Volume I       						Issue VI		 
1997-98					         SUMMER/FALL 1998
The Editor, Mike Smith, gets to say what he wants. There is no editorial "we." E-mail is welcome, and opinions will either be respected or ignored. Your e-mail address will not be used unless you request.
Click on The Hunger Site. Feed one person for one day - free!
Bookmark for routine. And then come back and see us!
Did Your Mother
Come From Ireland?
George Carlin Classic Medals of Honor
for Code Talkers
Supreme Court Decision
Wolves and Other Gray Areas Gray Wolf Return Mexican Wolf Return
Retraining the Originators
Veteran's Benefits to Pay
Medicine Men
Little Sister Rug Still for Sale
Fight for Flag Authors Wanted Western Book Awards Bigger Trout
Gorton and Sovereignty And More Gorton Un-Diplomatic Immunity
Dinosaurs Not Extinct A Mammoth Undertaking Mummies of the Southwest
Water Juggling Sacred Items Return Ancestor Registry
A Day at a Powwow in My Home Town
Quests for Ancestors
Help these folks
Useful Books
You need these
Wah' Kon Seminar
Osage Mystery Power
The Truth
Excerpts from a book about Hopi Travels

Navajo News
Tribute to "Dr. Annie"
New Deal Hopi/Peabody Coal No Deal With Peabody Coal Peabody Skips Town
Three-Year-Old Hero Navajo Answer To Bureaucracy Money report A Trying Anniversary
1868 Treaty Comes Home Local Governance Act

The Clamor is spreading:
Smoke From The Distant Fires
Terminator Technology Crazy Horse Memorial Save The Languages
Chippewa Sue for Hunting Rights California Blocks Bi-Lingual Education
Ceremony Coincides With 95 Per Cent Cancer Remission

Hopi Prophecy

Did Your Mother Come From Ireland?

This is very interesting and I Lost It!

In my e-mail I received an article about a video documentary that presents the idea that there was back and forth sailing over 2500 years ago between the Americas and Ireland. The name "Flynn" is from a clan name "Flan" which means red-skinned. The family symbol had a red hand and a rattlesnake on it.

Does anyone have any information on this?

Mixed Humor

EDITOR'S NOTE: We all know how George Carlin talks. He taught Richard Pryor. Some parts of this are missing and you may fill them in to suit your vocabulary. I'm prissy, at least in print. Also you will find quotes in here from the person who forwarded this e-mail and an answer at the bottom. Here we go:

This is taken from a portion of the book "Braindroppings" by George Carlin. He's talking about politically correct names.

"...Now the indians. I call them Indians because that's what they are. They're Indians. There's nothing wrong with the word Indian.

"First of all, it's important to know that the word Indian does not derive from Columbus mistakenly believing he had reached 'India.' India was not even called by that name in 1492; it was known as Hindustan.

"More likely, the word Indian comes from Columbus's description of the people he found here. He was an Italian, and did not speak or write very good Spanish, so in his written accounts he called the Indians, "Una gente in Dios." A people in God. In God. In Dios. Indians. It's a perfectly noble and respectable word.

"So let's look at this --- phrase, Native Americans. First of all, they're not natives. They came over the Bering land bridge from Asia,

**(Well, George, this has been largely disproven since you said all this--FSS**)

"so they're not natives. There are no natives anywhere in the world. Everyone is from somewhere else. All people are refugees, immigrants, or aliens. If there were natives anywhere, they would be people who still live in the Great Rift Valley in Africa where the human species arose. Everyone else is just visiting. So much for the 'native' part of Native American.

"As far as calling them 'Americans' is concerned, do I even have to point out what an insult this is? ----- We steal their hemisphere, kill twenty or so million of them,

** (Before 1492 there were 25 million people in Central America alone!! By 1579 there were 2 million.--FSS)**

"destroy five hundred separate cultures, herd the survivors onto the worst land we can find, and now we want to name them after ourselves? It's appalling. Haven't we done enough damage? Do we have to further degrade them by tagging them with the repulsive name of their conquerers?

"And as far as these classroom liberals who insist on saying 'Native American' are concerned, here's something they should be told: It's not up to you to name people and tell them what they ought to be called. If you'd leave the classroom once in a while, you'd find that most Indians are insulted by the term Native American. The American Indian Movement will tell you that if you ask them.

