

State vs. James Moore et al.

CIVIL DOCKET. - Second Day.

Mercy M. Funk vs. Cynthia Clark et al.

W. H. H. Maris vs. T. W. Gant et al.

J. A. Myton vs. S. H. Myton et al.

John A. Tipton vs. James H. Finch.

J. C. Phillips vs. Phillip Sout.

Field, Leiter & Co. vs. Turner Brothers.


William Storms vs. George Storry.

John W. Smiley et al vs. Harry Bhantge.

Matter of survey Sec 28 Tp 32 R 4 E.

Chicago Lumber Co. vs. T. A. Wilkinson et al.

Simpson & Stewart vs. M. E. Church.

Hackney & McDonald vs. Thomas E. Reed.


John Pittinger vs. Samuel B. Atkinson et al.

Wilson K. Taylor vs. Emma Copeland et al.

Godfrey S. Manser vs. Edward J. Tribbe et al.

Francis Sallee vs. William Sallee.

Clark Bryant vs. William A. Lee et al.

R. C. Holland vs. M. H. Marcum.

S. W. Chatterson vs. L. K. Meyers.





FEBRUARY 19, 1880.

The law office of C. C. Black has been removed to the second story of the stone building on Main Street and Ninth Avenue.





February 16, 1880.

ED. COURIER: We notice some changes in the thriving town of Burden since our last. Among the many improvements is the lumber yard of S. A. Brown & Co., who are building fine office buildings, large sheds for lumber, and are preparing to buy grain. They have their scales nearly completed, and will be ready for the wheat market in a few more days.

Mrs. Hiesler, from Lazette, has charge of the new hotel and is doing a fine business. Don't think we have seen a better hotel in the state, and yet, with all the facilities of the house, the assistance of Mr. McCumbers, who can sleep more men in a small space than any man living and who pleases all by giving them good "grub" and a "shake-down" is needed; and many men have had to depend upon the courtesy of the genial railroad "conductors" of the coaches on the "Y" for sleeping apartments.

Messrs. Ford & Leonard are crowding the work on their new stone building to completion for the arrival of the heaviest stock of hardware, stoves, and agricultural implements that has ever been brought to Southern Kansas.

We noticed that "jovial gent," Legg, of Winfield, on our streets, hurrying up the "boys" on another fine business house on Main street, and he expects to have it completed and occupied in the next ten days.

Messrs. Barnes & Sherrol have commenced the erection of a large agricultural warehouse. Thay have their implements on the ground, and will have the building ready for use as soon as workmen can complete it.

Today we noticed the arrival of several lots of fat hogs, which will be shipped tonight for Kansas City. Mr. G. R. Ames, of Elk county, is shipping two car loads of hogs, and Mr.

_________ is shipping a few car loads of cattle. These are the first shipments from our new town.

We will ship several car loads of wheat next week.

The railroad company are moving their supplies from Grenola and Elk Falls to Burden, and this will be the point of supplies until the road is completed to Wellington.

Miss Liddy Knox led to the altar our handsome young friend, "Jim" Fitzgerald, and they have taken possession of Jim's new house adjoining town.

Miss Mollie Buck captured Mr. Goforth, and with the assistance of Esquire Smith, Jim now claims to be the head of the family.

The young ladies gave a leap year party at the residence of Wilson Baily, on last Thursday night. The ladies took their carriages and escorted the gentleman to the party. Among the guests we noticed Miss Em. Yoe and Mr. T. B. Sullivan, Miss Ella Meyers and Jessie Hutchison, Miss Lou Dale and Mr. Green, Miss E. Rose and Mr. Jake Baily, Miss Sarah Yoe and Mr. Cliff Rockwood, Miss Hannah Fritz and Mr. Billy Rockwood, Miss Lizzie Adams and Mr. Ben Yoe, Miss E. Baily and Mr. Frank Marsh.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

February 8th, 1880.

The people in this part of the county are changing all the time. Mr. A. N. Henthorn has moved to Burdenville; and Mr. Mitchell, off Tisdale township, moves in on his place.

Mr. E. Henthorn moves to Burdenville this week and Mr. Canada, from Missouri, moves on his place.

Farms for rent are in great demand at present.

Mr. Shaw and family, from Illinois, have located among us.

Mr. Burton, of Illinois, has located here and is preparing to build his house at once.

Mr. E. M. Henthorn intends to have several acres of breaking done soon. He says if land will not pay for farming, it will not pay to keep it.

Mr. Knote has been to Burdenville to look for a location.

The school in district No. 100 closes in two weeks and our teacher, Miss Mamie Rankin, will return to Winfield.

The Omnia and Baltimore literary societies are in good running order, and make lots of fun for the young folks.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

I think "Reflex" rather fast in numbering Udall with the things of the past. I don't live in Udall, nor within a mile of there; but that I live is enough. I think Udall is quite a good place to go to already. There are three stores: a dry goods, grocery, and drug store, also, post-office, doctor's office, wagonshop, and dwelling houses too numerous to mention.

Mr. Green, from Newton, is visiting his brother, the postmaster at Udall.

Trains stop at this place now, and let off and take on passengers and freight daily.

Mr. Silverthorn arrived home yesterday from Iowa, after an absence of three weeks.

The young folks had a very enjoyable oyster supper at Mr. Wents' Monday night.

We should have mentioned last week the arrival of a tiny little girl at the residence of Deck Davis. A little son also arrived at the residence of James Hollister last Sunday.

Morton & Pricket will commence grinding wheat at their new mill on the Walnut. They grind corrn now and only take the seventh.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

John Bell sold his home and adjoining acres to Mrs. Watsenberger, of Wisconsin, for the sum of $2,700.

Mr. Chapel sold his farm at Moscow, and has purchased the Shields place for $1,200. Mr. Shields has invested in new land, which he will set about improving immediately.

Mr. Pixley recently purchased the Parker place for $1,500, which, added to his former possessions, makes Sunny Side one of the most desirable farms in Salem.

Mr. Robinson is the happy owner of the Bowen property, for which he gave $1,100.

Mr. Peters has also secured a valuable piece adjoining Joe McMillen.

These have all been cash sales, which speaks well for Salem and its future.

Mr. Mahaffy, of Olathe, has been spending several days with Mr. and Mrs. Joe McMillen. By the way, Joe is making some valuable improvements at home, a cellar and addition to his house.

Miss Parker, of Illinois, is visiting her brother at this place.

In a late number of the Monitor it is asserted that the good people of this place want a flag station on the farm of A. W. Davis. By no means, Mr. C. The people have higher aspirations. They are bound to build a town, and want a station complete with proper facilities for travelers and shipping generally, and nothing short will fill the bill.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

At a meeting of the council last week, it was decided by a unanimous vote of the board not to admit any saloons to our peaceful little city.

Public necessity demands a bridge over the Walnut river at Morton & Picket's mills. Said mills are now ready for grinding both wheat and corn.

Mr. Reader is erecting a large blacksmith and wagon shop on Johnson's addition.

Mr. Henry Irington is excavating the cellar for a business block on the same addition.

Mr. James Hollister, of this township, recently gained ten pounds in one day. It was a boy.

Mrr. R. F. Kimbrough of Goldore, took in this city Friday last. He declares "all bets off."

Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Martin, of Cowley, were in the city Sunday last, the guests of Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Hall.

Mr. James Rothrock, of Winfield Township, gave our town a friendly call on Sunday.

MARRIED: At the residence of D. W. Pierce, on Sunday last, by Squire G. L. Cole, Mr. Sherman Thompson and Miss Maggie Sehorn, all of this township.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

M. C. Hedrick has the "boss" hog of the county. It cost him only sixty-five dollars.

Dan Mahr had the misfortune to lose a valuable mule. By some accident the mule got into its manger, and in its struggle broke its neck.

The meeting house now being built by the Christian church is a model in many respects. It is 30 x 36 x 15 feet; is well lighted, substantially built, and the outlay has all been done on the cash plan. The full cost will run up toward seven hundred dollars.

The oyster supper gotten up by Dr. Knickerbocker, Mr. Casper, Thursk, and others, was an enjoyable affair. At the close of the meeting a handsome cake, made by Mrs. Rachel C. Harlow, was given to the best looking girl present. After an hour's earnest contest, the vote stood: Miss Hattie McKinley, 73; Miss Julia Bovee, 56; Miss Emma Williams, 65. Miss McKinely got the cake. The contest brought in $9.80 for the cake.

A second cake, made by Miss Fannie Pontious, was sold to the highest bidder, John Casper taking it one dollar.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.


In my last I gave a hasty glance at this quaint old city, but another day spent therein reveals many other points of interest. The population is about 6,000, I think, though 8,000 is claimed. We visited the three great stores of merchandise, and several of the smaller ones. Entering one of the largest by an unpretentious opening in the adobe wall, we found ourselves in a neat and well filled room, though not large.

From this room the affable proprietor led us through a perfect labyrinth of rooms, running out in every direction, each well filled with goods, together embracing almost every imaginable line and description. It is stated that the average stock of this house is more than a quarter of a million of dollars. These merchants have heavy capital, and have had an enormous trade for many years. I imagine, however, that their heavy trade, extending down the Rio Grande to El Paso, west to Tucson, Arizona, and southwest into old Mexico, will soon be cut off and divided among the several towns through which the A., T. & S. F. railroad is about to be extended. It is about thirty-five miles due west to the Rio Grande, most of the way down hill.

At Santa Fe we met G. W. Gully, our former councilman.

On the 13th we made up a party, consisting of F. J. Leonard, of the Kansas City Journal, O. F. Boyle, A. H. Lemmon, and the writer, and rode out southwest 23 miles to the Cerrillo mines, and put up at the principal mining camp called Carbonateville.


On the 14th we did a hard day's work tramping around visiting the mines. There are about 3,000 claims already taken in this district, and perhaps 300 men in the camps. The district is about five miles east and west by eighty miles north and south. The word Cerrillos means "little hills." From Santa Fe this district appears like several small stacks of hay on a broad plain, but, as you approach, these grow upon your vision into quite high mountain peaks upon a high, broken plateau made up of hundreds of hills finely and beautifully rounded, and it is among these hills where the mines are found. Most of these are more prospect holes down ten feet to hold the claims. The fissures or leads of mineral generally run in a northeast and southwest direction and crop out on the surface in places. Some of these fissures have been traced over the surface for two or three miles. Under the mining regulations, a claim may take up fifteen hundred feet along one of these fissures only, so that several claims are frequently located on the same fissure or lead.

These leads generally go down into the earth nearly perpendicular to an unknown depth, and are from six inches to several feet in thickness (or width, as it is called here.). The fissures generally have well defined walls of broken porphyry, granite, and other softer rock, and the vein is easily followed. These fissures are filled with mineral very like the Leadville ores in appearance, and is largely galena, but contains silver and some gold. The assays of these ores taken as they are near the surface, run from five to sixty dollars in silver, and from a mere trace to thirty dollars in gold, to the ton of ore. Some of the deeper ones assay much higher, and some small, select specimens have assayed hundreds and even thousands of dollars, if we may credit the common reports of the miners.

Altogether, we conclude that the ores in sight are low grade, averaging not more than twenty dollars. It is doubtless true as claimed that these leads are richer the deeper you go, but as yet none of the prospects have reached any considerable depth. Very few have reached a depth of fifty feet. The claim holders are nearly all men without capital and unable to develop their claims. Some of them are obliged to lose their claims for failing to do the necessary amount of work to hold them, and for this reason hundreds of claims are offered for sale at a hundred dollars up.

Among such a large number of mines which are being pros-pected, we can give space to mention only a few of the most prominent. The Chester is said to have assayed $200, the Gen. Moore $107, the St. Clair $132, the Little Peter $138, the Belle of Texas $500. As we did not see the assays, I take these reports with many grains of allowance.

The Rolina is an old Spanish mine. the old shaft has been opened to the depth of 100 feet, with four levels or jogs in the descent. It is bounded to Carpenter and others, a company who are now putting up large smelter works at the railroad stations at the south end of the district. The Mina Del Tira is the most famous of the silver lodes, having been worked extensively by the Spaniards and their Indian peons previous to 1680. Two old shafts have been reopened to the depth of over 100 feet, where they have come to water. How much deeper the Spanish work goes is unknown, but is supposed to have been excavated to the depth of 300 feet or more, with long horizontal drifts following the vein, which near the surface is about four feet thick and widens as it goes downward. These old shafts cannot be utilized for the purposes of modern mining because they are dug down about twenty feet, then a horizontal drift of a few feet, then another twenty foot descent, thus making a series of terraced landings and descents. Down these descents, from one landing to the next, stands a twenty foot log, about nine inches in diameter, with notches cut about sixteen inches apart the whole length, for steps. Up this series of ladders and landings, the Indian peons carried the ore in rawhide pouches on their backs, supported by a band passing around the forehead. Then they probably had to pack the ore four hundred miles into Mexico to the nearest reduction works, and it seems certain that they would not have gone through this slow and laborious process to the extent they appear to have done unless the ores were exceedingly rich. How extensive were their deep underground driftings through the rock is now unknown, but the amount of refuse rock piled up outside the shafts is enormously great considering that the hole it came out of is scarcely more than three feet in diameter.

