This newspaper appeared to be a renaming of the Plow and Anvil. It is published by Amos Walton and C. M. McIntire


March 6, 1876 - The Winfield public schools will reopen September 6, 1876. During the tall term a normal class will be sustained which will offer Superior Advatages to all who wish to fit themselves for the Teacher's work.

Non-resident students will be received by paying tuition fee as follows:

Normal and High School department, per month $2.00

Intermediate department, per month $1.25

Primary department, per month $1.00

Good boarding can secured at from $3.50 to $5.00 per week; or by students renting rooms and boarding themselves the expense can be reduced to $1.50 per week.

For further information apply to Allen B. Lemmon, Principal, or G. S. Manser, District Clerk.


March 28, 1876 - Arkansas City Item. The Central Avenue is the only house in the city now, the City Hotel having closed, but the Central Avenue is up to business and we can still offer as good hotel accommodations as can be found in the Southwest.



Messrs. J. W. Torrance and G. M. Reece write to Mr. W. Retherford that they cannot, on account of the weather, be among the folks as they expected. TThey are ministers.

Judge McIntire is our agent at Arkansas City. He has a list of our subscribers, and parties desiring to pay their subscriptions, can leave the amount with him, and can also subscribe for the paper.

The parties boring for coal at Salt City claim to be close to the mineral. They now have everything in shape to push right along and according to Prof. Norton's prediction, have but a few feet to go. They are down 380 feet.

The papers are stating that Judge Campbell turned the Iowa bank robber Harrington loose last spring, which is not exactly the fact. The Judge remanded him to the custody of the offficer until the detective could furnish further proof of his identity. The detective went away and did not return, and the man was turned loose.






A. J. PYBURN, ATTORNEY AT LAW.COffice in Court House, Winfield, Kansas.




D. A. MILLINGTON, ATTORNEY AT LAW & NOTARY PUBLIC.COffice at Winfield Bank, Winfield, Kansas.


CURNS & MANSER, REAL ESTATE AGENTS.CNegotiate loans and make collections. Have a complete set of Abstract Books for Cowley County, and the City of Winfield.


ADAMS, ENGLISH & RUGGLE [M. S. Adams, Geo H. English, H. G. Ruggles], ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW.CWill practice in all the courts of the 13th Judicial District of Kansas. Office No. 95, Main street, Wichita, Kansas.


CHS. WILLSIE. ATTORNEY AT LAW.COffice on east side of Sumner Avenue. Oxford, Kansas.






JAMES CHRISTIAN, ATTORNEY AND COUNCELOR AT LAW.CArkansas City, Kansas. (Formerly of Lawrence.)


E. C. MANNING, ATTORNEY AT LAW AND NOTARY PUBLIC.COffice in Courier office. Business before the U. S. Land Office a specialty. Land and town lots for sale. Winfield, Kansas.


LELAND J. WEBB, ATTORNEY AT LAW.CTwo doors north of Myton's Hardware Store, upstairs, Winfield, Kansas.


J. O. HOUX, DENTAL SURGEON.CAll work warranted to give satisfaction. Office one door south of Bliss & Co's., Winfield, Kansas.


DR. JOHN ALEXANDER, DENTAL SURGEON.CArkansas City, Kansas. Office on Summit Street, Opposite the Central Avenue Hotel.


PRYOR, KAGER & PRYOR [S. D. PRYOR, WINFIELD/E. B. KAGER/ARKANSAS CITY/J. D. PRYOR/WINFIELD], ATTORNEYS AT LAW.COffice in Brick Bank building, Winfield, Kansas, and at Arkansas City, Kansas.


C. C. HOLLAND, M. D., PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON.CDr. Holland is located one mile northwest of Thomasville, and will practice in all branches of the profession.


GRAHAM & HARE, DENTISTS.COffice opposite the Lagonda House.


JOHN E. ALLEN, ATTORNEY AT LAW.COffice in Land Office building, east side of Main St., Winfield, Kansas.


A. H. GREEN, ATTORNEY AT LAW,CWinfield, Kansas.


T. J. JONES. PRACTICAL PAINTER.CPainting, Graining, Paper Hanging and Kelsomining. Sign writing a specialty. All orders promptly attended to and satisfaction guaranteed. Office in

W. H. South's store, West side of Main St.


T. BAKER, BARBER AND HAIR-DRESSER.CNeatest Room in the City. The oldest and most reliable workman in the West. Special attention given to La ies' Hair-Dressing. Corner of 8 Avenue and Main streets, Winfield, Kansas.



LAGONDA HOUSE. WINFIELD, KANSAS.COnly first-class house in the city. Stages arrive and depart daily from all points north and west. Corner of Main Street and Seventh Avenue.

T. H. HENDERSON, Prop'r.


CITY HOTEL.CWINFIELD, KANSAS.CThe best house in the city. Stages arrive and depart daily for all points north and west. Special accommodations for travelers.

S. S. MAJOR, Prop.


RICHEY HOUSE. [W. A. RICHEY, J. C. RICHEY] RICHEY BROS., WICHITA.CNo transfer no bus fare at the depot have refitted, refurnished, and reduced fare to $1.50 per day. Good stable accommodations in connection with the house.


OCCIDENTAL HOTEL, FRAZIER & LAMB, PROP'S.CThe only brick house in the city, and everything new. Corner Main and Second sts., Wichita, Kansas.


J. B. LYNN & CO., DEALER IN DRY GOOD. Groceries, Hats, Capts, Queensware, etc. Store West side of Main street corner of Eighth Avenue.


GRAGG & SEARL, BUTCHER SHOP.CWe are one door south of Baldwin's Drug Store, and are now ready to supply customers on short notice.



W. L. MULLIN. EXCLUSIVE DEALER.CIn Groceries and Provisions. Keeps a large and complete stock of groceries. Buys Hides and Furs at highest cash prices. WINFIELD, KAN.


N. FISHER, CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER.CRepairing promptly attended to. Winfield, Kansas.




DARRAH & WILSON. LIVERY AND FEED STABLE.CGood stock and vehicles always on hand. Transient patronage solicited.


J. H. HILL, BUTCHER.CFresh Beef and Pork always on hand at Bed Rock Prices. Two doors south of Read's Bank, Winfield, Kansas.


Attention! Farmers!

The Old Reliable

Arkansas City Water Mills

J. P. WOODYARD, Proprietor.

Custom Grinding a specialty

Highest Cash Price Paid for


All of Our Flour Warranted.




East Main street, WINFIELD, KAN


GIBBS & HYDE, Contractors and Builders.

Will contract for all kinds of work.


Furnished Cheaper than any conttractors in the Southwest.

A Speciality made of Building and Furnishing SCHOOL HOUSES.

Being prepared to give bonds for faithful compliance with our contracts. We ask those who anticipate building TO GIVE US A CALL. Winfield, Kansas.


BARTLETT & CO., WHOLESALE DEALERS IN GRAIN AND General Commission Merchants, East and opposite Dept, WICHITA, KANSAS.



SPEERS & BRO., Proprietr's


Highest Cash Price Paid for Wheat.




Pays interest on time deposits, loans money on Real Estate security. Parties wishing loans on long time, secured on imlproved farms, can be accommodatged.





Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, April 6, 1876.



Mr. Editors:

According to promise I will send you a few lines again from this township. Health is good as a general thing. Winter setting in has put a stop to the plowng in which the farmers have been so busily engaged.

Some of our young men are victims to the Black Hills fever; some have started and others are getting ready to start, amongst whom we might mention the name of W. G. Scott. It is thought by some that Scott is contemplating a double blessedness instead.

There was quite a sensation at Tisdale the other day. The officers of the law caught a bird in D. B. Creek's store; his crime is supposed to be "unknown here."

Tisdale and Sheridan's baseball clubs played a match game last week, in which the Sheridan boys came out victorious. Just like Tisdale, always behind.

Tisdale has a new grocery store. It still needs men with capital to engage in the mercantile business.

Politics are growing more lively every day in this vicinity. If the rottenness of the Republican party is mentioned, Grant's pets will at once cite your attention to Pendleton, Hendricks and Randall. Accusing Democrats to divert attention from radical rascality, is a poor make-shift to save a scuttled hulk. In common with the majority of Democrats, I take pleasure and occasion to support and show devotion to the national currency. I likewise give voice to my desire for the repeal of the resumption act. These salutory doctrines succeeding, our country will once more be blessed with its former prosperity. It is sad indeed to contemplate the present condition of affairs. IT GOES ON AND ON ABOUT POLICITCAL FEELINGS.

Respectfully, C. T. J.


Cowley County Democrat, April 6, 1876.


Mr. Editors:

Thinking you and your numerous readers would like to know how this part of Gods Democratic vineyard is getting along, I take the liberty of writing you. The Democrats are on the increase and in the best of spirits, for they begin to realize that the next election will vanquish the little ring that encircles the sun, (that is if the little joker, from which all lesser lights get their supply, is the sun.) If all other townships in the county will poll as large a Democratic majority as we will this fall, there will be no fears as to the result.

French & Slater are soon to move their saw mill on Gardenhire's place, where they expect to accommodate all their old customers and all others who wish to deal with live energetic men.

The Democrats of this vicinity intend to have an old fashioned barbecue in Gardenhire's timber, on the next 4th of July. There will be present some of the ablest orators in the State.

Before I close I will say there is a young lady in this vicinity so polite that she says "table limbs" for table legs. For further information, ask George Walker of Winfield, he knows how it is.


Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, April 6, 1876.



Does a General Banking Business.


Interest allowed on time deposits.

Collections promptly attended to.

Money always on hand to loan on approved paper.

Winfield, Kas.



J. B. LYNN & CO,

Are now receiving the Largest Stock of Dry Goods, Groceries and Queensware Ever brought in to this Valley. Also a full line of Carpets.


The finest Stock and Largest Assortment of Tobacco ever brought into the market. Also the Long John Cigar, three for 25 cents, the cheapest cigar in town.

And a New Device in

Shirt Fronts


Now is the time for anything in this line.

We Cant be Undersold.

Goods Delivered in Any Part of the City Free of Charge.



This Stock is New and Fresh, but must make room for our Spring Stock.

A Full Line of


Thankful for past favors, we ask a continuance of the same.







Call, get prices and examined the quality of Lumber before going to the RAILROAD.

Yard at the old Stand,














Farmers will find Clover, Timothy, Blue Grass, Hungarian, and Millet Seed, Also a New Variety, AND ALFALFA, THE CLOVER OF CALIFORNIA.

Garden Seed,

Fresh and New, For Sale by the Paper, Ounce, Pound, Quart, or Bushel, Onion Sets, Sweet Potatoes, Early Rose and White Meshanic Potatoes.

We also Keep on Hand Farming Implement. The Ottawa Clipper Plows, Riding and Walking Cultivators, Gang and Sulky Plows and Monroes Harrows.





(One Door North of Curns & Manser's)


Winfield, Kansas.


MISCELLANEOUS ADS: Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, April 6, 1876.

Public Sale.