"The phrase 'Native American' was invented by the U.S. government Department of the Interior in 1970. It is an inventory term used to keep track of people. It includes Hawaiians, Eskimos, Samoans, Micronesians, Polynesians, and Aleuts. Anyone who uses the phrase Native American is assisting the U.S. government in its effort to obliterate people's true identities.

"Do you want to know what the Indians would like to be called? Their real names: Adirondack, Delaware, Massachuset, Narraganset, Potomac, Illinois, Miami, Alabama, Ottawa, Waco, Wichita, Mohave, Shasta, Yuma, Erie, Huron, Susquehanna, Natchez, Moblie, Yakima, Wallawalla, Muskagee, Spokan, Iowa, Missouri, Omaha, Kansa, Biloxi, Dakota, Hatteras. Klamath, Caddo, Tillamook, Washoe, Cayuga, Oneida, Onodaga, Seneca, Laguna, Santa Ana, Winnebago, Pecos, Cheyenne, Menominee, Yankton, Apalachee, Chinnok. Catawba, Santa Clara, Taos, Arapaho, Blackfoot, Blackfeet, Chippewa, Cree, Mohawk, Tuscarora, Cherokee, Seminole, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Comanche, Shoshone, Two Kettle, Sans Arc, Chiricahua, Kiowa, Mescalero, Navajo, Nez Perce, Potawatomi, Shawnee, Pawnee, Chickahominy, Flathead, Santee, Assinboin, Oglala, Miniconjou, Osage, Crow, Brule, Hunkpapa, Pima, Zuni, Hopi, Paitute, Creek, Kickapoo, Ojibwa, Shinnicock.

"You know, you'd think it would be a fairly simple thing to come over to this continent, commit genocide, eliminate the forests, dam up the rivers, build our malls and massage parlors, sell our blenders and whoopee cushions, poison ourselves with chemicals, and let it go at that. But no. We have to compound the insult.

"Native Americans! I'm glad the Indians have gambling casinos now. It makes me happy that dimwitted white people are losing their rent money to the Indians. Maybe the Indians will get lucky and win their country back. Probably they wouldn't want it. Look at what we did to it."

EDITOR'S NOTE 2: Here is a response. It is not me.

Ya Ta Say, Shila Aash - -
I normally do not respond to messages of this type. In this instance, I make an exception because of the nature of the contents. It is true, and because it is, it is infuriating.

"Una gento in dios" is an apt phrase for any peoples. It means "A PEOPLE IN GOD." The term Indian, though a mispronunciation of the last two words, is an apt description of the first people of this country.

I am, and I have always been, proud to be called Indian. I resent the term "native American" (lack of capitalization intentional) with an equal feeling. It is a slam against the Indian, and in true political fashion, an attempt to continue segregation.

The other 'politically correct' labels are also an attempt at the same thing. A Mexican-American, An Irish-American, An Afro-American, and any of the so called _____-Americans, is nothing more than a way of saying each group is alien.

The attempt to make the public believe these descriptions are a way of showing respect is nothing but a subversive lie. The pity is, it is working. I see the term native American as an insult.

This is only one of many reasons all Indian people need unity. Not to eliminate or dilute the culture of any, but to form a union strong enough to withstand these types of propaganda attacks as well as the overt attacks on us.

The Red nations lost this land because of a lack of unity that allowed us to be crowded onto reservations that were (and still are) little more than glorified prisons. Gaming and some of the industries have helped, but even those are now being undermined by betrayal. In some instances, that betrayal is by our own people, but I cannot help but think that is because of the pressure from outside special interest groups.

Let us all stand together as one. Realize what is happening to us and fight back. Let each of us feel the pride in ourselves and who we are.

I sign my name to this plea with pride

Hataita, Mescalero Apache - - INDIAN

Just one more EDITOR'S NOTE: Our friend Mark Silversmith is Navajo. We call him "Mark" - he calls us "Mike" and "Sheilah."

Medals of Honor for Code Talkers

The Navajo have received much publicity for their code talking in World II, but new information shows that there were are least 17 other tribes involved in this clever ruse in both WWI and WWII.

In some uses the talkers used their language as a code in itself, and in other cases the language was further encoded.

The Choctaw were the first code talkers in WWI.

The U.S. government has never officially recognized this contribution, but in 1989 France awarded the tribes or the individuals their highest military honor.

World War I:

World War II: A petition is afoot to have these soldiers awarded the Medal of Honor. You may find more information on this by e-mailing
Liz Pollard

Supreme Court Exempts All Tribes

Without their consent no Indian tribe can be sued for business dealings either on or off their land. So says a Supreme Court decision of 6-3.

Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote:
"Tribes enjoy immunity from suits on contracts, whether those contracts involve governmental or commercial activities and whether they were made on or off the reservation."

The court states that sovereign immunity is federal law, and only the tribe can waiver that immunity. This equates with the same rights of the Federal government and states rights. They cannot be sued unless they consent.

Tribal immunity existed before the United States were ever united.

The White House had said that allowing commercial lawsuits would be a serious threat to the 320 tribes that are recognized by the U.S.

Senator Slade Gorton, a Republican of Washington, had been blocking funding for all Native American Indian programs and demanding that sovereign immunity be done away with. He released the money after he was promised action on his American Indian Equal Justice Act in this session of Congress.

Senator Gorton has said that "sovereign immunity is an anachronism in today's society." He has, however, said he will come up with measures to deal with specific issues.

And he has. See More Gorton

Wolves and Other Gray Areas

Recently a gray wolf was killed in Arizona. My view is that these things happen and that we should see each incident for what it is: people and animals in the same place at the same time and a frightened or threatened person reacting according to the moment.

Here are the basics of this occurance. A camper killed a gray wolf to protect his pet dog who was in the woods with him. Also in camp was a three- year-old child.

That camper is now being censured by a group that wants to protect the wolf, and there is talk of a possible law suit.

I love animals, they are left alone in my presence and on the little space we call home. This includes wasps, bumblebees, and snakes of all kinds. Yes, we have rattlesnakes here.

But, I could not guarantee what I would do if I felt a true threat to me and mine, including a dog or a child, or a food crop.

Is that unreasonable, or have humans been given the same "fight or flight" response found in all creatures?

There is a phrase "playing possum" for a most unusual response from that critter.

Have you ever seen the teeth on a possum?

Come, let us reason together. We have enough foolishness in the courts of this land, and at a time when we need these courts to deal with truly important issues.

In a past article in the Clamor it was noted that the Grizzly bear (aptly known as "horribulis horribulis") has been re-introduced to the wilds along the Arizona border.

I'm all for the grizzly bear and the gray wolf and the bison. They are part of the All-Wise, All-Loving Creator's plan. So am I.

What is needed is an education of the wolves' place in the plan. Here are some Web sites that are dedicated to understanding the wolf.

Where to get more information about the gray wolf populations:


Gray Wolf Recovery
Status report week by week.

Mexican Gray Wolves
Reintroduced March 29, 1998
And doing fine. Must Read.

The Gray Wolf
and Red Wolves
Photos - Drawings - Facts

Here are more wolves links
Individuals and organizations wanting to be placed on the Service's mailing list to obtain updates on the wolf's status can write:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Gray Wolf Review
1 Federal Drive
Fort Snelling, MN 55111-4056

The Return of the Gray Wolf

The Fish and Game Commission may consider the removal of the gray wolf from the endangered list.

Once nearly extinct, the gray wolf is now doubling its population every year in some areas.

Much of this is due to restoration of the deer, elk, and moose which the wolves prey on, and better management and habitat. A program called Defenders of Wildlife has been repaying stock loss if any kill can be proven to be by wolves.

Secretary of the Department of Interior Bruce Babbitt has said that the DOI is considering whether or not the wolves need the protection of the Endangered Species Act.

Fish and Wildlife Service Director Jamie Rappaport Clark said the Service will consult with States and Tribes to publish a proposal in the Federal Register this winter. There will be time for public comment and reclassification will not take place this year.

Clark stated that "perpetual protection is not the goal." Once any species can survive on their own they will be removed from the list.

For clarification of the terms: "Endangered" means in danger of extinction and "threatened" means likely to become endangered.

Wolves that have been reintroduced are classified as "non-essential, experimental."

If the wolf is taken off of the list, the Tribes and States will be responsible for wolf management and conservation.

The Red wolves of eastern Tennessee and North Carolina are not affected by this proposal, and Alaskan wolves have never been on the Federal list.

Current wolf populations are:

Wolf History

European settlers brought their Old World fears with them and the wolf was an enemy on sight.

There has never been a documented case of a wolf killing a human in the United States, but there was a time of starvation in Europe and a rule of nature led the wolf to eat dying humans: thinning a herd that could not feed itself.