The old Turquoise mines are the most interesting feature of this district. The amount of labor that was expended in these mines prior to 1680 is incalculable. The site was a large hill, almost mountain, of rock of a yellow-white, not very hard, and the precious Turquoise stones or crystals were found deeply imbedded in this rock. The two sides of the hill have been dug down and huge pits sunk, from the bottom of which drifts were excavated to such extent that all through under the mountain was a labyrinth of passages, and the mass of the mountain seems to have sunken to some extent. On the hills of debris taken from these mines are growing trees that must be near 200 years old.


The Spaniards commenced mining in this and other districts of New Mexico as early as 1588, and prosecuted the business by first employing the earlier inhabitants at but slight pay, and finally reducing them to a condition of slavery. This slavery existed until 1680, when a portion of the Turquoise hill I have been describing sunk or slid down upon the Peon laborers, burying about fifty of them a hundred feet deep. This was the event which aroused the natives and they attacked the Spaniards, and by their great numbers, either slew or drove the whole race from New Mexico. The natives then filled up all the shafts, drifts, and mines, and could not, on account of a superstition among them, be prevailed upon ever after unto this day to approach any of these mines.

In 1692 the Spaniards were permitted to return on making a solemn treaty with the natives, by which they promised never to open or work the mines again, and the church of San Miguel at Santa Fe and other churches were erected in memorial of this treaty. We are told that the Spaniards have since faithfully observed the treaty and until recently no attempts have been made by any people to reopen these mines.

Now that the railroad has reached this country and is in proximity to these mines, reduction works can be cheaply constructed in every mining vicinity, combined capital will test these mines, and the first rich ore that is reached will create a boom that will turn men and capital into this region.

At Carbonateville we made the acquaintance of a Spaniard named Aoye, who exhibited such wide knowledge, such progressive and radical views and eloquence of expression, that we christened him "the Castellar of New Mexico." From him we derived much valuable information. He is an editor, has been the leading one of Santa Fe, and now publishes the Cerrillo Prospector, at Carbonateville.

Our landlord, A. Algiero, was a very intelligent and sociable man and entertained us hospitably. A young man named Bonner pleased us much, and a Mr. Giles, a very intelligent gentleman, spent the day with us to show us the mines. We were much pleased with the mines generally, but there was one exception. We hired a man by the name of Howard to go with his team and carry us through the mines to the south and west. He appeared well enough, but proved to be a thieving scoundrel, and we parted with him at Albuquerque after two day's trial.


On February 15th, in the morning, we started for Carbonateville south for Los Placeres, or the Placer Mountains. The first five miles was down grade, among hills and winding, rock canon, to Cerrillos station, on the Gallistes river. Here the track layers were in force, laying a switch on which to run a long train of freight cars, which was standing on the main track. Here is being constructed a large smelter and reduction works by the Carpenter company. Here also are extensive coal mines. From thence we passed on south up a high mesa and long slope seven miles to Old Placers, which is an old Mexican town and around which are extensive placer gold diggings in the bars of streams and beneath the terminal moraine of an ancient glacier. Here, also, is a large forty stamp mill, large steam works for the reduction of the gold bearing quartz in the adjacent mountains. This mill has not been run of late for want of water. These mines are on a grant known as the Ortiz grant, ten miles square, and has been recently purchased by Elkins and others for $1,500,000, and the works are to be refitted and supplied with water by tubs from the head of the Pecos river, thirty-five miles off.

The placer mines were worked extensively by the Spaniards before 1680 and were evidently rich, but at present cannot be worked extensively for want of water. We passed on around and through the mountain gorges to the south and west ten miles to New Placers, where we found a Mexican town and put up for the night with a Yankee family in an adobe house which was bright and comfortable. We did not conclude that the placer mines were paying very well, but, scattered through the adjacent mountains, were many fissure mines now being prospected and opened, containing good prospects of gold and silver, some having a large percentage of lead, others of copper, and others of zinc.

On the morning of the 16th we passed on south, through mountain valleys without diverging from the good road in which we were traveling, to visit some mining camps among the Placer mountains to our left, at the base of the High Sandia range to our right. We passed several Mexican towns and around the south end of the Sandias through a deep, rocky, winding canon, until finally we emerged from the mountains, and following west down a long ten mile grade, arrived at Albuquerque at about 9 o'clock in the evening, having traveled thirty-five miles during the day.

D. A. M.

Albuquerque, N. M., Feb. 17, 1880.



FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

The Traveler has put W. P. Hackney in nomination for State Senator from this county. The Monitor gives the following endorsement.

"Mr. Hackney is not a candidate for the state senate. His constantly increasing business interests can ill afford to spare him, but if his services shall be demanded by the people, if the people who, by their confidence in the past have made him in a large measure what he now is, should call for his assistance; we think that he ought to lay aside business and once more take upon himself thie arduous and thankless responsibility of a representative of the people. We must have a powerful man in the next senate, and Mr. Hackney ought to be that man."

Mr. Hackney is a strong man, place him wherever you will. His political experience, his professional training, and his force of character would make him a strong man in the Senate. He could do valiant service, not only for Cowley county and the southwest, but also for the entire state. Should he be nominated for State Senator, his election would be sure.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

The State fund for 1880 and 1881 will be about one-half what it has been in years past. Instead of 70 cents per capita of school population the apportionment will be 30 or 35 cents. This will make considerable difference in the teacher's fund in many districts. This is attributable to the wise (!) spirit of economy that the last legislature manifested. Teacher.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

Henry Asp had a wedding in his bachelor apartments Monday.

The library and reading room is already becoming very popular.

Last Monday Messrs. Hughes, Carter, and George started overland for New Mexico.

AMessrs. I. H. Bonsall and E. P. Channell came up from Arkansas City Monday to see the parade.@

On Monday Mr. Frank Baldwin sold his residence property to Register Nixon for $1,400.

At the recent examination, in answer to the question, what is the signal service, a young lady said that the only signal service she knew anything about was "handkerchief flirtation."

Mr. B. Sadler started for the east last Saturday, and will lay in a large stock for the "Famous." A short time ago he formed a partnership with N. Ulman under the firm name of B. Sadler & Co.

AHenry Harold, bugler for the Winfield Rifles, came near losing his fine gold watch while on the parade Monday. A gentleman found it and returned it to him.@

F. M. Rooks, of Washington, took in the town last week and instructed many of our money changers in the art of detecting counterfeit money.


Winfield Courier, February 26, 1880.

AJudge Campbell sports a handsome gold-headed cane, a gift from the Wichita Guards. It is a valuable present, and one that is highly appreciated by the Judge.@

E. G. Cole moved into his new drug store last week. He is now located in his own building, is fitted up in good shape, and has the neatest drug store in the city.

Excavating for Mrs. Mansfield's new building is about completed. Mrs. Mansfield has the requisite amount of energy to make things "boom" and she's doing it.

Archy Stewart is going along in a quiet way with his new brick restaurant on South Main street, and some day our citizens will be surprised to find his corner ornamented with one of the handsomest brick buildings in town.

Court convened Monday and after calling the docket adjourned till Tuesday morning. The case of the State vs. M. Reynolds, resulted in the conviction of the defendant of the crime of grand larceny.


Winfield Courier, February 26, 1880.

In behalf of the Rifles and Battery we desire to thank the ladies who so freely gave their time and talents toward making the "Union Spy" a success.

Leland J. Webb has succeeded in securing $705 back pension and $8 per month for life, to Mr. Jacob Haynes, of Maple township. Mr. Haynes is a worthy citizen, and came near losing his life fighting for the old flag.

Saturday evening Mr. J. C. Fuller received a message from Lockport, New York, calling him to attend the funeral of his father, who died very suddenly of pleurisy. He left on the 3 o'clock train Monday morning.

Last week Mr. N. Fuller had the misfortune of losing his house and everything it contained by fire. He was away from home when it broke out and no help being near, the fire had indisputed sway.

ACapt. Chas E. Stueven and Miss Emma Gretsinger were married last Monday at 1 o'clock. It was a complete surprise to most of the members of the Rifles. After the parade the boys assembled in front of the Opera House and gave three cheers for the happy couple.@

Mr. J. D. Guthrie, one of the leading citizens of Bolton township, calleed on us last week. He reports everything flourishing in Bolton and that the people are entirely reconciled toward having the "terminus" at Arkansas City.

Col. S. M. Jarvis returned from an extended trip in Elk and Chautauqua counties Saturday. So that his friends may identify him, we will say that he has discarded the old brown suit and now sports one of shiny black. Whether he bought or borrowed it, we did not learn.

Mr. D. Bows, general western agent of the Chicago & Alton

R. R. called on us last week. Mr. Bows, though comparatively a young man, occupies one of the most important positions in the company. He came out to see Winfield and look after the interests of his company here.

On the parade Monday Col. Noble was the "observed of all observers." His fine soldierly appearance and ease of manners made him a favorite with everyone. "That bashful young soldier from Topeka" will furnish an endless theme for gossip among our young ladies for some time to come.

In another column will be found the ad of Hooker & Phelps, druggists, of Burden, Kansas. This is one of the most enterprising firms of that lively little town. Mr. Phelps was with Giles Bros. of Winfield, for some time, before going to Burden, and has many friends here. He is a first-class druggist.


Winfield Courier, February 26, 1880.

McCrate, et. al., who formerly figured so prominently in the reports of the Cadiz Township Trustees, in the exhibition of expenditures for c. d. p., and whose divorce from McCrate and hasty marriage to old man Clark were noticed in these columns, are making themselves as famous in Kansas as they were in Cadiz. They will find out McCrate, et. al., in the court of time.

Cadiz (Ohio) Sentinel.

We have found them out already, and they will learn ere long that we have no more use for them here than they had in Cadiz.

Mrs. Savage, living at Little Dutch, met with a very serious accident some weeks ago. She had been holding a coal-oil lamp near the stove while one of her sons was reading, and thus the oil in the lamp got quite warm. An explosion followed, the oil flying over the clothing of Mrs. Savage, over the head of the boy, and over the room generally. Mrs. Savage and the boy were badly burned, and the room was instantly in flames. Fortunately, the flames were extinguished before any fatal results. Mrs. Savage still suffers much though her arm is slowly healing.

AWe would like to speak of each and every one of the characters in the >Spy= could we spare the space, as all deserve mention. Leland J. Webb as >Albert Morton,= D. L. Kretsinger as >Charles Morton,= Bert Covert as >Uncle Tom,= George Buckman as >Farmer Morton,= Master George Black as >Little Willie,= and J. E. Conklin as >Col. Orr,= deserve special mention. Miss Florence Beeny as >Mrs. Morton= did splendidly; Miss Emma Himbaugh as >Nelly,= was a general favorite; and Miss Jennie Hane, as >Mrs. Anna Morton= looked the perfect picture of a brave and loyal farmer's wife.@




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

The election for school bonds Tuesday passed off very quietly, and seemed to be all one sided. The majority for the bonds was 223. The vote in the first ward was for the bonds, 139; against the bonds, 15. Second ward, for the bonds, 116; against, 17. With the buildings which the proceeds of these bonds will erect, Winfield will no longer need to be ashamed of her schools.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

Winfield Courier, February 26, 1880.

AWinfield Rifles and St. John's Battery in Full Uniform.

Headed by Brigadier-General Green and

Colonel Noble, Adjutant-General of the State.

AMonday was a gala day for Winfield, and the people of the surrounding country understood the fact, and many of them turned out to see the fun. Some time ago the Guards decided to produce the military drama of the "Union Spy" at this place, and learning that members of the Governor's staff would be present, it was decided to give a grand parade in their honor. At 2 o'clock the companies were formed on the courthouse square, and after receiving the general and staff, they moved out and paraded through the principal streets.

AGen. Green and staff took a position in front of the Opera House and the companies counter-marched in review. The Rifles looked their best and St. John's Battery shown resplendent in new uniforms with red top-knots. The general and staff were splendidly mounted and uniformed and looked every inch soldiers. This was by far the most imposing affair Winfield has yet seen.@





FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

Stolen on the night of Feb. 18, 1880, from our house in Maple City, one double-barreled, breech-loading shotgun, No. 12 bore, Mills lock, and barrels fine London twist; a thumb brake on the right-hand side of the lock; the spring to the brake is broken, and a hickory spring in its place. A reward of $25 will be paid for the capture of the thief and return of the gun.





FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

Attention, Cavalrymen! There will be a meeting of all parties interested in forming a cavalry company at the courthouse, 2 o'clock p.m., Saturday next. All old soldiers are invited to attend. Those who have been under fire - the time-tried and battle-tested veterans - want to get up a company of "Ironsides." In time of peace prepare for war. Turn out.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

Married at the residence of the bride's father, in Winfield, Feb. 18, 1880, by Rev. J. Cairns, Mr. William H. Weymouth, of Topeka, and Miss Helen Mans, of this city.




FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

Correspondents from this part of the county have from time to time sent items to the Semi-Weekly for publication that have deserved severe criticism, but the citizens who feel an interest in the new town, Torrance, thought it best to let it go - envy would punish itself. But that of the 7th contained three significant articles, one a correspondence, and two editorials which are a libel on both country and people. I do not own a foot of land in Cowley county, and don't know that I ever shall; but being an old settler and thoroughly acquainted with both people and country, no wonder my sympathies are identified with their interests, and it is with no little interest that I have watched the progress of Torrance, and our neighboring towns, Burden and Cambridge.

I have often heard it repeated, "but now is the times that try men's souls"; but now is the time that tries men's principles; but fortunately, too, many in this county know how the sanction of the railroad company was obtained in favor of Burden and Cambridge. It was through deception, fraud, and misrepresentation, and when the editor of the Monitor, as it is now called, devotes his columns to the prosperity of such ill-born schemes, he gives a flat contradiction to the editorial entitled "Redivivns," and is also injuring the circulation of his paper, which is to be regreted on account of its sound republican principles. He has too fine a talent to be used in an undertaking that can certainly do him no good. Notwithstanding all this Torrance is going ahead, and will make a good town without a switch; though the people are not without hope and prospect of getting a switch and depot.

E. M.





FEBRUARY 26, 1880.

[Birth of Cambridge.]


You have doubtless heard of the town we are about to build on Cedar Creek. It is astonishing, and not a little amusing, to one who knows all the facts in the case, when he hears how the fame of our prospective city has preceded its birth.

Having just returned from a little run through the counties of Elk and Chautauqua, where I found the name of Cambridge in everybody's mouth, I thought it would be well to try and correct, through your columns, some erroneous impressions which prevail with respect to the magnitude of the city in question. It would not be surprising if you had been led to suppose from current reports that within the last few weeks a mighty metropolis has sprung into being on our side of the county, with Grenola and Burden as suburban appendages.

This, however, is only true with certain modifications. We are unwilling that the public should be misled by exaggerated accounts of the growth of our town, although such exaggerations are quite natural when the splendid resources of the country which will soon become tributary to it are taken into account.

Although we promise you a brilliant record in the near future, yet at present, the town site is about all there is of Cambridge.

We might have been a considerable town long before the railroad reached us, as well as Burden and Grenola, had it not been for the generosity and self-abnegation of the people along Cedar creek. They were promised a depot by the railroad company, and the site was actually selected, but with commendable liberality, for which they are noted, they consented to divide the distance with the Grouse creek folks, well knowing that the latter would never be guilty of a selfish act unless they had an opportunity. Thus, much valuable time was used in determining upon the new site. But happily the delicate point has been disposed of in a manner creditable to the railroad company and satisfactory to the mass of the citizens, and I am glad to say that a result of such importance to the community has been attained without trickery, misrepresentation, or threats of social ostracism as against those who hesitated about investing in the town stock. Without any attempt to ditch trains, or the writing of anonymous letters of intimidation to railroad officials, or the employment of any of the questionable methods occasionally resorted to by shallow persons, who through lack of business capacity are prone to use dishonorable expedients in attempting to force forward unfruitful enterprises.

Within the next thirty days a great change will take place.

The little towns in the vicinity which were left off by the railroad are already on wheels and moving Cambridgeward.

The railroad company have ordered the workmen who are engaged in building depot buildings for Burden to repair hither and perform a like service for Cambridge.

Some Eldorado businessmen have been looking over the ground with a view to the erection of elevator and flouring mills.

It is said the company will put in the best stockyard at this point that is to be found on their line west of


At the recent election it was decided by an overwhelming vote to have the township offices located here.

We are backed in a most substantial manner by the railroad company. Gen. Nettleton recently sent parties to view the ground, and they reported that there was absolutely no other place to compare with this point between Burden and Grenola, as a suitable site for a town.

Our venerable Uncle Samuel has ordered the Lazette post-office discontinued, and a new one, to be called Cambridge, commissioned in its stead.

Supported by the Government, backed by the railroad company, enriched by a country of boundless resources, inspired by faith in our own energies, lofty in our virtues and republican in politics, what but an earthquake can up-trip us?





FEBRUARY 16, 1880.

The farmers are already at work plowing for corn and oats.

Mr. Fred. Nance is digging a well at his residence in town; depth 38 feet and but little water yet.

Last week the remains of grandfather Blendon were laid away in the Maple City cemetery. He was one of the first settlers, and has stood a great many hardships.

Martin Ketcham is gaining slowly.

Petty larceny is the order of the day here at present.

F. W. Nance had quite a number of ducks and chickens stolen a few evenings ago.

J. B. Southard bought one dozen chickens one evening, and the next morning they were gone.

And Enos is mourning the loss of a fine breech-loading shotgun.

Retribution is sure to follow such acts and the sooner the better. It is high time something was done to stop this pilfering and lead to the punishment of the thieves.






We have a large amount of good land in this county occupied by men who intend spending the remainder of their days upon that part allotted them by Providence, Land-office certificates, and good luck; and the question constantly before the mind of the people is how to make this land into homes for happy and thriving families.

The farm has been used to a great extent solely as a machine to grow crops, and the muscular and mental energy of the owner has been employed to this end. Heretofore, what time the farmer had that was not spent in growing crops and stock was spent on the road seeking a market; but now, with two railroads at our door, this time can be very profitably spent in improving the farm and making it more desirable as home for the wife and


As a home the farm should be made as attractive as the state of the finances of the owner will admit.

It is to this end we would ask that you devote part of your time; and in reaching the desired result, you cannot do better than to plant trees.

Trees for timber to be used for posts and for fuel; trees for wind-breaks for house, orchard, and for stock, and trees for ornamental purposes.

Nature has done much to render this county the place for good homes, but she has failed to give us groves, and right here it is that man can so well supplement nature's efforts in making a beautiful country.

Many kinds of trees grow well here, as the catalpa, cottonwood, black walnut, thorny locust, and maple, needing only to be planted, cultivated, and fires kept at a distance.

Timber growing is no longer an experiment on the bare prairie, but is a fixed fact, and there is no one thing the people of Cowley county can do that will so rapidly advance the value of their property.

Every farmer of Cowley county should have a grove of trees, judiciously cultivated and those who plant will receive pay for their labor and a tremendous profit.

There are quarter-sections in Cowley county that are considered worth four thousand dollars, that are kept in trim shape, with nice, artificial groves and good orchard, while alongside are quarter-sections that lay as well, soil just as rich, but the care of a tasteful and thrifty farmer is absent, and the price is $2,000.

These improvements do not make the farm produce more corn and wheat, but satisfy the mental and aesthetic appetite. And this taste is one to be cultivated. A little exertion in the right direction will go a great way in ministering to this appetite. Those farmers who have planted trees and cared for them already know that the public regard such farms as more valuable.

But a short time since a farmer was approached by a gentleman from Kentucky wanting to buy his farm. The place was well cared for, and trees were planted so as to give good effect. Said the stranger, "I would give $1,000 for the trees that you have on your place."

It will pay to improve the appearance of your farms.

Farmers, plant trees as wind-breaks for the health and comfort of your stock; plant trees for the timber; for ornamentation of your farm that it may be pleasing to the eye; plant trees for your children, that they may in after years look back to the homestead as a pleasant haven in life's voyage.





Feb. 24, 1880.




MARCH 4, 1880.

Hiram Steach, the young man charged with an attempt to commit a rape upon the person if Ida K. Masterson, a girl thirteen years old, residing in Rock township, had a preliminary examination before Esq., Mitchel last Thursday and was committed to jail in default of $500 bail, and will stand for trial at the March term of court.

Steach is 16 years old, came here from Osage County, and has resided in this county about two years. County Attorney Smith was present for the prosecution.

Walnut Valley Times.




MARCH 4, 1880.

On Thursday Vice-President Strong, accompanied by some of the chief officers of the A., T. & S. F., paid us a visit. Mr. Strong expressed himself as well pleased with the progress the city is making, and thinks that we will be one of the principal points on the road. Mr. Strong's views in regard to government policy as to the extension of his road is sufficiently liberal to satisfy anybody. He thinks that Congress should grant the right of way to all the roads through the Territory to make a Southern connection. He says that the A., T. & S. F. will move just as soon as the government will open the way south. We say haste the day. Ark. City Democrat.




MARCH 4, 1880.


We remained over at this city on the 17th of February. Col. Manning had gone up to Santa Fe by stage and there learned that we were in the territory and had gone below. He dispatched a line to us requesting us to await him at Albuquerque until the morning of the 18th, which we accordingly did.

Here we met W. McRaw of Winfield, who was at work at the carpenter business. The expectation of the railroad was making a demand for such work, and rents had recently gone up to double and triple former rates. Carpenters are in demand and wages from three to four dollars per day. This place will probably continue to be what it has been in the past, the most important place on the Rio Grande within the territory. It now contains a population of some 4,000, and it is probable that this will soon be largely increased by the influx of a new population from the states.

Like the other New Mexican towns, Albuquerque looks, at a little distance, like a vast brick yard. It appears to consist of hundreds of kilns of brick put up and daubed over with mud ready to be fired. It is true that many of the buildings are plastered nicely on the outside and whitewashed or painted white, and present a fine appearance on a near view.

Like the other towns, the streets are very narrow, generally not more than sixteen to twenty feet wide, with mud walls of buildings or corrals about fourteen feet high lining both sides. These passages take curious short turns, and are gloomy places to pass in the evening. In fact, they give plenty of opportunities for robberies and assassinations in the dark or even daylight, and we are told that such amusements have not been infrequent in the past.

Like all Mexican towns it has its plaza, consisting of a small square in the center of the town, bare and entirely unoccupied in this and most other cases, presenting a dreary and uninviting appearance. Santa Fe is the only town that has a pleasant plaza fenced in and beautified by large shade trees, fine walks, and a grand central monument to the union soldiers who fought the battles of the nation in New Mexico, but here in Albuquerque all is bare and ugly, not a tree except the few unsightly top-clipped cottonwoods in the suburbs. We did not see an outwardly fair looking building in the place. Even the cathedral, though large, was unsightly. Many of the residence, however, were finely finished inside, and supplied with rich and costly furniture. The old business of the place, which was formerly carried on by the rich old hidalgos, is passing from their hands. Some Germans and Jews have been encroaching upon their trade for a few years past, and more recently a "formerly of Kansas" in the person of Ex-Lieutenant Governor Stover has taken the lead in business, carrying the largest stock and much the largest trade in the place. His stock consists of almost everything that is wanted in the country and he buys everything the natives have to sell such as native wine, wool, pelts, hides, onions, cabbages, etc. He is a large owner and operator in the mines and seems to be on the road to immense wealth. We have him to thank for many attentions and courtesies.

There is not a decent hotel in the place, and one or more are sorely needed. The one at which we stopped, the best in town, gave us a reasonably good room, but the table was execrable. Hungry as we were after our days of mountain exercise, the filthy appearances were too much for our appetites. In justice to the Mexicans, we will state that this hotel was kept by an American, and that we do not think any Mexican could have stretched his avarice to the pitch of charging a dollar a meal for such fare.


The stage from Santa Fe came in early on the morning of the 18th bringing Col. Manning, who immediately set about his business, completed the purchase of a team and buggy, or rather light but strong double spring wagon suitable for seating four persons; and taking in A. B. Lemmon, O. F. Boyle, and the writer, drove down the valley of the Rio Grande.

Around the suburbs of Albuquerque we observed thousands and thousands of cords of sod cut up in chunks, about twenty inches long, ten inches wide, and six inches thick, and piled up to dry and harden; and to be used as adobe or brick for building purposes. The real adobe is made by mixing up mud of water, earth, and straw, moulding into shape and drying in the sun, when they become quite hard and durable on account of the peculiar nature of the sand, gravel, and clay packed earth. These sods seem to be cheaper and answer the same purpose, but can only be obtained in low, wet places near the river, where the roots of the grass have ramified through the earth, binding the surface mass together. These swarded spots are exceedingly rare in New Mexico. We observed that these awarded spots or tracts were alkali land, the wet and the alkali giving the surface the color of strong lye. Most of thhe valley is alkali land, but presents a dry surface, and the alkali appears over the surface like a heavy sprinkling of flour or soda.