The undersigned, Surviving partner of the firm of Darrah & Wilson will, on SATURDAY APRL 15TH 1876, At the City of Winfield, sell at public sale, or at any time previous at private sale, the following described personal property to wit.

Ten head of horses,

One two seated Spring wagon with top,

One open road wagon,

Three top buggies,

together with harnesses, saddles, bridles, etc.

Said property being the complete Livery stock, belonging to said firm.

A. G. Wilson.


Look out for the Harter Brothers new stock, it is coming in every day. Dry goods, Groceries, Boots, and Shoes at Charley Black's old stand.


MRS. KENNEDY is constantly receiving NEW MILLINERY GOODS, TIES, RIBBONS, etc. Call and see them. Four doors south of Read's Bank, Winfield, Ks.


Cowley County Democrat, April 6, 1876.

To all those who are going to attend CourtCGo and stop at Jim Hill's and get a good bed and a square meal for one dollar a day. Jim Hill is again selling meals for 25 cents.


Cowley County Democrat, April 6, 1876.

In consequence of the unprecedented demand for the Remington Sewing Machine, the agents here have been unable to meet the demand, but they can now say to the public, that they have a sufficient number of machines on the way to meet all demands.

R. Courtright. G. W. Childers. Agents.


Cowley County Democrat, April 6, 1876.

Gunsmith Shop.

J. Easton, Gunsmith and Machinist, is now prepared to supply the wants of the people of Cowley county, in the shape of repairing and remodeling sewing machines, guns, revolvers, clocks, and all kinds of machinery. All work warranted. Office two doors south of old Post Office.


Native Lumber.

Ward & Smiley keep constantly on hand at their mill at Lazette, all kinds of native lumber, and can fill bills at lowest going prices. Try us once.


Prof. T. J. Jones

Can paint a buggy in first class styleCvery reasonable. Also House paintingCtwo coats for fifteen cents per yard.


County Surveyor Walton, now has the U. S. field notes for the Township, in your section of the county. And now is the time to have your lines established. Don't forget or neglect to have it done this spring.


Cowley County Democrat, April 6, 1876.

Judge McDonald can be found in my office on Tuesday, Wednesdays, and Thursday of each week, after January 15th, 1876.






The Winfield Grange meeting has been changed to the 2d and 4th Friday night in each month.

Mr. Crow, of Tisdale, gave us a call the other day.

Gardenhire, More, Hightower, and a host of Arkansas City and Bolton township folks have dropped in on us this week.

Mr. Hoyt has started from Arkansas City to make a purchase of a steamboat to navigate the Arkansas river. This looks like business.

Messrs. Hightower and More, of Dexter, spent a couple of days with us this week. They report Dexter township flourishing; wheat prospects splendid.

Messrs. Hill & Christy have changed the location of their butcher shop once more, and are now in the old Miller and Hill stand, next door to Brotherton & Silver.

It is stated that W. J. Hobson of Wichita, the gentleman who built our bridges here, failed in the dry goods trade; if so, we are sorry, as Mr. Hobson was a live energetic man.

To show the inefficiency of our police, we will state that a dog went sailing down the sidewalk on Main street the other day, with a tea kettle tied to his tail, making a horrid racket, and yet nobody arrested him.

Mr. Pratt, a newcomer in our county, has brought with him two of the finest horses for breeding purposes that have ever been in Cowley county, one is canadian and the other a morgan. They will be in Winfield and we ask every farmer to take a look at them.

The Winfield city election resulted in the election of Mr. Millington for Mayor over his Democratic competitor by one vote. J. W. Curns, Democrat, elected. Police Judge and Council, Republican, by from eight to twelve majority.


Cowley County Democrat, April 6, 1876.

We have had some soaking rains, and our springs and streams are now filled up as they have not been for over a year. The Walnut, although not quite so high as it has been at one time before, seriously threatened the mill dam at the stone mill, but Mr. Bliss was fortunate enough, by timely exertion, to save it.


Cowley County Democrat, April 6, 1876.

The following is the result of the vote cast at the city election held in Winfield last Monday.



For Mayor, D. A. Millington .................... 81

For Police Judge, Linus S. Webb .............. 75

For Councilman, A. B. Lemmon ............... 86

For Councilman, C. A. Bliss ..................... 81

For Councilman, T. B. Myers ................... 84

For Councilman, H. Brotherton ................ 88

For Councilman, M. G. Troup .................. 91


For Mayor. H. S. Silver ........................ 80

For Police Judge, J. W. Curns .............. 81

For Councilman, N. Roberson ............ 71

For Councilman, A. G. Wilson ............ 76

For Councilman, N. M. Powers ........... 70

For Councilman, W. L. Mullen ............. 57

For Councilman, Frank Williams .......... 76

SCATTERING:CJ. P. McMillen received twenty votes, C. C. Black, 1, and J. P. Short, 3, for Councilmen.


Cowley County Democrat, April 6, 1876.

Arkansas City Items.

The school is having a vacation, and Prof. Hulse and pupils are having a few weeks recreation.

The Arkansas river is higher than it has ever been since the white man settled in its valleys. In some places it only lacks a few feet of running over its banks, and is still rising. It is thought if it rises much more, the bridge south of town will be materially damaged.

After some little excitement, caused by the whiskey ring of this place, the following officers were elected to the respective offices.

Mayor: S. P. Channel.

Councilmen: T. H. McLaughlin

W. M. Sleeth

H. D. Kellogg

Dr. J. A. Loomis

J. I. Mitchell

Police Judge: Judge Christian.


The district court opened on Monday; Judge Campbell on the bench. Attorneys present: A. J. McDonald of Wellington; C. R. Mitchell and James Christian of Arkansas City; James McDermott of Dexter; Mr. Ruggles of Wichita; Byron Sherry of Leavenworth;

J. M. Alexander, A. H. Green, L. J. Webb, D. A. Millington, A. J. Pyburn, T. H. Suits, W. P. Hackney, E. C. Manning, John Allen, Wm. Boyer, S. D. Pryor, W. M. Boyer, and Amos Walton of Winfield.


Mr. Shenneman, who has been on an exploring trip toward the Indian territory, has returned, but nobody can find out whether he struck a bonanza or not. Mr. Shenneman and Mr. Requa, another prominent citizen, left about the same time, but so far, although his friends have had great anxiety to hear from him, no tidings of Mr. Requa come to hand, but we are fortunate to save Mr. Shenneman anyway.


Cowley County Democrat, April 6, 1876.


At the residence of the bride's father, by Rev. F. W. Nance, Mr. Wm. E. Merrydith, and Miss M'Callister.

On April 2d, 1876, by Rev. N. L. Rigby, Mr. M. V. B. George, of Winfield, and Miss Augusta A. Moses, of Tisdale, Cowley County.

Mr. Perry Woodyard of Arkansas City, to Miss Eva Jones of Sumner county.

On Sabbath evening April 2nd at the Presbyterian church, by Rev. J. E. Platter, Mr. James A. Simpson, to Miss Hester E. Fowler, all of Cowley county.

On Sunday, April 2nd, at the resideance of the bride's father, by Judge Gans, Mr. Sylvester Bishop, to Miss Esther Chancey, all of Cowley County.

At Lazette, at the residence of Mr. H. Ramage, by A. J. Pickering, J. P., Mr. D. W. Ramage, to Miss Ettie Gardner, all of Cowley County.



Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, April 6, 1876.


To Philena Darrah, and Sylvia M. Mary, and Frank Darrah,

Application will be made by M. G. Troup, Administrator of said Estate to the Probate Court of said county on the 24th day of March, A. D., 1876, at one o'clock p.m. of said sell real estate: The undivided one-half of the Southwest Fourth of the Northeast Fourth, and the Northwest Fourth of the Northeast Fourth, and the Northeast Fourth of the Northeast Fourth of Section Twenty, Township Thirty-three, Range Four East.


Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, April 6, 1876.





Ninth Avenue, Winfield, Kas.




Removed to Hudson's Hall

On the Corner South of the Lagonda House,

and are Now Receiving the



Ever brought to this Market which we are selling


We intend to sell every pair of Boots and Shoes in the County if the LOWEST PRICES Will do it.


And if Our Prices are not Lower on the same article than any other House in the WALNUT VALLEY! We will not ask you to PURCHASE OF US.

Winfield, Ks. T. E. GILLELAND







Breaking Plows,


Wheat Drills, also Buckeye Drill for





A full line of Shelf and Heavy Hardware.






Arkansas City, Kas.




Blacksmith and Horse Shoer.

Plow Sharpening a Specialty.

Winfield, Kansas.



Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, April 13, 1876 - PAGE 2

Hon. W. P. Hackney.

Anticipating a howl upon the "brutal assault" as pictured by Mr. Folks of the Sumner County Press, wherein Mr. Hackney will be portrayed as a ruffian of the lowest character, and holding him as we do, as one of the citizens of our county whose good name it is our duty to guard when wrongfully assailed, as much as any other, we propose to have our say in the interest of justice and right, in good season.

Our readers will remember that we are a political opponent of Mr. Hackney, and also that we do not fully agree with the action of the Legislature in regard to the Normal schools, and that we claim the right of criticizing the action of that body, or any member of it in a fair and honest manner, as we shall see fit, and remember also, that so far as Mr. Folks is concerned, he has treated us with gentlemanly courtesy when we have met him, and that we entertain nothing but the most kindly feelings towards him as a man and a gentleman; but at the same time, we must characterize the assault upon Mr. Hackney, as brutal and unkind, and as a wrong in journalism which sadly needs a cure.

There are but three points in this case. Did Mr. Folks say anything bad, what did he say, and was he justified in saying what he did.

First, he re-published from the Peabody Gazette. Law and common sense says that he made the language his own, and should be held responsible for it, adding to it the fact that he was conveying to his own people the idea that Mr. Hackney was held in detestation abroad. Now let us see if the words twice published are insulting, and we shall publishing nothing written by Mr. Folks after the recent trouble when he might be supposed to write in anger, but publish only what he coolly and deliberately published of a member of his own party when there was no strife, and they were apparently on the best of terms. There now, so that you can see them together, we copy from the Gazette article, which Mr. Folks makes his own. Of the Legislature he says:

"Certainly if ever there was a body of men who merited the scorn and contempt of a decent and intelligent people, it is that horde of infidels, ignoramusses, and third class politicians who have been for fifty days covering the name of Kansas with shame."

Now then, again he brings this home specially to Mr. Hackney; witness this further, from the same article.

"Foremost among the miserable rabble, that vied with each other in insulting and disgracing the decent people of the State, was a contemptible demagogue from Cowley county, a forty second rate lawyer, by the name of Hackney."

A little malice in that again.

"This blatant saphead, who could not be nominated by any convention of the people of his county, but while in the Legislature by chance because a better man declined to run after being nominated. We quote:

'If to oppose every wise and wholesome measure that came up in the Legislature this winter as this miserable, shameless demagogue has done.'"