The wolf became the villain in folklore and fairy tales, such as "Little Red Riding Hood" and "The Three Little Pigs." There were Werewolf stories from Central Europe.

We still use the phrase "there's a wolf at the door" to mean hard times. Old fears die hard and war was declared on the wolf.

The wolf as a predator has the job of thinning over-population of prey and the herds of cattle and domestic animals that were crowded onto the land was nothing more to them than a responsibility in keeping the balance of nature.

American stockmen did not see it that way. This overabundance of prey had surely led to an overabundance of wolves, and the wolf was hunted by the settlers, fur traders, and a government "pest control" program.

From a wolf population that had covered the entire continent, only a few hundred were left in Minnesota. The Rocky Mountain gray wolves had been wiped out by the late 1920's, followed quickly by the Mexican wolves in the Southwest.

It was some 40 years before the wake-up call, and in 1967 the gray wolf was one of the first to come under the protection of the new Federal Endangered Species Law.

In the 1970's the last of the red wolves were captured and bred to be reintroduced to the wild. They are hanging on.

People Doing a Good Job

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the principal Federal agency responsible for conserving, protecting, and enhancing fish and wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people.

The Service's nearly 93 million acres include 514 national wildlife refuges, 78 ecological services field stations, 66 national fish hatcheries, 50 wildlife coordination areas, and 38 wetland management districts with waterfowl production areas.

The agency enforces Federal wildlife laws, manages migratory bird populations, restores nationally significant fisheries, conserves and restores wildlife habitat such as wetlands, administers the Endangered Species Act, and helps foreign governments with their conservation efforts.

It also oversees the Federal Aid program that distributes Federal excise taxes on fishing and hunting equipment to state wildlife agencies. This program is a cornerstone of the Nation's wildlife management efforts, funding fish and wildlife restoration, boating access, hunter education, shooting ranges, and related projects across America.

SOURCE: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Where to get more information about the gray wolf populations:


Gray Wolf Recovery
Status report week by week.

Mexican Gray Wolves
Reintroduced March 29, 1998
And doing fine. Must Read.

The Gray Wolf
and Red Wolves
Photos - Drawings - Facts

Individuals and organizations wanting to be placed on the Service's mailing list to obtain updates on the wolf's status can write:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Gray Wolf Review
1 Federal Drive
Fort Snelling, MN 55111-4056

The Return of the Mexican Wolf

Three family groups of Mexican wolves were released in March of 1998 into the Blue Range Wolf Recovery area, 7,000 square miles in the Apache and Gila national forests of New Mexico and Arizona.

This is the first time the Mexican wolf has been in the wilds since their near-extinction in the 1950's. The current Mexican wolf population in captivity is 175.

The environmentalists see this as a step in repairing a damaged ecosystem; ranchers say that this action is a threat to their livelihood and a "nightmare." They had sued to stop the release, but the Fish and Wildlife service was unaware of the suit and the release went ahead.

The wolves have radio collars and indications are that they have begun to explore and increase their range. The goal of the program is a population of 100 wolves in the forests.

The three family groups are still being supplied with road-killed deer and such until they can survive by hunting, and that is the phase of the program that threatens the ranchers.

Fact is, in areas where wolves and livestock co-exist less than one-tenth of one percent of the livestock are taken by wolves. In these areas an organization called Defenders of Wildlife will repay the rancher for any proven wolf kills.

See a related article on the gray wolf.

Where to get more information about the gray wolf populations:

Mexican Gray Wolves
Reintroduced March 29, 1998
And doing fine. Must Read.


Gray Wolf Recovery
Status report week by week.

The Gray Wolf
and Red Wolves
Photos - Drawings - Facts

Individuals and organizations wanting to be placed on the Service's mailing list to obtain updates on the wolf's status can write:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Gray Wolf Review
1 Federal Drive
Fort Snelling, MN 55111-4056


Retraining the Originators

Editor's Note:
This is just clipped from an e-mail and I felt it would better in these folk's own words. Though this year's course is past there is an
address at the bottom for contact.

Black Mesa Permaculture Project's
7th Annual
Drylands Permaculture
Intensive Design Course
on the Navajo/Hopi Reservation
May 23 - 31, 1998
Nine Day Workshop

The Black Mesa Permaculture Project (BMPP) is a project of Indigenous People living on reservation lands on Black Mesa in the Four Corners region of the Southwest.