What may be called the Rio Grande valley is forty or fifty miles wide, extending from the first series of high mountain ranges on the east to those on the west, but the greater part of this space is occupied by long slopes down from the mountains toward the river, interrupted by lower ranges, hills, and bluffs. Within the lower bluffs the valley is about five miles wide, along which the wide, shallow, sandy river, with its low banks, meanders its turbid waters.

From these bluffs the slope is gentle inward toward the river, and these gentle slopes are cut up all the way by numerous irrigating ditches. The amount of labor that has, during three centuries, been expended on these irrigating ditches, is incalculable. The main ditches start from the river, where they are supplied with water, and lead away from it as fast as the descent of the river will permit, and it usually takes several miles down stream to rise enough to reach the foot of the bluffs, and these mains are so frequent that in passing from the foot of the bluffs to the stream, several of them would sometimes be crossed. These main ditches are mostly not really ditches at all, for the bottom is about as high as the natural surface of the ground, and on each side high ridges of earth are piled to keep the waters within the limits of the channels thus formed. Some of these mains are probably over twenty miles long. From the sides of these are thousands of small sluices to lead water from the mains to every part of the fields within the mains.

The general appearance of the whole valley now is bare, sandy, dry, and desert-like, but there are some trees in places which have evidently been planted and cultivated. Most of them are cottonwood and many of them are quite large.

The inhabitants seem never to have thought of a tree as an ornament or a shade, but only for fodder for their burros and for fuel. They climb the trees and cut off the principal limbs, on which their little donkeys browse and almost make their living; what they cannot eat is used for other purposes so that nothing is lost, and then the trees put out another crop of limbs during the following summer to be harvested the next winter.

The roads were good in some places, but there were long, wide, areas of deep sand that could not be avoided, which constituted the worst kinds of roads. With a light load a team could not well pull through but a few minutes without stopping to breathe. It was the slowest traveling for so long a distance we ever saw. The soil is sand and gravel with some clay mixed, sometimes hard packed and sometimes loose and drifting. We saw numberless sand drifts, some of them covering many acres each. It did not seem to us that this soil was capable of producing any kind of a crop, but by means of irrigation they make it wonderfully fruitful. We saw white onions from six to ten inches in diameter, cabbage heads of enormous dimensions, red peppers of the largest kind hung up in store houses by the ton, the largest and most beautiful white wheat we ever saw, and many other things indicating wonderful fertility. All along in places we saw vineyards fenced in with the same material of which their houses are made, and we were treated with native wine by the mug full. We are told that they sell wine to the merchants at $12 per barrel, and that most of the other products sell at low prices.

The population of this valley is considerable. Every mile or two along both sides of the river is one of those brickyard-looking villages, containing a population from fifty up to hundreds, besides the principal towns, which reach each perhaps a thousand or more. These people are mostly Mexicans, who though reputed to be indolent, really do a great deal of work. Many of them have discarded the forked-stick plow and log-wheel cart, and are using American plows and wagons.

They are eminently social people and love to work in gangs. We saw them plowing in the fields in gangs of two to a dozen teams, and in gangs of ten to one hundred men in repairing old irrigating ditches, making new ones, and letting the water in. We came upon one gang of perhaps a hundred, who were just finishing a ditch miles in length and letting the water in at the head. They were jubilant and had a high old time of shouting and singing on the completion of the job, and finally started off down the river mounted on their little burros, about an average of two men on each animal.


The roads were so heavy with deep sand that, notwithstanding we were behind an excellent team of black horses in an easy buggy (as it is called here), we did not reach Belen, 32 miles, until awhile after dark. We put up at an adobe hotel or boarding house kept by American people, where Col. Manning made his headquarters.

In the morning we viewed the town. It has nothing remarkable about it for a Mexican town and nothing American in its outward appearance, but the site is good and the business is mainly done by one hidalgo firm and three Dutch firms, all of which had large stocks of goods. The population and business seemed to be considerable, but it had no printing office; in fact, there seems to be little reading and little demand for news and newspapers. The only papers we saw at Belen were copies of the Winfield COURIER and of the Topeka Commonwealth, which had been forwarded to Colonel Manning from Winfield.


On the 20th we four started out from Belen with the fine team of the Colonel to visit the mines and mountains of the Ladrones, La Joya, Soccorro, and Madalena. The Ladrones are about twenty-five miles southwest of Belen, the Madalenas about twenty-five miles southwest of the Ladrones, the Soccorro between the Madalenas and the town of Socorro, which is on the Rio Grande river forty-five miles below Belen, and the La Joya are about three miles east of the river and twenty-five miles below Belen.

It was a full day's drive over the mesa and up the long slopes to the Hanson mining camp, in the foot hills of the Ladrones mountains. Here we examined the principal lodes that were opened, but none had been opened to a depth of more than a few feet for the reason that they are newly discovered, being entirely unknown up to thre months ago. A great many claims have been taken, but it is too early yet to determine their richness. Several veins of mineral have been discovered and some of them have been traced three or four miles over the hills and gulches. Some assays have been made of selected specimens showing hundreds of ounces to the ton, but I think it not probable that any considerable lot of ore taken across the entire vein would mill more than twenty to forty ounces of silver and some gold. The veins are much wider than those of the Cerillos, and seem to be at the same depths somewhat richer. As nothing specially rich has been struck, there is no excitement and no rush.


These are a low range of mountains in the east part of the Rio Grande valley. Two or three mines have been heretofore worked by the Mexicans for the lead, which appears to be about 50 or 60 percent, of the ore. The Mexicans had rude smelters resembling stone forges used by blacksmiths, in which they melted out the lead, cast it into bars, and sold it to the merchants as lead only, who forwarded it to St. Louis; and the St. Louis purchasers got the benefit of what silver was in it. Some two years ago the price of lead went so low that the mining operations were suspended. Recently some Americans have got in there, Colonel Manning among the number, and have discovered that though valuable for galena at the present prices of lead, they are much more valuable for the silver they contain; and a new impulse has been given to prospectors, new leads have been discovered and traced, and the mines are likely to prove valuable, and possible bonanzas are looked for. The veins of mineral are from two to twenty feet wide, and look promising for richness at greater depths than have been yet reached.


These mines are mostly high up in the mountains. One vein has been traced about seven miles over hills, gorges, mountains, and canons. It is about twenty feet wide and of unknown depth. Other veins of similar width have been discovered and traced less distances. Like the La Joya, these mines have heretofore been worked for their galena, work suspended on account of the decline in lead, and now again commenced because found valuable for silver. These older mines have now fallen into the hands of Yankees, who will proceed to develop them. New leads are being discovered, and probably during the coming year these mines will be tested in considerable depths. The ores, contracts, and walls are pronounced to be much like those at Leadville.

The writer did not go to invest money in any any of these mines, but went only to see for himself something of New Mexico and her mines, now beginning to attract such wide attention and interest, but did run across a lead that looked very promising and did locate a claim thereon and named it the COURIER. When that mine will sell for a million he is ready to sell out, but he will not spend much money at present to find out how much it is worth.


In our travels and conversations, we heard of new mines on every hand. On the west side of the Ladrones, on both sides of the Del Oso, on both sides of the Manzanas, on both sides of the Sandias, at the Jicarillas, and at a score of other mountain ranges all over New Mexico, gold or silver mines have been discovered.

The mines which are now attracting the most attention are those of Grant county, in the southwest part of the territory, known as the Silver City and San Simon districts, and the gold mines of Lincoln county, in the central part of the territory. In the former districts, which have lately become much more developed than the more northern and eastern mines, it is stated that immense bonanzas of silver ore are reached, which will mill 200 ounces to the ton; and in the latter district, it is reported that extensive lodes of quartz have been discovered, extremely rich in wire gold, meaning that one can see threads of gold running throughout the quartz. These and other reports of rich discoveries must be taken at a heavy discount, of course. The limited time and expense which we had allowed ourselves prevented us from visiting these more distant mines, but we saw enough to convince us that New Mexico, with her hundreds of short mountain ranges and her hundreds of thousands of foot hills, has concealed within her bosom untold thousands of undiscovered mines of gold, silver, copper, and other valuable metals, that now the attention of prospectors and capitalists is being turned that way, that many of these mines will be thoroughly tested before very long, and that it would not be strange if Leadville and Virginia City would have rivals in New Mexico.

Now that the A., T. & S. F. railroad has reached the capital of this territory and is rapidly pushing on toward its most southwestern limits, making it as accessible as Colorado, the tide of emigration, of energy and capital, will flow into this oldest as well as newest part of our national domain, and something will come of it.

Having thus tried to be just to New Mexico and her mines, we have one word more to say.

In all mines and mining countries, it is the very few, comparatively, that better their condition and make money; but the many lose their time, their money, their health, and their morals. Perhaps, in the most favorable localities, one or two in a hundred make money and save it, but the ninety-eight or ninety-nine, if they ever come out alive, come out financially and in other ways much worse off than they went in. Perhaps Leadville was last year as favorable a place to go for mining as any ever known. How many of the 80,000 to 100,000, who went there last year, have or will come out better off than they went in? One thousand do, you say? Well, that is only one, or two at most, out of each hundred who went there. The best mine, the sure mine, is the mine of rich soil. The man who has 100 acres of good Cowley county land and works it faithfully and judiciously, under ordinary health and circumstances, will surely become wealthy, honored, and respected, and will enjoy life. Out of one hundred such, not more than one or two will be likely to fail. What a contrast! Never leave the farm, the shop, or any other calling for the mines, however wonderful the success of a few may have been.

These letters being written as observations and experiences of the writer along as they occur, are necessarily rambling and disconnected. It is proposed to continue them, however, in the succeeding numbers of the COURIER.

Belen, New Mexico, Feb. 24, 1880. D. A. M.







BEDROCK, Yavaipai Co., A. T., January 3rd, 1880.

ED. COURIER: Having had letters of inquiry about this far-off territory, and thinking that more of your many readers might, perhaps, like to hear something of the country, I take this means of answering their several inquiries.

We are here situated in what will ere long be as good a mining section as is found anywhere, but as in California, Nevada, Colorado, and elsewhere, it requires time and capital to develop the mines.

There are gold mines within half a mile of our cabin, that have kept their owners in plenty for years, by simply packing a few loads of quartz on two burros, from the ledge, which is several hundred feet up the side of the mountain, down to the arastra, the most primitive way of pulverizing quarts, and taking out by this crude process $500 a month, when they work steadily, which they seldom do. When questioned by me as to why they didn't keep the old horses going, they replied that they took out enough gold to keep them in grub and clothes, and that was all that they wanted. They were slowly developing their mines, and after awhile somebody would come along and give them a good price for them; and I suppose their logic was good for they are now in Prescott to receive $35,000 from a Chicago company for some of them, and say they have others just as good left.

A Mexican arastra is a circular bed of rock with an upright shaft in the center, to which arms are attached and to which heavy rocks are tied; to the upper arm an old horse is hitched, and dragging the rocks tied to the lower arms over the rock bed pulverizes the quartz, which is broken up into pieces about the size of Walnuts. Quicksilver is put in the cracks of the bed, and water thrown in to form a pulp, which causes the fine gold to sink and coming in contact with the quicksilver, is held there.

There are several silver mines that will work from $200 to $300 per ton. It seems almost incredible that such riches should be lying dormant, but considering the inaccessibility of the country a few months since, it is not to be wondered at. The murdering Apaches, too, a few years ago, made mining a very risky business, as several graves not far off conclusively show; but that is over now, and Mr. Indian is about as scarce here as with you in Winfield; and if the Santa Fe road runs through as the talk now is, the country will develop amazingly, and who knows but some time in the future, when Arizona's stores of gold, silver, copper, lead, etc., are opened out and her population more dense than it is at present, that Cowley will not contribute of her surplus wheat, corn, etc., in exchange.

This is not an agricultural country, nor will it ever be, though there is considerable good farming land, but farmers are never sure of a crop except by irrigating, and even that is uncertain as the streams often give out just when the water is most needed. There has already fallen more rain this winter than for any winter for several years, and the mountains are covered with a foot or two of snow; so there are hopes of better times for both farmers and miners another season.