"We believe the farmer's of Cowley county will repudiate this bawling blatherskite and bury him so deep that he will never be heard of anymore. It is an unmitigated disgrace to Cowley to be represented by this heathen nuisance. She owes it to herself to testify at the first possible moment against the course of this saloon bummer, through her journalists, her granges, and her conventions."

Now you have it: "Infidel," "Ignoramus," "Third class Politician," "contemptible dema-gogue," "forty second rate Lawyer,." "blatant saphead," "miserable, shameless demagogue," "Blatherskite Heathen nuisance."

Here is an attack on Mr. Hackney in his profession, an appeal against him to religious folks, an appeal to temperance folks, an appeal to Grangers; couched in language of utter scorn and contempt.

Now then we ask, is there one word in what we have quoted that argues in respect to Mr. Hackney's scourge in the Legislature to comment fairly and honestly on his course as a Representative. Did it need one single word of the vindictive utterance? If not, who can justify it; and again can you expect that a man of spirit and honor, who has done his duty faithfully and honestly, will permit himself to be held up to public scorn and contempt without any show of resentment. This is too much to ask of human nature.

In regard to Mr. Hackney's method of redress, there are two opinions. We have only this to say, the man who runs a press, if he desires to use Billingsgate and to be a blackguard, has the advantage. Week after week, if he chooses to divert a newspaper from its proper channel, he can be-slime his neighbor, who may not have access to the same weapon, and eventually ruin his fair name in spite of his utmost efforts to save himself.

Where the line should be drawn, we will have to leave it to the public in the future as in the past. Once in awhile an editor will get wrongfully thrashed, and we will all be sorry for him.



Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, April 13, 1876 - PAGE 2.

One of the most exciting and interesting cases ever brought before a court in Cowley County, was decided by the verdict of a jury on Tuesday last. We refer to the case of E. C. Manning against W. M. Allison. The array of legal talent on both sides was very heavy, and the law and evidence were fully brought out, defining the rights of the press in making publications, and the guards necessary to protect citizens.

The verdict was for one cent damage to go to Mr. Manning for his grievance, and it was also a declaration that the matter was libellous, and was not justified by the proof of the defendant. It places Mr. Allison in the light that if he had made the publication against certain parties, he might have had to pay a large sum, that having made it against Mr. Manning, only one cent was due. It shows too, that the public will hold newspapers to account, and also that there must be something to damage before any damage can be done. The matters brought out will probably be matters of controversy hereafter, and we prefer to leave them for the present.


Cowley County Democrat, May 18, 1876.

Amos Walton sold his interest in the newspaper to C. M. McIntire.

Abraham Land, who was one of the first settlers in Cowley county, and father of the first white child ever born in Cowley, and who has been in Illinois for the past four years, returned to this city Tuesday with the intention of locating here.


Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, May 18, 1876.

Rail Road.

W. P. Hackney went to Topeka last week for the purpose of looking after our Rail Road interests, and to represent Cowley county at the meeting of the owners and Directors of the Atchiston Topeka and Santa Fe Rail Road, which was held in Topeka on the 12th ult. On last Saturday morning, under arrangements previously made to that effect by the company, a meeting was had between them and Mr. Hackney, who presented Cowley county, and a committee consisting of Gen. Ellet and Hon. T. B. Murdock from Butler county.

It was then and there proposed by the Santa Fe people, that if Cowley and Butler counties would secure the right-of-way, the necessary depot grounds, present and prospective, and pay them $3,100.00 per mile in cash, that they in consideration thereof, would construct a Standard Gauge Rail Road from Florence on this line to this city and Arkansas City at once, and to be complete this year and in time to move our crops.

Arkansas City Items.

Mr. Hoyt says that the boat has moved down to Jaynesville to put in the machinery, and will be along in June. He says a boat shall come up the river to Arkansas City, and when old man Hoyt says anything, he means it.

Newman, Channell, and Haywood's brick buildings swarm with workmen and are rising every day.

Houghton & McLaughlin, and Newman are rolling in a big stock of goods, and the people are taking them off right along. They propose to duplicate Wichita or any other prices.

Five blacksmith shops in running order shows that the farmers are at work.

Assessment of Taxable property in Creswell township for 1876:

Personal Property $ 54,692

Real Estate $111,383

Lots in Arkansas City $49,604

Total: $215,679

Increase since 1875: $13,863.

Mr. Hoffmaster has just opened a livery stable in the barn formerly occupied by Mr. Woolsey. He has good stock, good yards, and the very best of accommodations for the traveling public. When you go to Arkansas City, give him a call.



Cowley County Democrat, May 18, 1876.

Bolton Items.

Mr. Memcle, a new comer, proposes to break up eight hundred acres, and Mr. Norton is running three plows and will turn over about four hundred acres of sod.

They are still after that coal at Salt City, and Goff's evaporaters are turning out salt right along.

The farmers are buying harvesters and headers almost altogether, and the combined machines are no go.

We intend to make Bolton the banner township for wheat.

This week Mr. Amos Walton, so long the editor of the "DEMOCRAT," of this place, retired from that paperChaving sold his interest in the office to his former partner, C. M. McIntire. Although we have had some spats with friend Amos, we entertain the kindliest feelings for him and regret to lose him from the news paper circle of the county. Wherever he may anchor, and in whatever business he may engage, he will have the best wishes of the Telegram for his prosperity and welfare.



Cowley County Democrat, May 18, 1876.

Messrs. A. J. Pyburn and Amos Walton started yesterday morning for Topeka, to attend the Democratic State Convention. Mr. Walton goes from there to the Centennial, where he will spend the summer. We wish him a pleasant trip, and a good time generally, and may he find friends wherever he may locate that esteem him as highly as we do.


Cowley County Democrat, May 18, 1876.

The storm of last week did a great deal of damage to farmers living on Grouse creek; in some places washing out the corn, and washing away the soil as far down as plowed. In some places the water stood three feet deep over fields of wheat, but did not injure it in the least.

Dick Wilson and another commercial man, while crossing the river yesterday at the ford, were upset and thrown into the water, spoiling all their samples and breaking the buggy top.


Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, May 18, 1876.


Railroad talk runs high.

M. L. Read has the most showy sign in town on his bank.

J. O. Wilkinson and Ed. Greer, are in the rubber stamp business.

Daily thousands of pounds of fish are being caught at Bliss' mill dam.

The mills are running day and night and are turning out an excellent quality of flour.

Miss Kate Hawkins of Arkansas City is visiting her sister, Mrs. James L. Huey, of this city.

T. K. Johnston has for sale the best and cheapest croquet sets ever brought to Dowley county.

Considerable sickness is reported on the low lands along the streams, caused by the overflow.


Cowley County Democrat, May 18, 1876.

We notice that quite a number of neat little dwellings are being put up in the south part of town.

Mr. Manser sports the best babywagon in town. It was ordered by T. K. Johnston from Chicago.

Bolton township shows an acreage of over four thousand acres of wheat looking splendid and soon ripe for the harvest.

Mr. Johnston, our furniture man, is receiving new goods every day, and will soon have the largest stock ever brought to Cowley.

The number of dogs in this county is estimated at about 3,000, and if the taxes are collect on each dog, it will amount to about $3,000.

Fourteen teams containing families from "Arkansaw" passed through town Tuesday, on their way to Sumner county, where they intend locating.

Geo. Green of Silver Dale, passed through town yesterday morning with one thousand bushels of wheat. He intends shipping it to the Chicago market.

Our fellow townsman, Mr. Frank Williams, has shipped one car load of flour to Philadelphia, so the Arkansas City Water Mill will be represented at the Centennial, and J. P. Woodyard says he will equal the best.

Mr. R. B. Pratt, at the north end of Main street, is buying and selling horses. Parties wanting to purchase or sell, will do well to call on him. Mr. Pratt is keeping two of the finest stallions that have ever been in the county.

Mr. John Blevins, former pastor of the Christian church of this place, has gone to Oxford to start a paper. Mr. Blevins has had some experience in that line, and we predict he will make it a success. Sumner county ought to support two papers well.

Mr. S. C. Smith, formerly of this place, but late of California, has returned to this city to visit his old friends and look after business matters. Mr. Smith was one of the first settlers in the county, and the first Mayor of Winfield, and has many friends who welcome him back.

THE SHOW.CThe show last Saturday was well attended. It was estimated that there were in the neighborhood of six hundred people in attendance. Everything passed off quietly with the exception of a little knock down between two of the circus men. Some of the country boys got swindled out of a few dollars by three card monte men, as is usually the case. We hope that after awhile, everybody will get thoroughly acquainted with such tricks, and learn not to bet on another man's game. With these exceptions, everyone seemed to be well pleased with the show.


Cowley County Democrat, May 18, 1876.


Livery Feed & Sale Stable.

West Central Ave., Arkansas City, Ks.

R. HOFMASTER, Proprietor.

Good Rigs gentle teams and careful drivers. Horses boarded by day or week. Good yards in connection with the stable.



Cowley County Democrat, May 18, 1876.

Horses Wanted. I am now prepared to buy all good horses brought in the Winfield market for which I will pay the highest cash price.

J. F. Miles. City Hotel.


Cowley County Democrat.

VOL. 2., NO. 34.

Cowley County Democrat, Winfield, Kansas, Thursday, July 13, 1876.




Read at the Centennial Celebration, July 4th, 1876, at Winfield, Kansas.



On a beautiful morning in July, in the year 1776, the iron tongued bell in the old State House of Philadelphia, rang out to a few thousand wearied souls the joyous tidings of a nation's birthday.

To-day, from the thousands of villages and hamlets throughout the length and breadth of our land; from the Great Lakes of Michigan to the everglades of Florida; from the rock bound coast of New Enland to the golden sands of Oregon, there swells up in one grand acclaim, the voice of forty millions of grateful people, in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of that event.

To-day, wherever there is a band of Americans, whether they be in inland port or on foreign sea; whether scaling the frozen Andes, or crossing the burning desert of Sahara, that starry banner, mid the booming of guns and the shouts of a liberty loving people, will be unfurled to the breeze.

To-day, proud young Kansas, with her six hundred thousand happy people, sends a kindly greeting to old Pennsylvania, the mother of our Magna Charta, the Declaration of Independence.

To-day, the people of Cowley county, laying aside the duties and cares of a busy life, have come up from the office, the shop, and the field, to join together in celebrating this, the most glorious day of all the years.

In comformity with the (implied) wish of the President of the United States, as will be seen by his proclamation of May 25th, and in accordance with the spirit of a joint resolution passed by Congress at its present session, which reads as follows:

"Resolved, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That it be and is hereby recommended by the Senate and House of Representatives to the people of the several States that they assemble in their several counties or towns on the approaching Centennial anniversary of our National Independence, and that they cause to have delivered on such day a historical sketch of said county or town from its formation, and that a copy of said sketch may be filed in print or manscript in the clerk's office of said county, and an additional copy in print or manuscript be filed in the office of the Librarian of Congress, to the intent that a complete record may thus be obtained of the progress of our institutions during the first century of their existence."

But more particularly in compliance with the "printed bills" and "mammoth posters" circulated by the "Fourth of July Committee," do I appear before you to-day, to attempt the delivery of a historical sketch of Cowley county.