What makes this project unique is that it is not only a permaculture project on Native Lands, but a project of the Indigenous People living there. It was founded by local Dineh residents as part of an effort to build a self-reliant and sustainable base to better resist corporate encroachment and make sovereignty a reality.

Our permaculture application stresses the healing of Mother Earth while maintaining integrity with the traditional values and practices which were the origins of permaculture - completing a spiral cycle.

We provide hands-on education by developing working permaculture models, by implementing and monitoring projects, by giving workshops and demonstrations, and by providing support and networking services. We also assist other Native People, implementing similar projects outside Black Mesa participating in an expanding Indigenous Permaculture/Nature Science Network.

The Course:
Our first priority is to provide a quality learning experience to interested Native Peoples in an atmosphere in which they feel comfortable and that accommodates cultural differences. The course is most fitted for those supportive of Native culture so do not expect a structured academic atmosphere. We do cover all the theory, principles, design strategies, and techniques required for a certified course.

Course Objective:
In keeping with good permaculture practices, the course serves a variety of functions:

Site Selection:
The course takes place on Navajo/Hopi Reservation lands. Each year we select a local family or extended family homesite. The family hosts the course and we do a design and provide useful on-site work projects.

Justin Willie, a local Dineh resident, has taken the design and advanced permaculture courses and an eco-forestry course. He is developing a curriculum he calls Native Science which will be taught to Native People in the academic setting. Justin has been a consultant on projects in the Black Mesa area for seven years. He has given presentations and workshops at Navajo Community College and Northern Arizona University, as well as at schools and Chapter Houses on the Navajo and other indian resrvations throughout the west to expand the role of permaculture in healing the land.

Wayne O'Daniel, a local Dineh resident, has been working with BMPP and implementing permacutlure techniques for several years on Black Mesa. He will share his experiences in integrating permaculture with traditional Dineh farming techniques on his family's land.

Marykatherine, a Dineh herbalist and gardener, guides herb walks of the indigenous local plants. From an ethnobotanic point of view, she bridges the traditional peoples' understanding of use and respect for the plants with modern western views.

Henry Soto collects, grows, and evaluates seeds, builds a seed bank, and instructs gardening workshops at Native Seeds/SEARCH in Tucson. He has gardened in the desert for ten years, and has completed and taught certified permaculture courses.

Ed Mendoza, of the Traditional Native American Farmer's Association, learned about growing and cooking foods from his parents who were Mexican, while working the fields and learning about farming and people. He understudied with traditional leaders and today teaches his children to continue with those practices and beliefs. "Within this way of life we have taken on farming as a basis for our healthy living, using sustainable and environmentally sound practices."

We anticipate a guest presentation from Dennis Koots, traditional Hopi farmer.

Be Prepared:
We will be at about 6,000 ft. so be prepared for cold nights. Be self-sufficient and ready to camp. There is no running water or electricity, and generally people share supplies, have group meals, and sometimes hold sweats.

To sign up:
The course is free for Native Americans, $250 for all others. If you would like to attend, please contact:

Black Mesa Permaculture Project
PO Box 2393
Flagstaff, AZ 86003
(520) 688-2144

From the Blue Eagle Newsletter:

Medicine Men Are Valid Medical Expenses

For centuries, Navajos returning from war were welcomed back to their homeland with ceremonies to restore them to harmony and get thoughts of war and death out of their minds.

But since the end of World War I, Navajo veterans have been fighting the federal government, arguing that the cost of these ceremonies was a legitimate medical need that should be paid for by Veterans Affairs.

On Tuesday, VA officials in Phoenix signed an unprecedented agreement with Navajo Nation President Thomas Atcitty, making the reimbursement of certain medicine-man expenses a reality.

"By this agreement, for perhaps the first time ever, our traditional Navajo beliefs will be acknowledged and affirmed by the federal government," Atcitty said.

Navajo officials said much of the credit for getting this agreement approved by the federal government had to go to John Fears, director of the Carl T. Hayden VA Medical Center in Phoenix.

Fears said that when he mentioned the idea to his superiors in Washington, D.C., three years ago, the response was one of disbelief, with many saying, "You want to do what?"

But his efforts were bolstered by studies indicating that Native Americans, and especially the Navajo and the Sioux, came home after serving in war with psychological problems stemming from their military service.

So 18 months ago, a pilot project got under way to see what kind of effect reimbursement of medicine-man expenses would have on the mental health of Navajo veterans. The results were better than expected, according to Leo Chischilly, director of the Navajo Veterans' Office.