It is a good deal harder pioneering here than it was in Cowley, for there a person could drive with a team nearly anywhere. Here, no roads; nothing but mountain trails that even a burro is squeamish about traveling over. My "pard" and I have managed to build a comfortable cabin of three rooms over two miles from the end of the wagon road, and had to pack everything on our shoulders; building materials, eatables, cooking utensils, etc. Your readers may judge this hunting for gold and silver is not all pleasure. Still there is a fascinating excitement about it, unexplainable to those who have never engage in it. Even the little ones soon learn it. Yesterday my little daugher (4 years old), picked up an old tin can and went down to the creek, saying she was going to "wash out some gold." Having seen me pan out some, she thought that she must.

We have a placer or gravel claim at which we are about ready to commence work. We have had to pack our lumber for sluices over two miles, but hope to get paid for it before long.

The climate here is very healthy and invigorating. Excellent drinking water, and any amount of timer; the hills are all covered with good pine timber, oak, walnut, juniper, alder, and ash: the latter all rather diminutive. Flour is $6.50 per sack of 98 lbs., butter 50 to 60 cents per lb., Bacon 25 cents, eggs, $1.25 per dozen, when they are to be had, potatoes 4 to 5 cents per lb., and green apples 25 cents per lb. So we don't have many green apple pies.

We are located on Big Bug Creek, 14 miles by mountain trail from Prescott, but over 30 miles by wagon road. Ladies are a scarce commodity: my wife and a lady four miles down the creek, being the only ladies in this section. Two or three companies are going to extensive operations in the spring, when population will come in, but it is a barbarous country, and as soon as we can sell out some mines for a good round figure, we want to go back to Winfield, and have some happy times with the old friends, "as in bright days of yore."





JANUARY 22, 1880.

Most of our readers will be interested in the letter on the first page of this paper from Mr. Ed. T. Johnson, in Arizona, giving a vivid pen picture of life and mining in that state. Mr. Johnson is a son of Mrs. S. D. Johnson, and the late Rev. Johnson, formerly pastor of the Congregational church of Winfield, a brother of Warner and Will. Johnson and of Mrs. McCommon and Mrs. Peadody. Ed. married Miss Eugenia Ward, a niece of Mrs. S. B. Bruner of this place, and owner of the Matthewson farm east of town. She is with her husband in the wilds of Arizona. We are glad that civilization is approaching them, and hope their venture will realize them untold sums of gold and silver.









ED. COURIER: I have noticed in some of my papers lately, articles written in favor of organizing the Indian Territory into a territory like the other territories of Uncle Sam's domain.

It seems to me, and no doubt to thousands of others, that this would be a step in the right direction.

Here we have a vast extent of the finest country within the limits of the United States, given over to a pack of landless vagabonds. A country surpassing in the beauty of the climate, the fertility of its soil, and in general features, any State in the federal union, or in the world, abandoned and turned over to make hunting grounds for a few lazy savages.

Let us take into consideration the extent of this magnificent country, reveling in the luxuriousness of a semi-tropical climate, and see if there are not homes for every Indian old enough to need one.

The Indian Territory contains 68,991 square miles, or 44,154,240 acres, a larger area, by 410,520 acres than the six New England States together.

The population of the Territory was, in 1870, 68,152.

We find by division, that there are in the Territory 276,964 farms of 160 acres each, or 633 acres for every man, woman, and child in it. Just think of it! 633 acres of the finest land in the world parceled out to one Indian, and you without a foot that you can call your own.

How long is this going to last?

Just so long as the people will let it.

Why not give each Indian 80 acres of land for a home, and let him live on it, or die on it, just as he likes.

There is no provision made to feed and clothe a white man. It seems to us that he must do this himself, or, like the Dutchman's horse, he will die; or, like the man in Winfield, he will be kicked out of doors to lie in the cold, sick or well.

We say, let each Indian have a deed of 80 acres of land; let him make of it a home, just the same as thousands of white people have done and are doing. Do this, and still there are 38,702,080 acres left which might be thrown open for settlement.

The Territory as it is now is a great curse to the law-abiding citizens of the five states which join it. Robbers, cutthroats, and outlaws of all kinds, after committing deviltries of every description in the adjoining states, find a safe and convenient retreat in the territory. It is really the house of a vast number of plug-uglies, thugs, sharpers, swindlers, murderers, and horse-thieves, of every grade and color.

Now if we were telling a lie about this, I would say, hang us for it, but everyone knows that we are telling the unvarnished truth.

I hope someone else will come out on this subject, for or against; let us have the sentiment of the people all around. Remember that a white man must work or die.

Only a few days ago an old man in Wisconsin was taken up as a tramp simply because he was walking along the public highway. That was the only reason the man could give, when asked what he was doing. He was old and careworn. The cold winds of many a hard winter had blown over his poor old head, and had helped to silver his hair. Yes, he was somebody's grandpa, too, very likely, but the merciless tramp-law of that state condemned the innocent old man to be taken to Madison.

The rough usage on the road, combined with the cold weather, was too much for the old man.

So he died!

Oh! What a lasting disgrace this is to the law-making body of Wisconsin! May the curse of Almighty God be on such a law as that, is my prayer; but then, he was a white man, you know. He had $12.00 in his pocket, which was found after his death. The idiots did not have sense enough to ask the old man his condition.

Had he been an Indian he would have been taken in, sheltered, and fed, and sent on his way.

Now, I am not writing this because I hate the Indian. On the contrary, I respect him. But then, I certainly think the white man is as good as an Indian, but the way they are treated now (that is to say, the way the government intends to treat them), I think it a fine thing to be an Indian.

Yes, it looks as if they were getting royalty paid them for being Indians.

I am certain they would be in far better condition, in a short time, than they are now, were they given this land and made to stay on it, the same as they are on the reservations; then that infernal big fraud and swindle, the Indian Department, would be dead, DEAD! DEAD!!






MARCH 4, 1880.

BEDROCK, Yavapai to., A. T., Feb. 10th, 1880.

ED. COURIER: The following questions have been asked me to be answered in your valuable paper, and I cheerfully comply, as I don't think I can "blow" this Territory enough, by my letters, to depopulate Cowley very perceptibly.

1. What is the distance from Santa Fe to Prescott, and

what route is best for emigrants?

About 450 miles, but it is off the road. Albuquerque is about 75 miles nearer, and the railroad is completed to that place. Passengers go through from the railroad in four days by daily stage, and I should think that would be the best way. There is another wagon road down the Rio Grande, that comes in by Tucson in the southern part of the Territory.

2. Are there any settlements on this route, and can

supplies for man and beast be obtained?

There are stage stations all along the route, and accommodations for travelers. Good grass all the way.

3. Are there any freighters, or goods to freight, over

this route?


4. Can emigrants reach your place on this route with the two-horse Kansas wagon?

Yes, if in good trim.

5. Are mules or horses best for emigrants?

Some claim mules are the best, and others say horses.

6. Could an outfit of two or three two-horse wagons and teams be sold at reasonable rates, and could

employment be obtained for them in freighting in the

mines or elsewhere?

They might, or might not; very uncertain at present.

7. Are there any valuable lands subject to preemption

or homestead law?

Yes, but not in this part of the Territory, as what little agricultural land there is, is mostly occupied.

8. Is there employment for new-comers and their families?

Not much at present, but will be very soon.

9. Are there any placer mines which can be successfully



10. Can industrious men obtain work in the quartz mines

for a part of the yield?

Such cases might occur but not very often.

11. Is it now believed that the railroad will pass

through Prescott and how soon?

Yes; inside of twelve months.

I would advise any of your readers, who think of coming out here, not to start without enough to keep them supplied with the necessaries of life, for a considerable time, for provisions are high and employment is scarce. It will be different after awhile when the boom reaches here that has already struck Colorado, and it is bound to come, for we have just as good mines if not better. Companies are forming in many of the cities of the east to operate here, and I predict that in a few years Arizona will head the list as a bullion-producing state.

Since writing my last we had had one of the heaviest snow storms I ever saw; more than four feet on the level, but it is mostly gone from the south hill sides. The oldest settlers say it has been, by far, the coldest and stormiest winter they ever knew in Arizona. It is threatening another snow storm as I write this. It will be a great benefit to the whole Territory the coming season. We had had cold, frosty nights for some time but we don't feel the cold, as the days are warm, and at night we pile the logs on the fire-place and burn about a quarter-cord of wood each day. The weather has been such that we have not been able to do much but keep up the supply of wood.

To give you an idea how simple little accidents are often the means of finding rich mines, I will give you an illustration.

A few days since we had to go to the camp above us to sharpen some mining tools, and coming back we kept up the hill, above the trail, to avoid the deep snow, picked up a piece of float (quartz detached or broken from the ledge) from a spot of ground where there was no snow, brought it home, and examining it, found several specks of gold; went back the next day and found plenty more, by picking and shoveling. We think we have what will prove to be one of the richest gold mines in the country.

There seems to be more luck or chance in finding mines than anything else, for there were several old prospectors hunting for mines all last summer, who almost every day went within a very few feet of where we found the rock full of gold.

I would not be understood as holding out inducements that your readers would be equally fortunate, should they come out here, but there are undoubtedly hundreds and hundreds of mines, good mines, to be found all over the mining districts of Arizona, and one person is just as apt to stumble upon them as another, after he becomes a little familiar with the different characters of quartz.

We have a good saw-mill two miles below us, with a five-stamp quartz mill attached, and expect two ten-stamp mills to go up in the spring, when I think the mines of Big Bug mining district will be heard from. We believe we have bright prospects, and live with great expectatins. More anon.

E. T. J.




MARCH 4, 1880.

We saw on the Mountain Division of the A., T. & S. F. railroad, running between Trinidad and Santa Fe, a magnificent new locomotive, bright as a dollar, with six large drive-wheels, bearing the charmed name of WINFIELD. How proudly grand that engine looked to us! We felt that our bright young city was honored among the far off mountains, and it seemed to us that we owned a share in that machine.





MARCH 4, 1880.

During our absence in New Mexico for the last few weeks, Prof. R. C. Story has ably conducted the editorial columns of this paper. He takes to the editorial harness as naturally as a duck to water, and we are highly pleased with his work. In last week's issue he commended Mr. Hackney as a candidate for the State Senate, and Mr. Lemmon as a candidate for re-election to the office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction.

These must be taken as his own views, arising from his generous appreciation of the persons named and not be construed to commit the COURIER to the advocacy of either for the offices mentioned.

It is rather early yet for us to settle upon candidates whom we will support for nomination for these and other offices. We do not doubt that when in due time the candidates are in the field for nomination, we shall have our choice among them and advocate each choice.

The editorial in relation to Mr. Lemmon appearing as it does in the COURIER, might be regarded by some as equivalent to an announcement of his candidacy, and we write this more particularly to set him right before our readers. Mr. Lemmon is not seeking a nomination for State Superintendent or for any other office. He feels that the State has done well by him, and that although he has worked earnestly to advance its educational interests, he has been well paid, and the State owes him nothing. He recognizes the fact that there are many men in Kansas in every way qualified to do the work with honor and profit to the State, whose claims should not be ignored, and he is not disposed to be in their way. All those who have advocated his candidacy have done so on their own motion and without his privity or knowledge.




MARCH 4, 1880.

For the information of settlers upon the public and Osage Indian lands within the district of lands subject to sale at the Land Office in this city, we publish below copies of letters received from Washington by the Register and Receiver, upon subjects of importance to all parties concerned. Neighboring publishers, and those in remote parts of the district, will give interesting news to their readers and to the settlers by publishing these letters. The first one is as follows.



WASHINGTON, Jan. 17, 1880.

Registers and Receivers of United States Land Offfices:

GENTLEMEN: Referring to circular of April 15, 1879, and act of March 3, 1879, requiring published notice of intention to make final proof in homestead and pre-emption cases, you are now instructed to require claimants in all cases hereafter to specify in form No. 1, the day and date on which they will appear with their witnesses for the purpose of making proof, and, in homestead cases they must give the official name and residence of the officer before whom the proof is to be made.

You will also request each claimant to name four of his neighbors who may be able to testify as to his compliance with the law, and two of whom will be competent witnesses when proof is made. Such a course will prevent much inconvenience and delay. The post-office address of the witnesses should be given in all cases, it not being sufficient to give the county only. You will see that the foregoing requirements are incorporated in form No. 2 [3 or 4] "Notice for Publication," so that such notice will hereafter be substantially in the following form:

"Notice is hereby given that the following named settler has filed notice of his intention to make final proof in support of his claim and secure final entry thereof, and that said proof will be made before the clerk of the court of Reno county, at the county seat, on Thursday, the 22d day of April, 1880, viz: John Doe, homestead application No. 1786, for northeast quarter section 30, town 25, range 10 west, and he names the following witnesses to prove his continuous residence and cultivation of said tract: John Smith, Tom Jones, and Dave Daine, of Sego, Reno county, and Peter Snodgrass, of Ocoee, Reno county."