Had I been informed that I was expected to write a thesis on the Coleoptera of the moon, or prepare a lecture demonstrating the Darwinian Theory of Development, I could not have been more surprised than when notified by the committee of the appointment. In either case it might have been less embarrassing. I might have found a precedent for the former, and drawn upon my friends, the Winfield Bazique Club, for the latter. As it was I was at a loss to know what to do. I asked the Committee what would be acceptable. They didn't know. I rushed frantically to a friend and inquired. He said: "Never mind the truth, give us something flowery, something characteristic." I turned to another (he was an old settler and wanted to be mentioned in the history); and he said: "Give 'em the facts, young man, dry facts: tell them that when I came to this county it was a wilderness; that for months I lay upon the borders of civilization, with mother earth for a bed and the blue vault of Heaven for a coverlet; that for weeks and weeks I was nightly lulled to sleep by the wicked shriek of the terrible coyote and waked to morn again by the wild war-whoop of the bloody Indians. Tell them that I have fought, bled, and died to secure them the peace they enjoy to-day. That I ask no recompense at their hands. They have no gift to bestow that would sufficiently reward me for the privations I have enduredCunless, perchance," he added in an undertone, "they would elect me to the position of Probate Judge, an office to which I have long aspired."

I grew discouraged and resolved to fall back upon my own resources, coupled with the information I might gain from the less ambitious of the "old settlers." I quitted the "field of fact" and reluctantly turned to the mouldering archives of antiquity.

From the dim traditions of the past, then, I learn that a few thousand years ago the fertile valleys of the Arkansas and its tributaries, was the home of a mighty people. Not such a live, rushing people as dwell here to-day, but a happy, contented people. A people who "fed their cattle on a thousand hills" and lazily watched the birth and death of centuries. Their names we know not and even their origin is veiled in the abyss of the great unknown past. This we do know, however: they were a people well versed in the arts and sciences and stood far in advance of the savage tribes that occupied this beautiful land, when the continent was first discovered by Columbus. The time-worn mounds and acqueducts of the aborigines still standing, from the Mississippi to the Colorado in the west, speaks in a language not to be misunderstood, of the wealth and industrial power of these pre-historic people. A people who caught the torrents from the mountain tops and carried them down an easy prey to fertilize the plains below.

Coming down a few years we learn that in the year 1492, when Judge Ross, old Nump-ka-walla, Col. Manning, Judge McIntire, Chetopa, Cliff Wood, and a few others left Spain, passed up the Mediterranean, out by Gibralter and into the unknown seas to find the New World; that after enduring the heat of a tropical sun by day and storms by night, finally landed safe on Alexander's mound near Winfield, where they found that one Christopher Columbus, with a band of half-breed followers, was occupying this lovely valley under the original "Homestead Act."

Being peaceful sort of fellows these newcomers set sail, followed down Black Crook and thence by the Walnut to its confluence with the Arkansas river, and there, upon a sightly eminence pitched their tents again. Here they found they were too late again. The original "Arkansaw Traveler" had filed on that particular quarter, named it Cresswell, and was running it for the county seat. By way of parenthesis, I might say that the Arkansas Traveler has been running it ever since. Judge McIntire remained there, "stood in" with the Traveler, and was finally elected chief (representative) of the tribe. Manning, Ross, Chetopa, and the rest returned, swapped some ponies to Mr. Columbus for his interest in this valley, and started a town of their own. (This eventually became the county seat of Cowley.)

Nump-ka-walla lived to see Manning in the legislature; Ross, Probate Judge; Cliff Wood, a government stone contractor; and Chetopa at the head of a gang of Osage Indian horse thieves. And as he could not bear to see his comrades thus disgraced, he gave up his Kinnekenick and passed to the spirit land. He was buried with Indian (summer) ceremonies. Dr. Graham, Dr. Mansfield, Will Hackney, and James McDermott were the pall bearers. James Renfro, J. P. Short, E. G. Nichols, J. B. Fairbank, Frank Hunt, W. D. Roberts, A. T. Stewart, and J. D. Cochran were the chief mourners. They mourned because it wasn't the last Indian on earth that they were called to bury. This mourning party was led by Dick Walker and the Tisdale string band, and accompanied by the Patrons of Husbandry in full regalia. This was the first high toned funeral in the county.

About fifty years afterwards, in the Summer of 1542, Francis Vasquez de Coronado, in company with Jimmie Simpson and Frank Gallotti, three Spaniards of royal blood, started on an exploring expedition from Old Mexico to the northward, in search of gold and silver. They traversed the western portion of Kansas and reported finding "many crooked backed oxen (meaning buffalo), and grapes and mulberries in abundance. On reaching this county, they liked it so well that they had about concluded to stay, and grow up with the country; but on learning that men here loaned money that didn't pay taxes, that the newspapers fought each other like "kilkenny cats," that Tisdale and Arkansas City were both striving for the county seat, and lastly, that we had no railroad, they became disgusted, returned to Mexico, and until quite recently this country was not known to the outside world.

So ends the traditionary history of Cowley county. Now for the "dry facts."


Twenty-two years ago the Kansas of to-day was unknown. Previous to that time geographers noted it as the "Great American Desert." This territory, stretching from the 37th to the 40th degree of north latitude, and from the Missouri river to the base of the Rocky Mountains, was the home of the nomadic savage and the no less wild buffalo. This was Kansas in 1854. Soon the tide of immigration set to the west and a stream of hardy pioneers came pouring in. Among the early Kansans there were as many elements of discord as there were eastern localities represented. The laws which to a great extent governed the inhabitants were unwritten. Force was repelled by force, and while the good and orderly were desirous to see a reign of peace, yet it was impossible by reason of the numerical strength of the disorderly.

The call by the United States in her hour of need for volunteers was answered by thousands from our young state, and no better records of bravery or pure devotion to the cause of literty was ever made than by the Kansas soldiery, and for every six of her population one fought in the civil war. At the close of the war in 1865, Kansas had less than one hundred thousand population. But now peace was hovering under the governmental wand. The soldier had replaced the civilian's garb. In the east a quarter of a million of boys who had been with the "tried and true" returned to the ranks of peace and had to be supplied with homes. The high price of lands in the east out counted the cash of a soldier's savings and west they came. Thus it was that Kansas was populated with a brave, energetic people and although she has passed through enough to overwhelm a people of less "grit," still she has prospered, and like the products of her soil has beaten the world in her growth.


This county was born in the usual way, of "poor but honest parents," viz: the Kansas Senate and House of Representatives in old Constitution Hall at Topeka, on the 3rd day of March, 1867. Governor J. S. Crawford stood sponsor and named it Cowley, in honor of Lieut. Mathew Cowley, a soldier of the 9th Kansas Regiment.

At that time and up to July 12, 1870, the land embraced within its borders belonged to the primitive red men, the Osage and Cherokee Indians. The Osages used it as a neutral strip from which they made many raids into the country south of us, stealing from the Texans and Indians their horses and cattle. These they sold to white border ruffians, who met them here and drove the stock further north into the older portions of the state.

From this class of whites the early settlers first gained their knowledge of Cowley's beautiful prairies, rich bottoms, and swift running streams.

Attracted by these reports a party of persons, consisting of James Renfro and sons, Judge T. B. Ross and sons, Shep Sayers, and Frank Hunt, crossing the sombre, stony hills of old Butler, followed down the Walnut river on the 1st day of January, 1869, and "took claims" in the bottom just above the mouth of Timber Creek. In August, 1868, N. J. Thompson built a log house near the Butler county line. This was the first house in the county. Wm. Quinby and family, and a Mr. Sales settled on the Walnut below Thompson's place about the same time. They were the first actual settlers in Cowley county.

Sometime in the month of June, 1869, C. M. Wood brought some groceries down from Chase county to sell to the Indians and settlers. He kept them at the house of Renfro and erected a small shanty, by setting puncheons in the ground, located a few rods east of where Bliss & Co.'s mill now stands. Into this shanty he moved his goods during the month of July. The Osage Indians made several futile attempts to steal them. Fearing an attack when not prepared, Mr. Wood moved his stock back to the house of Mr. Renfro for safety. Afterward, in the month of August, when all the settlers were ordered out of the valley by the Indians, the goods were taken up to the Butler county line. After the goods were removed, the brave Osage warriors burned the house to the ground.

Judge T. B. Ross was the only pioneer that did not obey the orders of Mr. "Lo." They couldn't scare him. He came to stay and he has stayed.

In June, 1869, E. C. Manning assisted P. Y. Becker to erect a claim cabin in the bend of the Walnut about two miles below Winfield. This was the first building South and West of the river. On the same day they found encamped at the mouth of Posy creek, a Mr. and Mrs. Bridges and two or three men. Mrs. Bridges is the first white woman that is known to have crossed the Walnut river in this county. She corresponded for some eastern paper at the time, and afterwards wrote the "CARRIERS ADDRESS" and other political effusions for the Traveler.

On June 11th, aided by Becker, Mr. Manning laid a claim foundation for himself upon the present town site of Winfield. The fear of Indians having somewhat subsided, several families during the month of September crept down along the valley and settled on claims on the beautiful prairie where Winfield now stands. These settlers each paid to the Osage chief, Chetopa, five dollars for the privilege of remaining in peace. These early pioneers were C. M. Wood and wife (Mrs. Florence Wood, who was the first white woman to settle on the Walnut, south of Timber, then known as Dutch creek.), Prettyman Knowles, J. H. Land, J. G. Monforte, and their families.

Dr. W. G. Graham, and family, who came the last week in October and settled on the east bank of Dutch creek, two miles above its mouth, were the first settlers on that stream. During the Winter of '69, Alonzo Howland, W. W. Andrews, Joel Mack, H. C. Loomis, A. Meanor, and others took the claims upon which the most of them reside. Mr. Howland built the first frame house in the countyChis present residenceCwhich was considered at the time a herculean task, having to haul the lumber over 100 miles without the sign of a road. About this time E. C. Manning erected a small log building on the claim south of C. M. Wood's. In this Baker & Manning kept a small stock of goods, which they sold to the settlers and traded to the Indians.

At this time the land was neither surveyed nor subject to entry. Claim corners were designated by stakes, and the claim holders' intentions set forth on a shingle with letters of charcoal, often in about the following style.


"This klaim was taken by me on the 20th day of January 1869. I am gone after my family. Anybody who dairs to squat on my claim while I am gone will git a load of buckshot when I get back. Plenty of good klaims not taken just south of me.

Yours truly,


Claim disputes were settled by tribunals called "Settlers Unions" or by public meetings before whom the respective claimants presented their cases.

In March, April, and May, 1869, H. C. Endicott, Sr., Geo. Harmon, W. Johnson, Ed Chapin, Pad Endicott, Pat Somers, and J. K. Rodgers, took claims along the Walnut above its junction with the Arkansas river. H. C. Endicott built the first house in that part of the county. In the following September, Z. K. Rodgers died at his house. This was the first death in the county.