"Sometimes when a Navajo veteran went to a doctor, the doctor could not detect anything wrong. This is when the veteran was urged to go to a medicine man and see if they could help," Chischilly said.

But with an unemployment rate exceeding 50 percent in the Navajo Nation, he said, many of the Navajo veterans couldn't afford a medicine man.

Willie Keeto Sr., a Window Rock-area medicine man, said Tuesday that many of the estimated 6,000 to 10,000 Navajo veterans are unwell and in need of medicine-man services. "This should help more veterans come forward to get (that) help," he said.

The agreement between the VA and the tribe paves the way for Navajo veterans to be reimbursed $50 when they go to a hand trembler, crystal gazer or stargazer, all of whom are traditional Navajos who diagnose the patient and determine which of the 23 or so Navajo ceremonies or hundreds of Navajo herbs are needed for a cure.

The government also will reimburse Navajos for all or part of the expenses if any of nine ceremonies - all of which aim to restore harmony in a returning warrior - are required for the well-being of the veteran.

For example, a hand trembler may say that a Flint Way (or Beesheeji) is needed. This is a five-day ceremony that is done to heal wounds from enemy weapons. Tuesday's agreement provides a reimbursement of up to $750 for this ceremony.

Other ceremonies that may be needed include the Evil Way (which purifies warriors affected by the dead), the Monster Way (to counteract the effect of coming in contact with the destruction of war) and the more widely known Yei Bei Chei (a nine-night ceremony that, among other things, can heal hearing problems stemming from explosions, shock and gunfire).

Fears said the government is agreeing only to pay the cost of the medicine man and his supplies. The Yei Bei Chei, for example, actually costs $3,000 to $4,000 to perform because there are a number of indirect expenses, including providing food for those involved in the ceremony and the payment of dancers.

Fears said there has also been talk about allowing Navajo veterans to be reimbursed for a healing ceremony performed within the Native American Church. But that is on hold until he gets some feedback from VA attorneys, he said, since part of the ceremony requires the ingestion of peyote, a hallucinogenic drug. Peyote use is restricted to Native Americans who are using the substance in traditional religious ceremonies.

"It's one thing for the federal government to allow the use of peyote; it's another when the federal government would actually pay for it," Fears said.

The program probably will be expanded in upcoming months, he said, to include other tribes in Arizona. Tribes outside Arizona will have to contact their area VA hospitals to see whether they can receive the same kind of benefits.

Little Sister
Life for a Pittance

Do you have $5 million? Maybe you know someone?

That is the asking price for the famous Navajo "Little Sister" rug, which is also being called the "Clinic Rug."

The Chilchinbeto Health Clinic is in desparate need of funds: operating costs are $300,000 a year and the services of the clinic are critical to the Navajo.

The Spring Issue of the Four Corners Clamor had an article about the upcoming auction of the "Little Sister" rug at Sotheby's of New York City.

Navajo Medicine Man Albert Damon, Sr. blessed the rug before the auction and it was offered at an opening bid of $5 million. There were no bidders. Sotheby's catalog had the rug listed in their catalog at $250,000 to $350,000, which would keep the Cilchinbeto Clinic open for about a year; the Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Office had appraised it at $5.7 million.

The lack of bidders is being seen as a mixed blessing by Chilchinbeto residents as the rug is highly prized for all that it represents; the heart of the Navajo, and the selflessness of the twelve master weavers who collaborated on this unique masterpiece.

The rug is a combination of Two Grey Hills, Storm Patterns, and Yei designs, is 26 by 28 feet, and took ten months to finish. So we are talking of about $7,000 a square foot and about 25,000 weaver hours.

About Little Sister:

The Little Sister rug was woven as a "giant insurance policy" if funding for the Chilchinbeto Health Clinic stopped. Twelve Navajo weavers working for ten months created this rug, which is red, gray, and black and has 25 panels.

Little Sister is 28 by 26 feet and is the second largest and the second rug woven on a giant loom built in the 1970's by the Office of Navajo Economic Development Opportunity.

Just after this rug was taken off the loom in 1984 that loom was destroyed by fire.

The largest Navajo rug in the world - "Big Brother" - was woven on the same loom in 1976. This rug is 38 by 26 feet and a community ordinance prohibits its sale.