The object of the law requiring such notice, is to give the parties having advance claims or filings, or to those having knowledge that the claimant has not complied with the requirements of the statutes, full notice of the time and place of presenting proof, in order that opportunity may be given them to be heard prior to the perfection of an entry.

You will use the blanks on hand, making the necessary alterations, until you receive new and revised blanks from this office. Very respectfully,


Acting Commissioner.


After the receipt of the above letter, some doubt was had as to the proper construction of it, and the Register and Receiver wrote for further light upon the subject, with the following result.


WASHINGTON, Jan. 31, 1880.

Register and Receiver, Wichita, Kansas:

I am in receipt of your letter of 21st inst., asking certain questions relative to instructions contained in circular "C" of January 17, 1880, [the preceding letter] under act of March 3, 1879, requiring published notice of intention to make proof. In reply, I have to advise you as follows.

First, Where parties have already given notice under the former practice, without designating the day and date on which they intend to appear, they need not be required to again advertise in the form prescribed by the said circular.

Second. Parties who desire to make proof on pre-emption claims, may appear with their witnesses before any officer, (who with the witnesses must be named in the "notice") authorized to administer oaths and having a seal, and make proof on forms 21 and 22 (testimony of claimant and witnesses.) but the final affidavit of the claimant must be made before the Register or Receiver of the district within which the land is situated. (See section 2262, revised statutes.)

Third. The published notice need not specify the day and date on which the claimant will appear at the district office to make his final affidavit, if his own and his witnesses' testimony be taken elsewhere after publication of the proper notice.

Fourth. Testimony cannot be taken in any case before day and date named in the notice, which must not be less than thirty (30) days after the first publication of said notice, which must be published weekly (5) five times.

Very respectively,


Acting Commissioner.


Substantially the same form of notice as that given above for the homestead proofs, will be used in all cases of preemption proof. Wichita Eagle.




MARCH 4, 1880.

Dr. Cooper has returned.

Several chiefs of the Kaw tribe were lounging around town Monday.

G. W. Rogers' new bread wagon is a beauty.

Mr. D. C. Beach is back from his eastern trip.

Mr. Wm. Smith is in Chicago purchasing a stock of boots and shoes.

Will Robinson returned from Illinois Saturday evening. He is on both legs again.

The "bread war" still continues with unabated fury, and the cry is fifty loaves for a $1.

A new stone sidewalk is being put down in front of Mrs. Kretsinger's millinery store.

Messrs. Curns & Manser sold the M. L. Read farm to Mr. Lewis Myers, of Ohio, for $3,000 one day last week.

An army of workmen are engaged on the Morehouse-Baird building. It will be put up as rapidly as possible.

The gunsmith shop on Ninth avenue was broken into by some unknown person Sunday night and several revolvers taken.

The Catholics are holding a series of mission meetings at their church, on Eighth Avenue. Rev. Filley is conducting the services.

The school board has purchased the quarter block of Henry Brown, on 10th avenue, Manning's addition, on which to erect the second ward school house.

Brother Hughes, of the Traveler dropped into our sanctum very unexpectedly last Thursday. He came up from the City in General Manager Strong's car.

The Winfield Social Club had a business meeting Tuesday evening, when it was decided to have a grand calico ball on the evening of the 18th of this month.

W. M. Allison left for Topeka, Wednesday morning. He goes to attend the meeting of the State Democratic Central Committee.

A large stone, 7 feet wide, 14 feet long, and 6 inches thick was delivered in front of the Winfield Bank Monday. It will be dressed and put down in front of the Bank building.

We see by the Kingman papers that Holloway & Moffatt have opened a grocery store at that place. This must be a Winfield enterprise as the names are synonymous with those of two of our leading citizens.

Young Mr. Montgomery, a son of Col. Montgomery of Territorial fame, called on us Monday. Col. Montgomery had a warm place in the heart of many old Kansans, and the son is an honorable representative of the father.

Last Wednesday Mr. Jas. P. Stuber and Miss Sarah E. Taylor were married at the Williams House by Rev. Platter. Mr. Stuber has been a resident of Richland township for several years and is one of our best citizens. The bride came recently from the east.

The editor returned from New Mexico Saturday evening, having enjoyed the trip exceedingly. He left Mr. O. F. Boyle down the Rio Grande about 130 miles southwest of Santa Fe, who will go farther, and is expected home in about a week. Mr. Lemmon returned to Topeka.

Last Monday we received a call from Mr. D. Harrader, late of Douglass county. Mr. Harrader has purchased an interest in the new grist mill, about 10 miles above town on the Walnut, and will hereafter be a resident of Cowley. We commend Mr. Harrader on his good judgment in changing Douglass for Cowley county and hope that he may be benefitted thereby.

One of the principal features of our county and one which is a subject of comment by visitors generally is the magnificent building stone and flagging supplied by our quarries. The building stone is soft and easily dressed and makes a first class wall. The stone is taken from the quarries in any shape or size desired, from stone steps twelve feet long and sixteen inches square to flagging fourteen feet square and six inches thick.

We learn of a miraculous escape from death which occurred in Pleasant Valley township last week. Messrs. Beach and ________were engaged in blasting out a well and after putting in a load poured a lot of powder around the fuse, and threw a pan full of coals from the top of the well in order to touch it off. After waiting half an hour for the blast to explode, Mr. Beach concluded to go down and see what was the matter. On reaching the bottom of the well, he happened to push one of the coals, which had not gone out, into the powder, which flashed up into his face, burning him terribly. As soon as possible after the powder ignited, he grabbed the rope and hollered to Mr. _________, who was at the windlass, to pull away, and began climbing hand over hand for the top of the well. When he was about halfway up, the blast exploded, throwing two large pieces of stone past him and twenty feet above the top. When pulled out, he was nearly suffocated, the skin on his face was burned to a crisp, and he presented the appearance of having been through a brick bat riot.

Mrs. Mansfield has the sleepers down for her new brick building.

Archy Stewart's brick restaurant is ready for the roof.

Several exodusters from the far south arrived in town last week. They are at present quartered in the west part of town.

[??? EXODUSTERS ???]

Mr. Eugene Baird is in the east laying in a mammoth stock of goods for the New York store.


Winfield Courier, March 4, 1880.

Sheriff Shenneman started to Leavenworth with Reynolds, who was convicted of grand larceny at the last term of court and sentenced to one year in the penitentiary.

We have been shown a copy of the directory got up by J. C. Coulter for Emporia. It is a very complete book and reflects great credit upon Emporia and its businessmen. Mr. Coulter is at present busy getting up a similar one for Winfield.

The real estate business of Messrs. Pryor & Kinne is assuming large proportions. They are both gentlemen of integrity and business ability, and people are beginning to learn that their representations can be relied upon. One day last week, they sold two farms for $1,600 each, and negotiated loans on seven others.


Winfield Courier, March 4, 1880.

Sheriff Shenneman has notified all persons against whom he holds tax warrants that the same were in his hands for collection. Many have come in and settled, thereby saving mileage. He now notifies those against whom he holds warrants that on and after the 9th inst., 10 cents per mile will be added.

Messrs. A. T. Spotswood & Co., our popular grocers, have leased the new room on the corner of Main Street and 10th Avenue, now being erected by Mr. Morehouse, and will move their stock in as soon as the room can be got ready for them. Spotswood & Co. are doing a rushing business and must have more room.


Winfield Courier, March 4, 1880.

Saturday night, the closing one of the "Union Spy," drew an immense audience. A special train from Arkansas City came in early in the evening, with a large number of the elite of that city on board. Altogether the Spy has been a great success, and has netted the companies over $300. The total receipts were $665.00.

Last Saturday Mrs. McNeil brought suit against Charles H. Payson for obtaining a deed under false pretences. The case was rather a mixed-up affair, and there is no knowing how it will terminate. Mr. Payson was bound over to the district court in the sum of $2,000, and in default of bail was committed to jail.

Abe Steinbarger, of the Courant, has a $20,000 libel suit on his hands, in which Mrs. Emma Albright, of the Journal, sues him for defamation of character. Ever since Abe began to get wealthy and build a new office and blow about it, we have been expecting that someone would pick him up as a fit victim for a libel suit.

Messrs. Jas. McDermott and A. P. Johnson have formed a co-partnership in the practice of law under the firm name of McDermott & Johnson. This will make a strong team. Mr. McDermott is an old resident of Cowley, has occupied many prominent positions in gift of the people, and is a man of acknowledged ability. Mr. Johnson is tolerably well known here, is a graduate of Ann Arbor law school, and ranks well in his profession. We wish the new firm abundant success.

Mr. David S. Sherrard, of Mercer County, Illinois, about ten days ago, and after visiting several days in the northern part of the state, came to Winfield to visit his old friend and pastor, Rev. J. Cairns, and look up the country with a view to a future residence, but thought he would not buy until after he returned; but after visiting around for ten days, he considered to take up his residence in our city. He has just bought By. Terrell's house and lot in the east part of the city; also a quarter-section of land from Mr. John Pryor, near to Winfield; and 240 acres from Col. J. C. McMullen near the State line, for a stock farm. He is a first-class citizen, and more of the same kind will follow soon. Mr. Sherrard returned at once to settle up his business and return to the city and state of his adoption.




February 27, 1880.

ED. COURIER: Our city booms. Building is the order of the day, and one would hardly recognize the city of today as that he had seen two or three days ago.

Our "pussy" friend, Mr. Lane, has commenced the erection of a business house on Main street and has the frame up. He will crowd it to completion and run a first-class restaurant and confectionery.

Mr. ______ of Timber creek, has his store nearly completed, and will in a few days open a stock of groceries.

Mr. Grant, the efficient agent of S. A. Brown & Co., has commenced buying grain, seeds, hides, etc., and is doing a lively business in lumber, lime, and cement.

All ye farmers wanting flax seed, can get almost any kind of trade you want for your spring crop of flax seed.

The Cunningham Bros. are still cutting stone for their two-story business house.

Mr. Schooling has built a large blacksmith shop and opened out for business, giving us the benefit of competition in that line.

Con Harrington is building a new residence, and says he won't pay any more rent after this week. Con is a good boy, but the first carpenter we have ever known to build a house for his own use.

Mr. McIntosh has his building nearly completed and will put in some fine billiard and pool tables for the accommodation of those who like to "fool" away their time.

The latest news from the Grouse is that the city of Torrance has "died a-boomin," and Grouse City, Torrance, or Windyville, is among the things that "might have been."

Our enterprising young townsmen, Pete Bell and Charlie Snodgrass, have just finished burning a 600 bushel kiln of lime, and are now prepared to furnish the town and vicinity at low rates.

Mr. Leonard, of the firm of Ford & Leonard, has just returned from a trip to his home in Missouri. He returns to us the same jolly old bachelor.

Miss Carrie McCumber, a practical milliner and dressmaker, will occupy rooms in Mr. Legg's building as soon as completed.

Jerry Barnett is pushing the new stone work for Ford & Leonard's new building, and will have it ready for the roof in about 10 days.

Burden is not yet the biggest town in the State, but has as many advantages for building a town as will be found in any locality, and the day is not far distant when it will be among the most important trading points on the K. C., L. & S. railway.





MARCH 4, 1880.

There was a large prairie fire on the 27th, which did some damage, besides burning the country over. We think people should learn not to put fire out where it could get away from them.

The Literary at Omnia school-house is in good running order. They have a good paper, with Harry Hall as editor, and Mrs. F. E. Williamson, assistant.

Parties from Indiana, relatives of Mr. Hatery, have recently located in this part of drouthy Kansas and are satisfied.



The call for a meeting to elect a new committeeman to fill the place of A. L. Crow, was fairly responded to. Mr. Crow was asked if he had anything to say in his own defense, when he arose and said that he did not intend to leave the Republican party, and that he was too fast in letting his name come before the fusion convention, and that he expected to be a Republican from now on.

On motion he was retained as our Central Committeeman, and the meeting adjourned.





MARCH 11, 1880.

We left Belen, New Mexico, on the night of February 24th at midnight, on the stage, and arrived at Albuquerque, 32 miles, at 8 o'clock a.m. of the 25th. It took all day and until 9 o'clock in the evening to make 50 miles further, to Harlowe station, on the railroad. The road from Belen to Harlowe station up the Rio Grande was mostly over a plain, but much of the way the sand was so deep that our progress was very slow. From this station to Santa Fe, 25 miles, the road was excellent though uphill, rising about 2,000 feet or more in this distance, but we got along well and reached Santa Fe before 3 a.m. of the 26th.