On the 9th day of January, a party of 15 men under the lead of Thomas Coats took claims along the Grouse valley. Their names were John Coats, Wm. Coats, Joseph Reynolds, Gilbert Branson, Henry Branson, Winton Phenis, J. H. Phenis, H. Haywood, L. B. Bullington, J. T. Raybell, D. T. Walters, S. S. Severson, John Nichols, and O. J. Phenis.

About the 10th day of January, 1870, the initiatory steps were taken for the organization of a town company, and the starting of a town on the claim of E. C. Manning, which lay adjoining C. M. Wood on the south.

On the last day of December, 1869, Judge W. R. Brown (our present congressman), H. G. Norton, T. A. Wilkin, H. D. Kellogg, John Brown, and G. H. Norton drove into camp near Wood's residence as members of the Walnut City Town Company, a few leading citizens of Emporia, among the number. C. V. Eskridge, P. B. Plumb, J. Stotler, L. B. Kellogg, H. B. Norton, Judge Brown, and H. L. Hunt, of Cottonwood Falls, had organized a town company and sent the party mentioned, down into the Walnut Valley to locate a town at the junction of the Walnut and Arkansas rivers. The map of Kansas at that time showed that the junction was about the center of Cowley County. After some conference with the settlers, the new comers took five claims adjoining Manning's claim, east south east and south with the intention of making this the location of the proposed town. In a day or two upon examination of the county below, the party concluded to locate this town at the present town site of Arkansas City. On January 1, 1870, T. A. Wilkinson, John Brown, G. H. Norton, and John Strain staked out and claimed the four claims upon which Arkansas City now stands, as the location of the new town. H. B. Norton took a claim adjoining the town site on the north. H. B. Kellogg took a claim south of the town site. When this party arrived at the mouth of the Walnut, they found the bottom and timber claims taken by H. Endicott, and his son, Pad, and George Harmon, Ed Chapin, Pat Somers, Mr. Carr, Mr. Hughes, and one or two others.

The Walnut City town company consisted of fifteen members and the four claim holders mentioned were of the members, and were to hold the claims and enter them for the company. On their way down the valley, the party discovered a Walnut City in Butler county, and concluded to change the name of their company to Delphi. On their return to Emporia, the name was again changed to Creswell, and by this name the town was known for some months. On applying for a post office, the P M department informed Senator Ross, who made the application, that there was a Creswell in Labette County, Kansas, and that no two offices of the same name would be located in the same state, and at Ross' suggestion, it was called Arkansas City. When the commission came to G. H. Norton, who was the postmaster named, the town was named Arkansas City. This was April 1870.

The Winfield enterprise took form in January of 1870, as did that of Arkansas City. From the start the two parties interested in the two prospective towns were shaping events to secure the county seat of Cowley county whenever it should be organized. In February of 1870 a bill was introduced in the Senate of Kansas entitled "An Act to Organize the County of Cowley," and making Creswell the county seat. As soon as the news arrived at Winfield, James H. Land, A. A. Jackson, and C. M. Wood traversed the county in three days and took the census of over six hundred population, and reported at Douglass, in Butler county (the nearest place where any officer could be found to administer an oath), on the 23rd of February.

At that time the necessary papers were made out and E. C. Manning took them to Topeka and presented them to the Governor, who thereupon issued the order organizing Cowley county, designating Winfield as the temporary county seat, and W. W. Andrews of Winfield, G. H. Norton of Creswell, and S. F. Graham of Dexter as county commissioners. This was made February 28, 1870. E. P. Hickok was appointed county clerk at the same time by the same authority. The first meeting of the county board was held March 23, 1870, at the house of W. W. Andrews, at which time W. W. Andrews was chosen chairman.

Their first official acts were the division of the county into three townships, viz, Rock, Winfield, and Creswell, and their issuing a call for an election to be held on the second day of May, 1870. This election was held for the purpose of choosing a permanent county seat and to elect a complete set of county officers. The result of that election was as follows: For county seat Winfield 108 and Arkansas City 55 votes. The officers elected were commissioners T. A. Blanchard, Morgan Willett, and G. H. Norton; county clerk, H. C. Loomis; Treasurer, John Devore; district clerk, E. P. Hickok; probate judge, T. B. Ross; register of deeds, W. E. Cook; sheriff, Frank Hunt; coroner, W. G. Graham; and surveyor, F. S. Graham. This ticket was elected without any opposition. Such a millennium for office seekers never occurred before, nor is likely to occur in this county again. On the 5th of September, W. R. Brown, Judge of the 9th judicial district (of which Cowley was a part), appointed T. H. Johnson county attorney. On July 6th Loomis appointed E. Q. Mansfield his deputy county clerk, and John Devore appointed J. P. Short deputy treasurer. At the fall election G. B. Green was elected treasurer, but failing to give bond, Devore held the office till 1872. The officers succeeding them will be given in the order of their respective terms, some of whom have been appointed, but the greater majority have been elected.

County commissioners have been T. A. Blanchard, G. H. Norton, and E. Simpson, Frank Cox, O. C. Smith, and J. D. Maurer; R. F. Burden, M. S. Rosberry, and John Manly, and the present incumbents, R. F. Burden, Wm. White, and W. M. Sleeth.

County ClerksCA. A. Jackson and M. G. Troup; TreasurersCG. B. Green, E. B. Kager, and T. R. Bryan; Probate JudgeCT. B. Ross, L. H. Coon, T. H. Johnson, and H. D. Gans; SheriffCJ. M. Patison, James Parker, and R. L. Walker; Register of DeedsCW. B. Smith, J. F. Paul, N. C. McCulloch, and E. P. Kinnie; District Clerk, E. P. Hickok, James Kelley, E. S. Bedilion; SurveyorCH. L. Barker, D. A. Millington, M. Hemenway, and Wirt W. Walton; CoronersCH. B. Kellogg, G. P. Wagner, S. S. Moore, and J. Hedricks; Supt. of Pub. Inst.; L. B. Walmsly, A. S. Blanchard, E. P. Hickok, and T. A. Wilkinson. Our representatives in the state legislature have been in 1871, Col. E. C. Manning; in 1872, Judge T. McIntire; in 1873, Capt. Jas. McDermott; in 1874, Rev. Wm. Martin; in 1875, Hon. Thos. R. Bryan; and in 1876, Hon. W. P. Hackney.

The first political gathering in the county took place at the raising of the "old log store" (now the Winfield Courier and Post Office) on the 1st day of April, 1870. This was a citizen's meeting and was held to nominate candidates to be voted for on the 2nd day of May.

On the 13th day of June, 1870, the first coach arrived with the United States mail at Winfield. Previous to that time all mail matter was brought by private hands from Douglass and distributed among the settlers. There were no mail routes, roads, nor bridges up to this time. The people in the various localities amused themselves by taking sides with Winfield and Arkansas City in their county seat, and "Manning and Norton war." They had nothing else to do but brag about the county, eat beans and dried apples, and draw on their friends in the east for more money. The land was not surveyed, hence they did not know where to make their improvements. The bitter local feeling that was engendered in those days has long since been a theme of the past.

With the exception of a few would-be-leaders in the various towns of the county, who are continually kicking up strife in their own immediate neighborhood (simply because they are not able to kick up anything else), the citizens of Cowley county are to-day a unit on any measure or proposition that tends toward the general advancement of their interests as a people.

During the summer, fall, and winter of 1870, the tide of immigration kept flowing into the county. The valleys of the large streams were all settled upon and still they continued coming, until the settlement extended across the rich prairie into the smaller valleys beyond. There was a certain social, or equality, feeling that existed in those good old days among the settlers that would be termed improper and imprudent by the people here to-day. Away from home and friends, out on the verge of civilization almost within sound of the bloody war whoop, and always within hearing of the prowling coyote, it is no wonder that at times they overstepped the bounds of eastern etiquette. By the flickering light of some settler's dip lamp, many fleeing hours were chased into merry morn, by the flying feet of Cowley's pioneers. People would go miles and miles to join in such festivities. The violin always precedes the evidence of a better civilization. This era did not continue long; it soon gave way to school and church exercises, and the more refined and christian like enjoyments.

In January, 1871, a surveying party under O. F. Short, began the survey of the county. They were followed industriously by claim-hunters, who hoped the survey would develop unoccupied tracts. The settlers were on the alert, and many lines were run just in front of the deputy surveyor by them. Fifty dollars, and often a less sum, would so influence the magnetic needle of this United States official, that a line would be run cutting the original settler off his particular claim, and leaving it for these unscrupulous land banditti following him. In consequence, the lines of the original survey are very crooked.

On July 12th Congress passed a law allowing actual settlers to enter from 40 to 160 acres of these Osage lands at $1.25 per acre. On March 2, 1871, the town site laws of the U. S. were extended to these lands, and on May 11, 1872, Congress passed a law allowing actual settlers to enter the Cherokee lands. The terms were similar to those of the Osage lands, except that all lands east of the Arkansas river were sold at $1.50 per acre, and all west at $2.00 per acre.

Having given an account of the early settlements of the county at large, I will now attempt a short sketch of her various towns, societies, and organizations, beginning, of course, with Winfield, the county seat.


The oldest house in Winfield is the one immediately north of the stage barn, in block 108. It was built by E. C. Manning in January, 1870, and first occupied by himself and family as a claim house, on the 10th day of March, following.

The Winfield Town Company was organized January 13, 1870, "with power to lay out a town site upon the open prairie, east of the Walnut river and south of Dutch creek, in Cowley county, Kansas." E. C. Manning was its President; W. W. Andrews, Vice President; C. M. Wood, Treasurer; W. G. Graham, Secretary; and E. C. Manning, J. H. Land, A. A. Jackson, W. G. Graham, and J. C. Monforte, Directors.

The question of a name for the new town puzzled its fathers for several days. A minority wanted it called "Lagonda," but the majority decided to honor Winfield Scott's christened name. He was at that time the minister in charge of the Baptist church, in Leavenworth. Within the next four months, following the organization, forty acres of Manning's claim was converted into lots, blocks, streets, and alleys. The old log store was built by Manning, which was occupied, in part, by Dr. Mansfield as a drug store, and by Baker and Manning with their goods. Soon Max Shoeb arrived, built a log cabin where Read's bank now stands, and opened a blacksmith shop. On August 20th J. C. Fuller and D. A. Millington bought A. A. Jackson's claim and proceeded, with Manning, to lay out that part of the town lying east of Main street. July 4, 1870, was a glorious day for Winfield. The first celebration in the county was held on that day, under an arbor in the rear of the old log store. Prof. E. P. Hickok was the orator of the occasion. From that time up to the present, Winfield has so rapidly increased in population that it is impossible, in this short sketch, to give even a synopsis of her growth; but I will endeavor, however, to name the first who engaged in the different branches of business.