About the clinics:

Chilchinbeto Health Program
P.O. Box 1496
Kayenta, AZ 86033
Fax: 520-697-8559

Executive Director: Gilene Begay
Clinical Supervisor: Charles Ney, PA
Attorney for Clinic: Bill Battles
Acting Director: Elaine Nephew

The Chilchinbeto Health Program is a not-for-profit corporation that oversees two field clinics located on a Navajo Reservation in northeastern Arizona. The Board of Directors consists of members elected from the communities Chilchinbeto and Dinnehotso.

The clinics maintain a memorandum of agreement with Kayenta Indian Health Service (IHS) to provide health care to the reservation's citizens. Kayenta IHS in turn provides all pharmaceuticals, medical supplies, and physician support.

Both clinics are entirely ambulatory facilities, operating under standard rural clinic guidelines. Physician assistants provide primary care services at both locations.

In addition, each site holds specialty clinics with services provided by physicians from Kayenta IHS. Every month each site offers a specialty clinic for pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics, diabetes, hypertension, and well baby care.

The clinics also provide outreach work with an emphasis on elderly and pediatric high-risk patients. Outreach activities have included an annual diabetes conference, exercise groups, quarterly health fairs, and various other health education activities.

Clinic treats about 4,000 patients and serves about 12,000.

Dennehotso Clinic
P.O. Box 1496
Kayenta, AZ 86535
520-658-3215 or 520-658-3218
Fax: 520-658-3209

Dinnehotso is twenty-three miles northeast of Kayenta, and Chilchinbeto is twenty-three miles southeast of Kayenta. Both villages are small with Navajo populations of 1,500 and 1,250, respectively. Approximately 25-30% of patients speak only Navajo.

A small number of non-native American patients, mostly employees at nearby Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, are also seen as patients.

e-mail Todd Moravec

Zia Pueblo Sun

The flag of New Mexico is not its own. So claims the Pueblo of Zia.

The red sun has origins in "time immemorial" and is sacred. It has been used for 74 years by New Mexico and the pueblo is asking one million dollars for every one of those years.

In 1995 the pueblo requested $70 million for licensing of the Zia sun and the meter is still running. This symbol is said to be at the "very core of our religion."

Both an Alamogordo drug company in 1995, and recently a motorcycle tour agency have applied to have the Zia sun used as trademarks, but both have withdrawn.

The pueblo has been giving permission to several businesses for use if the applicant will write a letter stating that the Zia sun is the property of the pueblo. These letters will be used to further substantiate their claim.

Governor Gary Johnson is using the sun to form the second letter "o" on his re-election campaign logo, and says, "It behooves us as a state to work out a solution without a lawsuit."

Authors Wanted

Attn: Indian authors
Date: Mon, 06 Apr 98 18:37:06 PDT
From: Long Standing Bear Chief

Spirit Talk Press
The Blackfoot Nation
P.O. Box 390
Browning, MT 59417

SPIRIT TALK: An Anthology of Indian Voices, seeks Indian authors to submit stories and articles for publication. A fee paid to those whose work is published.

Send only copies of work. Include illustrations. Send $5 for sample copy of Spirit Talk. This is a high quality color periodic book. Every bit as good as any national publication.

See our web site at

"If we do not make a record of our being then we will die
in the minds and hearts of our people."

Hey, folks, send us a book and we'll advertise you. Actually, we are advertising you anyway, but we'd sure like to read the books.

Mike Smith

WWA Spur Book Awards

Best Western Novel:

Novel of the West: Finalists:
Original Western Paperback: Finalists:
Juvenile Fiction: Finalists:
Juvenile Nonfiction: Finalists:
Nonfiction Biography: Finalists:
Nonfiction Historical: Finalists:
Nonfiction Contemporary: Finalists:
The Medicine Pipe Bearer's Award for Best First Western Novel: Finalist:

Bigger Trout

They are at it again, and it sounds good on the surface as usual. Bigger trout, the Triploid, is being stocked along with regular hatchery trout.

These triploids are the result of fertilized trout eggs being subjected to heat and pressure, which results in three sets of chromosomes rather than the usual two. Hence the name "triploid."

The result is bigger, faster growing, longer-lived fish, with "better flesh quality." Sounds great, but there is a small drawback.

The trout cannot reproduce. Aha! Messing with the food chain again! Can't leave these guys alone for a minute!

The Jicarilla Tribe has stocked 7,000 triploids at Stone Lake, and the rationale is reasonable enough. Conditions at Stone Lake do not allow trout to spawn, as a gravel- bottom stream is necessary for success.