While we were down the Rio Grande valley, the days were quite warm and pleasant, but the nights were invariably cold. The night we spent in Manning's tent, at the Ladronas mountains, was so cold that, though bountifully supplied with blankets, it was impossible to keep comfortable. The other nights we slept within the adobe houses, which are always warm and comfortable. During the night, wherever there was a wet place, the mud and water was frozen solid, but would soon thaw in the daytime. We encountered no storms after the snow storm the day succeeding our first arrival at Santa Fe. That storm extended down the valley below Belen, but in two or three days the snow had entirely disappeared except among the high mountains.

We observed daily, however, banks of clouds hovering over the high mountains which sometimes lapped down the sides, and after these clouds had disappeared, the mountains would be whiter. The mountain range between Santa Fe and Las Vegas is the highest which we saw in New Mexico. This range extends north four hundred miles, even beyond Leadville, in Colorado, and is known as the Sangre de Christo range. From the 8th, when we first came in sight of this range, to the 27th, when we last saw it, the amount of snow that seemed to have accumulated there was immense. These seemed to be in a snow storm much of the time, though where we were, down the valley, the skies were clear.

Some of the old inhabitants expressed the opinion that more snow had fallen among these mountains in these nineteen days than had ever before been known to fall in the same length of time. They predicted that the streams which rise in these mountains, the Rio Grande, Pecos, Cimmaron, Canadian, Arkansas, and Kaw, will be high during May and June.

During the winter a year ago they say but little snow fell among these mountains, and the result was that the slopes of the mountains and the valleys of these streams were not watered by the melted snows enough to produce vegetation to any considerable extent; the ground was left bare, no rains fell, and last summer was the dryest season they ever had.

The prospective melting of the snows among the high mountains will fill the Rio Grande, and thus that valley will be well watered this year; but the lower ranges of mountains in the central and southern parts of the territory have but little snow, so that the table lands, canons, gorges, and mesa on either side of the Rio Grande, embracing a large part of New Mexico, seem to have no better prospect than last year.


In the valleys of streams supplied with water from high mountains, irrigation is the rule, and they raise excellent crops of almost everything, but outside of these valleys, the country seems almost bare of vegetation. Frequent dwarf cedar bushes, clumps of sage brush, cactus bushes, and yucca or soap weed are all that appear now, but there is a fine, short grass that grows in little bunches, sometimes widely scattered and in places half covering the ground, that affords sustenance to thousands of herds of cattle and flocks of sheep the year round. We could scarcely see this grass as it makes so little show now; but we saw many cattle and sheep feeding, or at least pretending to feed upon it, and these animals, though far from being fat, were in very good condition for the time of the year.

It is claimed this is an excellent grazing country, that the grasses are wonderfully nutritious, equal to grain, and much more healthy for stock. It is true that there are thousands upon thousands of animals pastured here that do well; but it seemed to me that 160 acres of Cowley county prairie would feed as many cattle and sheep as 160,000 acres of New Mexico table land would.


While on our way to the Madalena mountains, when about eighteen miles from the Rio Grande in the recesses among the mountains, we came upon a flock of three thousand sheep, which were shut up in a pen enclosed with a ledge and pine and cedar brush, and about thirty Mexicans were having a general sheep shearing sprre. While some caught sheep and tied their legs, others with their long bladed shears slashed skilfully into the wool. The shearers were considered experts, and did really dispatch the work with amazing rapidity, sometimes cutting over eight to ten square inches to a clip. We were told that one of these experts would shear two hundred sheep in a day. We did not observe that they took off much skin, but should think they took off at least two-thirds of the wool, and left the sheep looking as though they had been sheared by a threshing machine. The wool left on the sheep is not lost for they will get it the next shearing, and they shear twice a year.

These sheep were natives and not well wooled at the skirts of the fleece. The wool was coarse, of good length for a six month's growth, unwashed, but very clean, comparatively, and would weigh from three to four pounds to the fleece. They twisted up the fleeces and threw them upon the pile. These sheep were good sized and in fair condition. We were told that large numbers of such sheep could be bought at from seventy-five cents to a dollar a head, and it is thought that the cheapest way to get into the sheep business largely in Cowley would be to buy these and drive to Kansas, and there cross with the Paular Merino, which produces a hardy breed, most profitable for wool and increase, and of value for mutton.

The cattle of this country are natives not as large or as long horned as the Texas cattle, and from what we know about them, we can conceive of no use for them except for beef.


While in New Mexico we heard much of Victorio and his band of Apache Indians. One day it would be rumored that he was one side of the Rio Grande, the next day we would hear he was on the other side. There were reports of small fights, but no further reports of other depredations. On our way down, at Albuquerque, we saw two companies of colored cavalry on their way to join in the pursuit. The next we heard was that the Indians had disappeared and all trace of them was lost. On the 22nd of February, when we were at the Madalena mountains, 160 miles southwest of Santa Fe, we met some Mexicans who told us that Victorio was only twenty miles from us southwest, hiding in the San Matteo mountains. There does not seem to be any trouble between the Mexicans and Apaches. The trouble, say the Mexicans, arose from the persistance of Americans in going into what Victorio calls his territory and mining there after he had forbid them, and the Mexicans seemed to sympathize with Victorio in the position he took.

The fact is, Victorio and the Apaches are savages. Their tribes have always been wild and uncivilized, and always will be. So long as they exist, they will do as their nature and religion teach them, and prey upon others as far as they dare to. There is not the least use to try to teach them better, to civilize them. Long before you can teach a single one of them to respect the rights of Americans, their race will be extinct. Perhaps you might educate a rattlesnake so that he would not insert his fangs, but it will not do to depend upon him. Savages change only the slowest. It takes generations to make a perceptible change in the character of a tribe.


There are four civilizations now existing side by side in New Mexico. The Apaches, Utes, and some other type of "the noble red man" of the sensationalists of the past, low, dirty, de-

graded, beastly, treacherous, having nothing but their fears that can be trusted. The next race is the Pueblo Indian or Aztec; the third the Mexican; the fourth is the new comers or Americanos.


These people are called Indians, but are not properly so called. They are named from the Spanish pueblo, village, because when first found they lived in villages. They are generally considered to be the same race which Cortez found occupying Mexico 350 years ago; but I conclude they are a somewhat different race, that of the Moquis found in Arizona and perhaps even more ancient than the Aztecs, and when first discovered by Europeans, more highly civilized than were the Aztecs. They have always been an agricultural, and a quiet and peaceable people. They keep goats, burros, and some cattle and sheep, and cultivate the land, raising various crops by means of irrigation, as their ancestors have done from time immorial. They are rather smaller in stature than either the Indians or the Mexicans, dark complexioned, regular features, but straight, black hair.

Their style of building is the feature of their life most distinct from the Mexicans. Their houses are of adobe walls and dirt or earth roof, but different from Mexican houses in that they have no openings, either doors or windows, in the outer walls of their houses, and in that their houses are two stories. The first story walls are about twelve feet high to a shoulder of dirt covered roof of a few feet wide to an inner wall, which goes up about ten feet higher, forming a second story. The entrance is through the roof of this upper story. When you visit them, you approach the castle and call out. An inmate hears and climbs up a ladder one story inside, pulls up the ladder and climbs on it to the upper roof, pulls up the ladder and descends on it to the lower roof outside, places the foot of the ladder on the ground outside when the visitor climbs up to the jog, the ladder is pulled up and both climb on it to the upper roof, from which both descend on the same ladder to the interior.

This old style of building was adopted in early times when a peaceful people wanted protection against warlike enemies. Their quiet disposition leads them to observe the forms of the prevailing Catholic religion for the sake of peace with their hot-headed, superstitious neighbors, but they adhere, in fact, to their ancient religion, which is substantially that of the sun worship with its attending isms, but, withall, at least as little superstition as attends the prevailing religion as held by the ignorant Mexicans.


These are a mixed race of Spaniard and Indian or Aztec, largely of the latter blood. They are scarcely more intelligent than the Pueblos, and less industrious and moral. In each of their principal towns or grants is a head man, who usually claims to be pure Castilian, is usually intelligent, and appears to own most of the property of the community, and, as Manning says, "is the big bull of the herd." Some of these are extremely wealthy and live in barbaric splendor, mixed with the accompaniments of European and American wealth. The names of Baca, Chaves, Romero, Otero, etc., are among the few which are heard as the head men of these grants. These seem to have in charge the material interests of their communities, as the priests have control of the spiritual interests.


Before arriving at Belen we heard many stories concerning what Manning was doing in New Mexico, and as many have inquired of us and seem to take interest in his operations, we would say here that these reports are generally wide of the truth.

Mr. Manning has not invested $10,000 in the mines, nor is he building a hotel; but he is stirring around among them, and laying the foundation for a fortune. He has bought interests in several of the best mines of the Ladrones, La Joya, Soccorro, and Madalena districts, and has located for himself a considerable number of mines on leads which are very promising, discovered by the aid of a Mexican whose services he has secured, and who is familiar with the whole country. His mining interests would now sell for a large sum, and should something in their vicinity prove to be very rich, as is probable during the coming season, he will realize large sums. He is engaged with several of the leading men of the territory in a town site scheme, which site being central to several important mining camps and central to the territory, sure of a railroad this summer, and a probable point for the junction of the Guaymas and California branches, has facilities for a town of no mean importance, and a possibil-ity of becoming the future capital of the state. The name of the town will probably be Galena. He keeps an excellent team for getting about over the country, is in good health, and appears to enjoy his situation.

More next week.




March 11, 1880.

Mr. John Exton has just completed a sidewalk of stone in front of Lawrence's drug store. It is a splendid walk, much better and more durable than can be made of lumber. The stone used are very fine and were purchased from the quarry at Winfield. This walk only cost about sixteen cents per square foot. Mr. Exton is a contractor in stone work and always does his work well. There are walks in this city that he put down eight years ago that are as good as the day they were completed.

Wichita Republican.




MARCH 11, 1880.

Superintendent J. G. Haskell returned last night from Winfield, where he has been to see the Cowley county stone, which is bid for use in the new U. S. courthouse. He brought samples with him which will be immediately forwarded to the department at Washington; and until they decide whether the stone will do or not, nothing further will be done. Capital.




MARCH 11, 1880.

Kansas City, March 4: The Board of Trade Hall was filled to overflowing tonight to listen to speeches by Col. Boudinot, Hon. B. J. Franklin, and others, in favor of opening the Indian Territory to settlement.

United States Marshal Allen, who had received instructions from Attorney General Devens to be present at the meeting and read the President's recent proclamation against the invasion of the Territory, at the opening of the meeting, was required to stand, and he executed the order.

The assemblage was made up of and controlled by the best citizens of Kansas City, gathered together to give the expression of their views in regard to the opening up to peaceable settlement of the Indian Territory, and had no sympathy with the forcible invasion sentiment. The meeting adopted a lengthy memorial to Congress, with the accompanying resolution, embodying some strong points in favor of opening the Territory, and praying Congress to take such action as is consistent with the best interests of all concerned, and will soonest bring about the desired end.









MARCH 11, 1880.

Quite a notable event occurred out of Dexter last Thursday evening, March 4th. We say out of town, or, to use a homely expression, in the suburbs. It was quietly reported in the beginning of the week that a surprise visit was to be made at the house of a friend, and invitations accordingly were extended. It seems that our neighbor had built him a cozy little house and moved into it the day before, and the surprise was intended to celebrate the event.

Several wagon loads might have been seen in the early part of the evening, as jolly and merry a crew as you ordinarily find, slowly wending their way through the shadows to the neat little cottage situated without the walls of the city. Silently and unostentatiously the procession moved on, with now and then a song or snatch of some old time melody to break the monotony of the ride. A voice now and then might have been heard in a subdued tone, at times merging into a whisper, lest the night air had ears and invisible spirits were on the alert to forestall our anticipated pleasures.

At last we arrived and took the domicile by storm, appropriating every part and making things move "merry as a marriage bell." As a sumptuous repast was being prepared and the guests enjoying themselves to the brim, something else, by way of episode, came upon us like a thunder clap and startled us all. Mr. E______ and Miss L. N_______ appeared upon the scene, taking their position on the threshold of the door, clad in bridal costume, to go through the mystic rite that was to make them one. A part of the company, when they saw the preacher standing and talking, supposed that it was a speech he had been invited to make preparatory to the supper, and did not discover that it was a part of the wedding service until he asked the party to join hands. Congratulations were extended, and the blank amazement attending the surprise was turned into a stream of happy and pleasant send-offs to the youthful pair.