E. C. Manning was the first settler and merchant; Max Shoeb, the first blacksmith; Frank Hunt, the first hardware dealer; W. Q. Mansfield, the first druggist and physician; J. P. Short, the first hotel keeper; A. J. Thompson, the first feed store keeper; B. H. Dunlap, the first livery man; T. H. Johnson, the first lawyer; D. A. Millington, the first engineer and surveyor; J. C. Fuller, the first banker; M. L. Palmer, the first tinner; C. A. Bliss & Co., the first mercantile firm; J. C. Munforte, the first painter.

Mrs. Delphine Manning was the first woman in town; and her son, Fred, was the first child born on the town site. Rev. A. Tousey was the first resident minister, but Judge Ross preached the first sermon. Miss A. Marks taught the first school.

On the 10th day of July, 1871, Judge T. B. Ross entered the town site of Winfield at the Augusta land office, under the town site laws. At that time there were eighty buildings in town.

The city of Winfield was incorporated February 22, 1873. The first city election was held March 7, 1873, at which W. H. H. Maris was elected Mayor; A. A. Jackson, police judge; and O. F. Boyle, C. A. Bliss, J. D. Cochran, H. S. Silver and S. C. Smith as councilmen.

The council chose S. C. Smith its president; J. W. Curns, clerk; M. L. Robinson, treasurer; C. W. Richmond, marshal; and J. M. Alexander, attorney.

The first annual election was held April 7, 1873, and the same persons were re-elected, with the exception of Mr. Bliss, who was succeeded by Samuel Darrah.

The second annual election, held April 8, 1874, resulted as follows: S. C. Smith, mayor; N. H. Wood, police judge; and J. D. Cochran, H. S. Silver, R. B. Saffold, and J. P. McMillen, councilmen.

J. W. Curns and M. L. Robinson were re-appointed clerk and treasurer. T. H. Suits was appointed attorney, and Z. T. Swigart, marshal. On November 16th Messrs. Wood and Suits resigned. T. H. Johnson and W. P. Hackney were appointed to fill their offices.

The third annual election, held April 5, 1875, resulted in the election of D. A. Millington, mayor; W. M. Boyer, police judge; and M. G. Troup, N. M. Powers, J. Newman, and Chas. C. Black as councilmen. B. F. Baldwin was appointed clerk; E. R. Evans, marshal; J. E. Allen, attorney; and J. C. Fuller, treasurer.

At the last annual election, held April 4, 1876, D. A. Millington was elected mayor; J. W. Curns, police judge; and A. B. Lemmon, M. G. Troup, C. A. Bliss, T. B. Myers, and H. Brotherton, councilmen. The same officers were re-appointed by the council, with the exception of Evans, who was superceded by Walter Denning.

The postmasters of Winfield have been, successively, E. C. Manning, Rev. Tousey, T. K. Johnston, and James Kelly.

The Methodist was the first regularly organized church in Winfield. It perfected its organization in May, 1870. The Baptist organized in the following October, and the Congregationalist in January, 1871, with J. B. Fairbank and A. Howland as deacons. The Christian church was also organized in 1871. The Presbyterian completed its "beginning" in January, 1873. The Catholics have a mission established, but no regularly constituted church in Winfield.

A. F. AND A. M.

On the 20th day of October, 1870, a dispensation was granted to J. S. Hunt, A. H. Green, Enoch Maris, and eight others, for a lodge at Winfield. J. S. Hunt was appointed W. M.; A. H. Green, S. W., and Enoch Maris J. W. On the 17th day of October, 1872, the lodge obtained a charter under the name of Adelphi, No. 110, with the following charter members: J. S. Hunt, A. H. Green, Enoch Maris, C. A. Bliss, A. A. Jackson, W. M. Boyer, H. Shaughness, I. L. Comfort, E. Adams, Thomas Hart, W. S. Huff, S. H. Revis, T. A. Rice, and J. Traxler. The same officers were installed under the charter and held their offices until January 1, 1873, when Enoch Maris was elected W. M.; W. M. Boyer, S. W., and T. A. Rice, J. W. On January 1, 1874, Enoch Maris was re-elected W. M.; T. A. Rice, S. W.; and W. G. Graham, J. W. On January 1, 1875, L. J. Webb was elected W. M.; W. G. Graham, S. W.; and J. E. Saint, J. W. For the present year J. S. Hunt was elected W. M.; J. E. Saint, S. W.; and A. B. Lemmon, J. W. The lodge now has 50 members and is in a healthy condition, morally and financially.

R. A. M.

On the 15th of March, 1875, a dispensation was granted M. L. Read, H. P.; M. C. Baker, K.; John D. Pryor, Scribe; W. C. Robinson, C. H.; A. Howland, P. S.; W. G. Graham, R. A. C.; J. W. Johnston, M. 3rd V.; P. Hill, M. 1st V.; A. A. Newman, member. On October 19th a charter was issued to them under the name Winfield Chapter, R. A. M., No. 31; and on the 29th of the same month, the Chapter was instituted by J. C. Bennett, of Emporia. This branch of Masonry here is in good working order and in a healthy condition, financially.

I. O. O. F.

Winfield Lodge, No. 101, was organized by P. S. M., W. A. Shannon, of Augusta, Kansas, February 18, 1873. The charter members were J. J. Williams, S. A. Weir, C. W. Richmond, C. G. Stephens, and A. S. Williams. The lodge has steadily increased in number until it now contains about 40 members.

I. O. G. T.

Winfield Lodge was organized in March, 1874, N. K. Jeffries, D. G. W. T. On the evening of the organization, Rev. J. McQuiston was chosen W. C. T. and Mrs. A. Gordon, V. T. The lodge was organized with twenty charter members. It now contains nearly 100 members in good standing.


On January 1, 1870, the first stake was driven in the town of Arkansas City by the town company. On March 1st G. H. Norton built the first house on the town site. It was occupied as a residence and store. G. H. Norton, appointed in April, 1870, was the first postmaster.

During the year of 1870 the following enterprises were established, being the first of the kind in the city.

Sleeth & Bro's saw mill; C. R. Sipe's hardware store; Richard Woolsey, hotel; Newman & Houghton, clothing house; Paul Beck, blacksmith shop; E. D. Bowen, grocery store; Keith & Eddy, drug store; J. I. Mitchell, harness shop; T. A. Wilkinson, restaurant; Wm. Speers, the first ferry across the Arkansas river.

The first temperance meeting was held February 21, 1871. W. P. Hackney was the first lawyer; Dr. John Alexander, the first physician; Mrs. S. P. Channell opened the first millinery store. The first Sunday school was organized in Rev. B. C. Swarts cabin, with T. A. Wilkinson as superintendent. Creswell Grote was the first child born in Arkansas City. The date is October 5, 1870. The town company magnanimously deeded the little native a lot. On the 20th day of July, 1871, the town site was entered at the Augusta land office. On June 10, 1872, it was incorporated as a city of the third class. At the first election, held July 1, 1872, A. D. Keith was chosen mayor and Amos Walton police judge. The office of mayor has been successively filled by A. D. Keith, H. O. Meigs, and S. P. Channell. Judge Timothy McIntire has been police Judge almost continuously since April 1873.

Mrs. H. B. Norton made the first American flag in Cowley county. It was used at Arkansas City, July 4, 1870.

Some time during the fall of 1871, a dispensation was granted the Masons at Arkansas City and a lodge organized. In due time they received a charter under the name of Crescent Lodge, No. 133, with O. C. Smith as W. M.; and E. B. Kager, S. W. The Crescent now has over thirty members, and is prospering.


Under a charter bearing the date, June 13, 1871, with A. D. Keith as president and C. R. Mitchell as secretary, the Tisdale Town Company laid out the town of Tisdale in the month of June, 1871. S. S. Moore, Geo. W. Foughty, Sid Moses, and M. Elinger were the first settlers. Mart Elinger erected the first house, Sam Williston, the first blacksmith shop; and J. A. McGuire, the first store in town. J. A. McGuire was the first, and still is the post master. The town site was purchased from the government in June, 1876. Mrs. G. W. Foughty taught the first school.


The "Dexter Town Company" was organized by leading citizens of Emporia sometime in July 1870. C. B. Bacheller, Geo. W. Frederick, and L. W. Robinson, of Emporia, and Alex Stevens and Thos. Manning of Grouse Creek, Cowley county, were its incorporators. After obtaining a charter nothing more was done by the company. The first house built on the Dexter town site was erected by James McDermott, who moved into it June 25, 1871. In September, 1870, the Dexter post office was established with I. B. Todd as post master, and in March, 1871, the first mail carrier arrived from Eureka. Previous to this time the mail for the settlers was brought down in the pockets of travelers and distributed. In February, 1874, Dexter Lodge of A. F. & A. M., under a dispensation began its work. On the 18th day of November following, it received a charter bearing number 156. It is now in a flourishing condition.

On October 21, 1875, the Dexter Town Association was incorporated; and in November following, the land purchased by it was laid out into lots and blocks by Wirt W. Walton, county surveyor.


The first settler in this part of the county was J. W. Tull, who built the first house (in November, 1869), raised the first crop, and taught the first school (in 1870) in the valley. Elder Wm. Gans preached the first sermon. John Thonburgh was the first to settle here. Dr. T. J. Raybell opened the first store in 1870 and was the first post master. The same year Edward Sutton erected a blacksmith shop and saw and grist mill. The first marriage December 25, 1870, was Richard Miller to Flora Dudley, by E. Simpson, the first justice of the peace.

The town of Lazette was laid out in 1871 by H. D. Wilkins and S. M. Fall. H. D. Gans was the proprietor of the first hotel (the Black Bear); Thos Walch, the first blacksmith shop; and B. H. Clover, the steam saw mill. M. Hemenway was the first merchant, and R. C. Story the first attorney at law.


Maple City is a village of half a dozen houses, situated on the beautiful prairie in Spring Creek township, sixteen miles east of Arkansas City.


The Cowley County Agricultural Society was organized August 19, 1871. Its first officers were M. M. Jewett, president; A. T. Stewart, vice president; D. N. Egbert, secretary; A. B. Lemmon, assistant secretary; J. B. Fairbank, corresponding secretary; J. D. Cochran, treasurer; and C. M. Wood, superintendent. On the 12th day of October, 1872, its first fair was held.

In 1872 the society was incorporated under the state law. It purchased twelve acres of land lying adjoining Winfield on the south, and erected thereon commodious buildings. The race course was laid out and a high pine board fence was built around the grounds during the fall of that year. The second fair transpired from the 15th to the 18th of September, 1872.


On April 28, 1873, Vernon, the first subordinate grange, was organized. A. S. Williams was its master. There are now over thirty-five in the county with a total membership exceeding one thousand.


The first newspaper published in the county was the Cowley County Censor, the first two numbers of which were printed in Augusta, the type having been set up here and sent in galleys to that town. A. J. Patrick was its editor and proprietor. Number "3" was printed at Winfield on the historical press of Kansas, the first printing press ever within its territory. August 13, 1870, was the date of the Censor's first issue. On the 3rd day of June, 1871, I. J. Webb succeeded Patrick as its editor, and on the 5th day of August, 1871, Webb & Doud (Doud of the Censorial, at Eureka) bought Patrick out and continued the publication of the paper until the 26th of the month, when E. G. Nichols succeeded Doud and the firm became Webb & Nichols. On January 6, 1872, Webb & Nichols sold to W. H. Kerns and the Censor ceased to exist. On the 13th of January, Kerns issued the first number of the Winfield Messenger; and on the 4th day of July, 1872, Kerns was succeeded in proprietorship by Yale Bros., who published it until the 5th day of December, 1872, when they broke up. The office and material (except the old press) was moved to McPherson county.

The next paper after the Censor was the Traveler, published at Arkansas City by M. G. Mains, with H. B. Norton as special contributor and C. M. Scott as local editor. August 24, 1870, was the date of its first issue. This was the first paper printed wholly in Cowley county. On December 15, 1870, L. B. Kellogg succeeded Mains as proprietor, and on September 1, 1871, C. M. Scott bought Kellogg's interest, since which time he has conducted the paper alone.

On the 12th day of September, 1872, Will M. Allison published the first number of the Telegram at Tisdale. Five numbers were published at Tisdale; and the sixth, published on the 28th day of November, 1872, was issued at Winfield. In the month of January, 1873, Allison associated with A. H. Hane, under the firm name of Allison & Hane; and they published the paper until the 20th day of March, 1873, when Hane was succeeded by A. B. Steinbarger (now of the Howard City Courant). Allison & Steinbarger dissolved on July 3, 1873, since which time Allison has published the Telegram.

R. S. Waddell & Co. started the Winfield Courier on January 11, 1873, with R. S. Waddell as editor and J. C. Lillie, local. On the 27th day of March, 1873, James Kelly purchased the office and assumed the editorial chair. He associated with him V. B. Beckett as local editor until March 4, 1875. From March 4th to July 1st, Mr. Kelly conducted the paper alone, at which time Wirt W. Walton became, and has ever since been, its local editor. On the 11th day of November, last, Col. E. C. Manning became the Courier's editor and publisher.

On November 19, 1874, the Plow and Anvil made its appearance in Winfield, with Col. J. M. Alexander as its editor and proprietor. On the 22nd day of April, 1876, Messrs. A. Walton and C. M. McIntire purchased the office and continued its publication together, till the 17th day of May, the present year, when Walton retired, leaving it in sole charge of Mr. McIntire. On the 24th day of February, 1876, its name was changed from the Winfield Plow and Anvil to the Cowley County Democrat; the name it bears to-day.

The Censor was, and the Traveler and Courier are, Republican in politics. The Messenger and Plow and Anvil were, and the Telegram is, Independent in politics. As its name implies, the Democrat is Democratic in politics.

I would be unfaithful to my trust, should I, in noting our history up the present time, fail to mention our long-legged, hooked-nosed, India-rubber-sided visitors of 1874. True, they did not come by invitation, but let it be recorded, that they came, nevertheless; that they came in countless millions and all brought their relations and their wife's people.

Ah, distinctly we remember,

'Twas on a hot September

Afternoon of eighteen seventy four,

The grasshoppers fell upon us

With their war-paint and harness,

Like the crusading Knights

Of the brave days of yore.

It is useless for us to say here they ate up what the "drouth" left; that in consequence of their visit, many new comers were thrown upon "half-rations" and the charity of eastern friends; that with difficulty, in many instances, the wolf was kept from the door. These facts are a matter of historyCfacts we all well knowCfacts upon which we do not like to dwell. But to-day, as we rejoice over the blessings of a bountiful harvest, it is but mete and proper that we kindly remember those unknown friends beyond our borders, who did not forget us in our hour of needCthe grasshopper year.

It is with feelings of pride, that I look back over the few short years of Cowley's historyCa history filled, not with the deeds of warriors, reaching back to the revolution or later war of the rebellionCbut a history filled with the industrial workings, the growth and progress of an agricultural people.

And as I look abroad to-day and see her ten thousand citizens, reaping the annual harvest of her million bushels of golden grain; see her churches and school houses in every valley; her rich, broad prairies dotted all over with happy homesCa vision only surpassed in wealth and beauty by the diversity of scenery spread out upon every sideCI cannot help but exclaim: Behold Cowley countyC

Beautiful land of fragrant blooms,

Emerald carpet and rich perfumes,

Land of the brave, leal, the true,

Whose skies are softer and deeper blue,

Than the mellowed light of a moonlight pale,

'Neath the starry gleaming of midnight's veil.

Land of the prairies, the wide, the free,

That sleeps to the hum of the droning bee,

Where the day-god raises his jeweled crest,

Or sinks in dreams on the twilight's breast,

With a sweeter grace, and a kindlier power

And a dainty guilding of tree and flower.

Land where the live oak rears its head

With a kingly bearing, to list the treadC

The steady tramp of the myriad feet,

That seeks its shade, with hoofs as fleet,

As the wild gazelle where the lightning's play.

Land where the seasons gently flee

To the measured march of eternity.

Soft as the babe, that sinks to rest

Now cradled and lulled on its mother's breast;

Where ambered grain, steals the winter's kiss,

And spring-time warms it to newer bliss.



Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, July 13, 1876.



The Procession and Full Proceedings of the Day,

The Parade and Line of Procession.





The morning of the Fourth dawned with threatening clouds looming up from the horizon. The general exclamation was, "I'm afraid it's going to rain and spoil our Fourth;" but by

10 2 o'clock the clouds cleared away, and the citizens of Cowley county with their families and many from the adjoining counties, notwithstanding the threatening clouds, came enmass to our city to celebrate the Centennial anniversary of our birth as a nation; and the grand turnout under circumstances so unfavorable as the morning presented, shows that the people of Southern Kansas cherish deep in their affections the memories of those sainted heroes, who midst turmoil and strife, launched the then frail bark of our nation out upon the rough stormy ocean of the world; that they performed their part well, the thousands upon thousands of happy home circle, and firesides, and the high rank of the United States among the nations of the earth, are always present witnesses, and the everlasting monuments of their wisdom. But we must turn from our eulogizing to our theme. First on the programme came the


which formed at Court House Square, circling out on the prairie east of the city, they turned again, and entered the city parading through all of the principal streets, headed by the Winfield Silver Coronet Band, which furnished music for the day and thrilled the hearts of the vast throng with those patriotic airs so well calculated to stir up the blood in the veins of the loyal sons and daughters of America. The boys proved themselves equal to the occasion, and presented a beautiful appearance in their blue uniform. Next came the


represented by Mrs. L. J. Webb, bearing aloft the flag of her nation; on her crown was emblazoned her motto, "Liberty." Her beautiful white robe was caparisoned with golden stars. She was surrounded by the Centennial Congress. Next came the


by ladies on horseback, each bearing the mottos of their respective States. This was one of the most interesting features of the procession, and the ladies deserve credit for their indefatigable efforts to make it a success, which they did, as the many compliments and remarks of admiration received from the throng of lookers on will attest.


was composed of citizens of Cowley in carriages, wagons, and on horseback; and as we reached the end of the procession, we found that it was over a mile long.


reached at last, and the exercises of the day commenced in earnest. A printed programme was circulated in the morning, which was carried out during the entire day with the exception of the expected display of fireworks.

Music by the Band.

PrayerCBy the Chaplain, Rev. Croco.

Song, Hail ColumbiaCBy the Glee Club, in which all joined.

Reading of the Declaration of IndependenceCBy Prof. A. B. Lemmon; read in that attractive style which is so characteristic of the Professor and was well received by the auditory. Next followed vocal and instrumental music, after which the oration of the day was delivered by Rev. Rusbridge, who has lately linked his fortunes with those of the citizens of Winfield and Cowley. He had but a single day to prepare for the occasion. Thinking that it might interest some of our readers, we give it at length.

"The spirit of patriotism has brought us together to-day to celebrate the one hundredth birthday of American Independence.

"A little over a hundred years ago, the hand of oppression was laid upon a people who had sought these lands for freedom. The fires of rebellion were kindled in the hearts of otherwise peaceful men. The patriot cried, 'Give me liberty or give me death.'

"The martyr blood of seven of America's noble sons was shed, and the people flew to arms.

"For the first blow from an arm unused to warfare, it told what might be expected; and nearly three hundred of the enemy were slain. By the battle of Lexington, the Royal power was broken from Massachusetts to Georgia.

"Following this came the fearful conflict of Bunker Hill, when American hearts were again encouraged to fight for liberty.

"So deep was the consciousness of rights that infidel lips could command surrender 'in the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress.' Through a terrible night of conflict and suffering lived these sons of liberty, determined to shake off the yoke of oppression.

"July 4th, a hundred years ago, the united colonies were declared free and independent States. The names of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert H. Livingston, come to us to-day as household words. Through a long and tedious war our father fought, when the names of Washington, Arnold, Lafayette, and others are conspicuous.

"Valley Forge, Monmouth, and Wyoming revive sad pages in our early history upon which we will not dwell; neither will we allow the treachery of Arnold to disturb our breasts to-day. But go back to the scene of the surrender, October 19th. Cornwallis surrendered, sending his sword by General O. Hare.

"The historian says, 'All the hardships of the past were forgotten in the thought that America was free.' The news reached Philadelphia at 2 o'clock a.m. The people were awakened by the watchman's cry, 'Past 2 o'clock and Cornwall is taken.' Before the dawn the streets were thronged with anxious crowds rejoicing in the end of war. The delight of the people knew no bounds; some were speechless, others wept for very joy, and the old door-keeper of Congress died of joy.

"After more than nine years of war, peace was declared, and America stood before the world an experiment in self-government on the broad principles of republicanism.

"April 30th, 1789, the people showed their appreciation of the services of Geo. Washington by making him the first President of the United States. It is not our purpose to follow the details of his administration, or to dwell upon the particulars of our history, but to ask and answer a few practical questions relative to our country.

"First: What have we done? Our system of government has been an experiment: wise political economists said it would fail; old monarchies hoped for its downfall. What are the facts? We are yet in our swaddling clothes, an infant among the nations. While the nations of the old world have the experience of centuries, we are but a century old to-day. Almost within the memory of living men, the old bell of Philadelphia rang out our freedom and independence. Have we learned to talk? Yea verily, stripling though we are, the sturdy eloquence of Patrick Henry, of Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster has shook the world. That we have had generalships, and statesmanships, of which any nation might be proud, we need only mention the names of Washington, Seward Adams, and Lincoln.

"There is no branch of literature or science to which we have not contributed. The names of Longfellow, Whittier, Saxe, Bancroft, Aggasis, and Greely, belong not to us only, but to the world.

"The inventions of Morse and Fuller have borne blessings to all mankind.

"The child has become the father of the man, and the youth has instructed the horry head.

"That this was a mighty land, our fathers saw. And yet how little they knew of its vastness, or that in the future it should be the theatre of such mighty events. Great questions, which have disturbed the oldest and wisest nations of earth, have been settled in most satisfactory manner. We have proved that crowns and sceptres are not indispensible to rules, that the divine right of Kings is a fallacy. That all men are free and equal, and in the government of a nation, the people are supreme. These questions have not always been settled by the voice, the press, or the vote, but sometimes in suffering and blood.