The most amusing part of this festive proceeding, and one which deserves to be immortalized, is this: A few days previous to this event, a turkey had been secured for a birthday party in honor of the groom's mother, to come off the latter part of the week, and which our venerable friend designed should grace that joyous occasion. The turkey getting wind of the birthday anniversary, very haughtily walked off to a neighbor on Grouse and solicited the privilege of being decapitated and stuffed for the marriage banquet, and well our stalwart friend did his part. You may imagine the surprise when our venerable friend saw her only turkey embellishing the feast of good things, and doing all in its power to spice up the occasion, better pleased to be sacrificed on the altar of matrimony than to grace and dignify a birthday party.

Everyone was satisfied and well pleased with the two

surprises. SUB.




MARCH 11, 1880.

Lafe Pence starts for Indiana in a few days on a visit to his old home.

C. R. Mitchell came up Saturday to attend the meeting of the Central Committee.

Henry Asp is devoting considerable time to the improvement of his premises on 7th avenue.

Maj. Gunn has established his headquarters here for the present, and will work on westward.

J. W. Douglass, one of the leading citizens of New Salem, and an old subscriber called Saturday.

The Union building is ornamented with a handsome new awning which helps the appearance considerably.

Gen. Green has had a handsome sign, with the map of Cowley county on each side, put up in front of his office. It attracts considerable attention.

It is reported that the famous silver mine of Field & Leiter at Iron Hill, Leadville, Colorado, has been sold to New York parties for three millions of dollars.

The Mulvane Herald is a new paper to be started at Mulvane by Tell W. Walton. Tell is the right kind of a "feller" to make a good paper, and we wish him unlimited success.

Last week Mr. Nat. Snyder shipped a trio of thorough-bred Buff Cochins from his poultry yards to a gentleman in Joplin, Mo. Nat is gaining a wide reputation as a poultry breeder.

G. W. Gully returned Monday evening from Santa Fe. He says that the A., T. & S. F. road is now carrying freight to Wallace, the station where the road reaches the Rio Grande.

Hon. L. S. Hamilton, late of Parsons, who worked up the Parsons narrow-gauge railroad project three years ago, has pitched his tent in Winfield, and will attend to a road of a broader gauge.

The reading room under the supervision and excellent management of our ladies is gaining popularity rapidly. The collection of books and periodicals is very large, and embraces most of the leading authors.

Mr. Levi, proprietor of the Philadelphia Clothing House, has been opening up a choice lot of goods in the last few days. Mr. Frank Gallotti has accepted a position as salesman for Mr. Levi, the new clothier. Frank is a first-class salesman.

The invitations for the calico ball are out and display considerable ingenuity. They are printed on calico, and bear the inscription, "No calico dress - no dance." The parties given by the social club are always enjoyable affairs and the calico ball promises to be one of their best.

Major Thompson, with his characteristic enterprise, has eclipsed all of his competitors in the way of a sign. We did not learn which one of his boarders suggested the idea so artisti-cally portrayed by Herrington, but suppose it must have been Judge Brush.


Winfield Courier, March 11, 1880.

Last Friday evening one Ollie Martin was arrested by Sheriff Shenneman and turned over to Constable Wilson of Cedarvale. Martin is charged with attempting to rape Mrs. Garrigas of that place, the Tuesday preceding his arrest. He will probably learn a trade at Leavenworth, which is a smaller punishment than such villains deserve.

The way the walls on the Morehouse and Baird building spring up is a surprise to the oldest inhabitant. There seems to be a race between the two contractors to see who can do the best job in the shortest time. We will watch the work and let our readers know who comes out ahead.

Messrs. Boyle & Melville have succeeded in securing 40 acres in the Garden City district, near Leadville, Colorado. After they had secured the tract, it became known that some of the richest mineral about Leadville had been discovered on the tract. This will prove a big fortune to our friends.

W. H. Strahan, late a salesman in the unrivaled wholesale mercantile establishment of A. T. Stewart & Co., N. Y., called upon us on Monday. He is here for the invigorating effects of pure fresh air, and proposes to go into sheep raising in this county as a change from the confined air in the avenues of trade in the metropolis.

Monday morning several of the "soiled doves" from the Mills residence, in the south part of town, appeared before Judge Boyer, charging one Michael Dwyer, a section boss on the

S. K. & W. road, with stealing $13.50 from one of the inmates. After an absence of several hours, the jury returned a verdict of not guilty and Michael went on his way rejoicing.

J. B. Lynn has associated with him in business Mr. J. S. Luce, of Illinois. Mr. Luce brings a large amount of capital, has had a large business experience, and has selected Winfield as the best place for the investment of his capital and energies. He and Mr. Lynn were old classmates and worked for years in the same store. Arrangements are being made by the new firm to finish the building projected by Mr. Lynn on a larger scale than has before been attempted in our city. They will build one hundred and forty feet deep by twenty-five feet wide, two-stories and basement, and occupy the whole themselves. This will give us one of the largest stores in Kansas and will only be equaled in size and amount of stock carried by the great supply depots of New Mexico. This is one of the biggest "booms" yet started here. Messrs. Lynn & Luce are now in the east purchasing a spring stock.

Jailor Siverd has quite a collection of boarders at present.

S. E. Burger has been appointed superintendent of the poor of the county.

Rev. N. L. Rigby has commenced excavating for his new residence on 10th avenue in Fuller block. He intends putting up a handsome building.

One of the streets in the citizen's addition has been named "Gray street," in honor of George Gray, who died a few weeks ago. George was one of the old residents, and by his quiet, inoffensive manner, gained many friends.


Messrs. Bailey & Rinker's announcement of the "Hoosier Store" will be found in this issue. They are good businessmen and will keep the peeople in the north end of town supplied with the best groceries in the market.


On Saturday, March 13th, a Grocery House, which will be known as the "Hoosier Store," will be opened to the favor and patronage of the People of Winfield and Cowley Co. The Proprietors and Clerks are Gentlemen of long experience in the business, and with square dealing and honorable competition, ask you all to call and see us at the


Union Block.

Particulars in future.


A refractory steed caused sad havoc with one of McCommon & Harter's awning posts Saturday. It took a V to settle the bill and convince the owner that it is cheaper and better to tie to the hitching posts.

Mr. John Weakley and Miss Maggie Hamilton were married last week by 'Squire Burger. Mr. Weakley is an old subscriber, and of course remembered us with his compliments and cigars. We wish them much joy.

Mr. J. A. Barr, of Omnia, called Saturday. He reports heavy prairie fires and considerable damage therefrom in his neighborhood. One man had a lot of corn, a threshing machine, and other property to the amount of fourteen hundred dollars destroyed. Will our farmers never learn to be cautious about prairie fires.

Mr. Ed Roland was elected 2nd Lieutenant of the Winfield Rifles Monday evening, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Finch and the promotion of Lieutenant Friend. Ed. will make a first class officer.

R. M. Snyder, grocer, returned from the east last week. He has been absent about two weeks, and during that time left about six thousand dollars with the wholesale grocer, and brought instead five car-loads of the choices goods in the market, with more on the road. Snyder is business from the word go, and is bound to make things "boom."

We would call special attention to the card of Mr. Taylor Fitzgerald, in this week's issue. Mr. Fitzgerald comes to us with a high reputation as an attorney and has had a long and successful practice in the largest law and claim office in Washington, D. C., in securing pensions, back claims, etc. He has money to loan at low rates and will operate in lands. We are confident tht his patrons will be served with the utmost complete satisfaction.


Will prosecute all claims before District and Justices' Courts. Having had several years experience in the largest Law and Claims Office in Washington, D. C. I have superior facilities for the speedy adjustment of claims before the Departments, including Pensions, Increased Pensions, Bounties, Back Pay, etc.

I will buy, sell or trade land of every description; also town property. Parties having property to dispose of will consult their interests by having description of same on my books.

Special attention given to investigating titles to Real Estate and paying back taxes for non residents.


P. O. LOCK BOX 168.


The first semi-annual dividend of the state annual school fund, amounting to $158,562.28, is being disbursed by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. The amount of this fund is less than in previous years, owing to the repeal by the last Legislature of a one-mill tax that heretofore went to that fund. This year the apportionment is made on a basis of fifty cents per each pupil in the state entitled to the benefit of this fund, against sixty-five cents per capita for the first semi-annual disbursement last year. Industrialist.

One Brown, who was formerly a roust-about in this city, went to the Territory and played the desperado. He joined three affinities in that "neglected spot," and, together, they made a raid on Walker's Store in the Chickasaw Nation about the 21st ultimo. There chanced to be present at the time, several citizens, and a lad in the store. He took in the situation at a glance and unnoticed dropped out of the crowd. He went to the neighbors and rallied a force that attacked the robbers, killing two, and capturing the other two. "A little more grape, Capt. Bragg," will wind up this kind of business. Traveler.

Winfield has just received valuable accessions to her society, professional, and business interests in the persons of Dr. S. C. Fitzgerald, Attorney W. T. Fitzgerald, and their sister, from Indianapolis, Indiana. These gentlemen are men of standing and ability and know exactly what they are about. The doctor has purchased the fine residence of Judge Coldwell, in this city, which will be his future home and that of his mother and sisters. The lawyer will purchase other property in the city, and in due time their names will be prominent in their professions in this county.

They were accompanied in their first visit to this place by their brother, N. W. Fitzgerald, editor of the National Citizen Soldier, published at Washington, D. C., with a circulation of 40,000 copies.


We had occasion to visit the north part of Richland township, last week, in company with Mr. Lemmon, and saw many things on our way which are encouraging for the future of Cowley, and which add to our pride in our county.

We particularly noticed the large farm of T. R. Carson, of 640 acres, well fenced with miles of wire, stone, and hedge, with a large windmill that can be seen in the distance for miles, with large reservoirs for water and conductors carrying the water to several stockyards, with a stone viaduct through which his cattle pass under the roads to the stockyards and water tanks, with plenty of large barns, sheds, stables, and everything convenient for large operations. The farm is well stocked with hogs and cattle of best grades, and his large mule teams were busy plowing for spring crops.

Another bright feature was the fine farm of 'Squire Larkin, which is well cultivated, and beautiful with large numbers of fruit and forest trees.

We saw many other farms worthy of note, and on our return, when about a mile south of Floral, we passed through a flock of sheep belonging to Mr. Yarbrough, about 1200, of a cross between Merino and native, which we thought in the best kind of condition, looking fat, clean, and well wooled with rather fine wool. In short, we look upon this flock of sheep as one of the finest we ever saw.




MARCH 11, 1880.

The jobbing trade of Winfield is getting to be a matter of no small importance. Situated as we are with competing lines to Kansas City and St. Louis, the smaller towns east and west will naturally become tributary to us, and in fact are already buying most of their goods of our merchants.

Spotswood & Co. and R. M. Snyder are putting forth special efforts toward securing this trade, and have been in a great measure successful. Baird Bros. are also doing considerable in the jobbing line, and are supplying several of the largest stores in our neighboring towns with dry goods, notions, etc. Our merchants are live, energetic men, and have the capital; and by buying in large quantities for cash, they get such reductions both in cost and freights as enable them to compete with Kansas City in the jobbing trade of this and adjoining counties.




MARCH 11, 1880.

Our stone quarries are becoming justly famous, not only throughout the State, but in the nation. The completion of two railroads to this place makes it possible to transport this rock to distant cities where it is wanted, and already the

A., T. & S. F. is carrying it to supply many of the towns all along its line. Recently, in opening the bids for the contract to construct the government building at Topeka, the lowest bid was that of Mr. Smith, the purchaser of the Rigby quarry near this city, and the bid was for Winfield stones. Before awarding the contract the government sent its supervising architect, Mr. J. G. Haskell, to Winfield, to examine the quarries. He was here last Friday and Saturday, and we confidently hope that his report will be such that Mr. Smith will get the contract on his bid on Winfield stone.

Be this as it may, the quarrying industry at this place will soon assume magnificent proportions. Blocks of the best building stone can be had of any thickness desired, and can be quarried in any length and breadth wanted.

The charm of the whole matter is that the rock is free from seams of flint, works easily with the saw, hammer, or chisel, and hardens by exposure to the atmosphere. Besides, we have the finest flagging stone in the State, as our miles on miles of stone sidewalks in Winfield attest, and this is beginning to be shipped in large quantities to other towns in the state.




MARCH 11, 1880.

The officers and stockholders of the Winfield Institute are requested to meet at the COURIER office on Monday, the 15th of March, 1880, at 2 o'clock p.m., to determine whether the library shall be turned over to the Ladies' Library Association.

Persons having books belonging to the Winfield Institute are requested to hand them into the COURIER office before that time.





MARCH 11, 1880.


A meeting of the citizens of Walnut will be held in the school-house near the brewery on the evening of the 17th inst., at early candle-light, for the purpose of organizing a farmer's stock protective association. Everybody interested in the matter are requested to be present.










March 8, 1880.