"The great problem of slavery, and the unity of the States came up for solution: how manfully and heroically it was met. Precious blood on both sides was shed, the fathers and brothers of happy families went forth at the country's call. Every hearthstone was sad, as Southern battlefields were strewn with the brave dead, and many others turned their feeble steps homeward to die. Flowers bloom to-day on the graves where lies the mingled dust of Northern and Southern soldiers, and apple blossoms fall like quiet snow flakes upon those solemn resting places of the slain. High and low fell in the fearful conflict. From the lowliest cottage on these western prairies to the 'White House,' the cry of mourning was heard. Thousands of names are inscribed on marble slabs, and yet other thousands of unknown dead, with the epitaph of Abraham Lincoln, tell the sad tale of carnage and death. But though the family circle was broken, and the presidential chair made vacant, the slave was freed, the unity of the States perserved; and we came out from the fearful baptism of blood to enjoy years of peace and prosperity, and achieve other victories of a more peaceful kind. The principle of arbitration has prevailed among the nations by our example; and we, the youngest of them all, have received the praise of our brethren.

"Who among us does not, on this, the hundredth birthday of our nation's life, thank the God of nations for what he has done for us?"

"Another question. What are we now? Are we full grown? Have we reached a ripe manhood? Are there gray hairs in our nation's head? Are there symptoms of decay, of disease, and approaching dissolution visible?

"To all these questions, we answer no, emphatically, no. The genius of our nation has not perished with our dead orators and statesmen. All the virtue, truth, and honor of our nation's life has not passed away. The streams of American thought, and life, and legislation, are not all corrupt. Though Winslows forge, and Belknaps steal, there are others at the nation's wheel who will guide the ship aright. The nation's blood flows healthy through its veins. And here while we, with full hearts join in the country's universal observance of our Centennial 'Fourth,' regard ourselves as a giant among the nations. We are no longer an experiment, but an established fact.

"While we are still learning, we have commenced to teach, and older nations sit at our feet to learn the mystery of our wonderful growth, and our unparalelled success. Japan sends her children to our schools, and calls our citizens to administer its own affairs of State. The Brazilian Monarch comes to our Centennial Exposition and is astonished at what he sees. France in her struggle for freedom, borrows inspiration from our history and is encouraged. As a nation we are a success in every sense of the word. We are a prodigy with infant years, yet manhood's strength. Made up of every people under the sun, yet united in one grand whole. And could we but wipe from our escutcheon the foul blot of drunkenness, as we have that of slavery, we would be the purest as well as the grandest nation on earth. The poet has askedC

Breathes there a man with soul so dead,

Who never to himself hath said,

This is my native land?

"So we may ask, in view of our glorious past, and the healthful, happy, prosperous present: Is there one on this vast continent, who owns it as his home, who does not feel it a grand thing to live in such a nation?

"The waves of the stormy Atlantic and the more peaceful Pacific bear the story of our freedom and success to other shores, to inspire the millions of the downtrodden with hope. And to-day at home, the aged veteran of revolutionary recollections, with the soldier of the rebellion, look upon the dying embers of the first of our existence, and are glad.

"And the youth of our land ffrom Boston to San Francisco catch the fire of enthusiasm: and every community and heart raises a shout of praise to Jehovah for what we are. And in the providence of God, the wife of the martyr President with restored reason joins in the nation's jubilee to-day.

"What shall we be? With the climate of all latitudes, and the fruits of all the Zones, with majestic rivers and inland seas, with the varied scenery of mountain and vale, and soils the most productive in the worldCwhat, that a nation can be, may we not become?

"With the bone and sinew and brain power of all people from pole to pole blended, to make our nation, we must have a glorious destiny. The most delightful parts of our lovely land are but just discovered. The communities of the great West are yet but young.

"The great prairie where but a few years ago the Buffalo roamed, and the Indian held undisputed sway, are to-day alive with industry.

"The prairie grass has given place to fields of golden grain, and the energy and intelligence of the East is pouring in, to open up the riches of the exhaustless Western mines. What immigration can picture our second Century's growth? Who can tell what the bi-Centennial of our nation will be.

"While our resources are almost infinite and we rejoice in what we are, let us stand by the landmarks of our success. Let us not allow the nation's Sabbath to be destroyed nor our system of common schools be overthrown nor the glorious institutions, for which our Father bled, be touched by the destroyers' hand.

"Let us be determined, as men and women of this great land and as citizens of the grandest Republic history has ever known, that the future shall be, if possible, grander than the past. Let us be identified with the best interests of our country.

"Let us ask the God of our nation to bless all the elements of our life.

"Then let us hope that all the forces that are amongst us, policital, educational, and religious, may be so wisely controlled that we may suffer no relapse; and that our growth may be unchecked until the highest destiny and the noblest history any nation could have, has been fulfilled.

"And as to-day no slave groans in his bondage or lifts his manicled hands to heaven to ask redress; but the millions of the freed enjoy with us this festal birthday, so may we all lift up our hands and hearts unfettered in the great ceremonial counsels of the nations above.

"May we by our sobriety, industry, intelligence, and purity, contribute to the nation's peace and success, and celebrate in another life the conquests and triumphs on Earth."

Then our friend Wirt W. Walton addressed the assembly on "the history of Cowley County." It was highly creditable to himself, as was also the manner of delivery. It was highly appreciated by all. (We give it in full in our pages.)

After which came an old-fashioned basket picnic dinner, and as one looked about him, he could see happy groups of friends beguiling the time away in pleasant conversation, while partaking of the choice viands prepared for the occasion. When dinner was over, the Glee Club sang, the Band played, and the following toasts were responded to.

The Patriots of 1776CBy Judge Christian of Arkansas City.

The day we celebrateCBy F. S. Jennings of Winfield.

Our countryCBy Judge W. P. Campbell.

Cowley, the banner county of the StateCBy Dr. J. Headrick.

Our county's greatest needCa railroadCBy Col. E. C. Manning.

Our Early SettlersCBy Judge T. B. Ross.

All of the toasts were well received.

The celebration at the grounds now being over, the vast throng began to separate, and soon the streets of the city were crowded with anxious faces wathing for the advent of that beautiful tribe of human beings called by the soul inspiring name of


Our pen falters at the task of describing them, how we long for some word to express the inexpressible. Well, they were led by a band, which alternately played and yelled; the leader of the band was a bass drum, performed upon by one of the most comical looking objects it ever fell to the lot of mortal man to see. They were marshalled into order by a knight of the nineteenth century, who was gorgeously attired in a suit of bed ticking; in his hand he carried a large tin horn that was upon a former occasion carried by the Sea God Neptune when he crossed the line. The "God of Liberty" was a small specimen of the Fifteenth amendment, seated upon a large dry goods box, on one of the first oxen-wagons in Cowley county, with a tongue that might some day be of service for one of the sleepers of the first R. R. bridge across the Walnut to Winfield. His dashing team of oxen was driven by one of the "poor white trash." Conspicuous among them was a regular lantern jawed, dog eared, cutthroat of a Cheyenne. He whooped in Indian jargon and lassoed the dashing ox teams of the Calithumpian Knights. There was one remarkable characteristic peculiar to this Indian alone, which very much amused the crowd of lookers on; he had a knack of drinking whiskey out of an empty bottle, which is entirely unnatural with the genuine injun. They paraded through the streets for about an hour and then they mysteriously disappeared, no one knows where. We only hope that they will appear next centennial.


Next on the programme was the fire-works; but owing to some unaccountable circumstance, they did not reach Winfield in time, greatly to the disappointment of the multitudes of watchers, many of whom haunted Court House square until the wee small hours of the morning. We know of no one who is to blame for this failure; therefore, we cannot censure but only regret.


of the day, leads us to say that it was the grandest celebration ever held in Cowley county, and the proudest day of Winfield's existence; the largest crowds she ever saw on her streets, she that day witnessed. Everything passed off pleasantly, not a run-away amongst the vast crowd of teams, and scarcely a drunken man did we see among all of that crowd of young "Americans," celebrating the centennial 4th.


Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, July 13, 1876.


Jim Hill sold four barrels of lemonade and fifty gallons of ice cream the Fourth.

How our Devil laughs to think that next Saturday a week will be the grand exhibition of the Fire Works.

Three boys living at the mouth of Grouse Creek were bitten on the 4th by a large rattle snake. All within a few minutes of each other, and by the same snake.

Messrs. Jennings & Crunk, of Texas, were in town last week with thirty-five head of wild ponies for sale. The disposed of the whole number in three days time, and intend returning with another lot this fall.

The last report from the steam boat was that it had reached Little Rock, Arkansas, and was making rapid strides for its dewtination. It is thought it will arrive at Arkansas City by the 20th of this month.

Gibbs & Hyde have just contracted for a school house six miles north and west of Winfield, size 20 x 34, for $600 in bonds. They have also taken a contract to build a dwelling on Little Dutch.

A failure to secure accommodations for teachers has caused the postponement of the Normal School till Aug. 21st. The school will be in session four weeks, closing with an examination September 15th and 16th.

We were pleased to meet on Monday our old friend. J. V. Vandorn, formerly of Arkansas City, but of late of Florida. He owns a farm near the coast snd seems to be perfectly delighted with the country. He says as it may be of some interest to some of our readers to hear from Mr. Manly and family, he will say that they are doing well, and the whole family seems to be perfectly satisfied with their new home, and have growing on their farm oranges, lemons, dates, and many other fruits, and have no idea of returning as reported. He reports the climate as being very mild, and healthy. We wish them all well in their new home, but southern Kansas suits us very well.


Cowley County Democrat, July 13, 1876.

THE FIRE WORKS.CWe have heard considerable complaint made about the fire works committee since the Fourth, but we see no reason why this complaint should be made, as the gentlemen who were appointed on that committee did their duty. The fire works were sent for as soon as sufficient money was raised, and every effort was made by the committee to get them here in time. But as it has been and always will be, there is a certain clique in the City who try to make themselves conspicuous on such occasions, and if they don't have the whole sway and make political capital out of it, they are obliged to say something about someone; and of course, as this committee was composed of gentlemen who were not connected with the clique, they were the very ones to hit upon. Do more yourselves for the benefit of such occasions and say less about others would be the best policy.


Cowley County Democrat, July 13, 1876.

Exhibition of Fire Works and Balloon Ascencion.

At a meeting held at the office of Curns & Manser July 11th, 1876, The Committee on Fire Works were instructed to give a Public exhibition of the Fire Works on Saturday evening July 22, 1876.

All are invited.

G. S. Manser

Chairman of Committee.


Cowley County Democrat, July 13, 1876.

There were about three hundred wagons and carriages in the procession to the celebration grounds on the Fourth, making the procession about two miles long.


Arkansas City Democrat, Thursday, July 27, 1876.





Cowley County Democrat, Thursday, August 17, 1876.


In each issue of the Cowley County Democrat was a plea by the editor to collect past due subscriptions.

The last issue of this paper was August 17, 1876 when the paper went out of existence.