The Jicarilla Apache Tribal fish biologist, Jim White, says that the fish will not reach maturity for at least two years.

Because the fish are sterile there will be no mixing of species.

OK, all of this is obvious. But . . .

Food for thought: The diet of trout includes smaller fish and fish eggs. The bioligists in charge assure us that results will be closely monitored.

See further details on this genetic experiment on Alaska Fish and Game Web Page.

See a related story concerning Terminator Technology.

Gorton and Sovereignty

Senator Slade Gorton is definitely after a new America. There are five new proposals before Congress that would change the entire relationship between Federal government and the Sovereign Native American Tribes.

Gorton wants to waive tribal sovereignty:

Navajo Nation Council Speaker Kelsey A. Begaye has this to say:

"A misinformed and and racially motivated attack on Indian sovereignty and sovereign immunity.

"Our sovereignty and our right to define the limits of our sovereign immunity predates the foundation of the United States.

"As true sovereigns, tribes have many sovereign powers not stated in treaties."

EDITOR: To answer some of Gorton's proposals specifically:

Senator Gorton should do his homework - we all should - because the Supreme Court has made its decision on
Tribal Sovereignty. All these bills do is cause a nuisance, and furthermore are an attack on the Constitution.

If the United States ever denies sovereignty to the Native American Nations the next step will be the loss of sovereignty of America itself.

We will set a precedent within our own borders that will carry into the United Nations.

There are related articles in this Clamor and past issues.

Supreme Court decision Broken Treaty Fix-All End of Reservations? Hale Defines Sovereignty

Navajo Answer Hunting Immunity Wolves

And More Gorton

Navajo Nation President Albert Hale. I used to start every other story in the Four Corners Clamor that way.

And now its:

Senator Slade Gorton, Republican from Washington state.

I'll tell you, President Albert Hale was a lot more fun.

Gorton's new idea is to cut 50 per cent of the funding from the top ten "lower 48" tribes and redirect the savings of about $12 million to the bottom 20 per cent of the tribes.

The math confuses me: Does this mean that the total money to the top 10 is $24 million, and that the bottom 20 are going to get about 50 bucks apiece? $12 million is a movie budget - a cheap movie.

Whatever, it has been approved by the Senate Appropriations Committee.

Within the bill is the stipulation that the tribes must open their books to show revenue. As Senator Pete Domenici reminded, no state in the U.S. has to reveal its income. Hmmm.

Here are some interesting comparisons:

Using the Navajo as a medium at $750 a year, maybe my $50 estimate was no joke. Or maybe it's a bad movie.

The senators from Colorado and New Mexico are strongly opposed.

We need more imagination on these committees and I nominate Navajo Nation ex-President Albert Hale.

Un-Diplomatic Immunity?

Senator Conrad Burns of Montana has written a bill to exempt non-Indians living on Indian land from jurisdiction by the tribe.

This is where you may read a copy of the draft.

The Supreme Court has already stated that all persons are subject to the civil laws of the tribe while on tribal land. This is a Federal law.

When Montana became a state it agreed that Indian reservations were not a part of the State of Montana.

Earl Old Person, who is the Chief and Chair of the Blackfeet, says that the problem began when homesteaders were allowed onto the reservation, and as a counter proposal, says that the land should be bought again by the U.S. and returned to the tribe.

Dinosaurs Are Not Extinct

This is a quoted page of an interesting study of dinosaurs at University of Texas in Austin:

The Age of Dinosaurs is designed to introduce non-science majors to the methods and practice of natural science, using the systematics of dinosaurs as an example.

Systematics is the study of biological diversity and its organization.

(See related subjects on our links page under dinosaurs under evolution/systemics .)

During the semester, we will be drawing from the systematics of Dinosauria to see how we formulate and test hypotheses and the differences between hypotheses, theories, and speculation.

In the process, we will also learn a great deal about the dinosaurs themselves, the world in which they lived (and continue to live), and the organisms that have lived along with them.

We'll see how changes in the Earth's crust have helped shape what we know about past life. We'll take an in-depth look at the vertebrate skeleton, how it works, and what it can tell us about the evolution of different vertebrate groups.

Toward the end, we'll examine different hypotheses for the extinction of some dinosaurian lineages, and you'll understand what we mean when we say that dinosaurs aren't extinct at all.

A Mammoth Undertaking

Here's a good idea. Scientists from Japan, Russia and Britain are going to Siberia to find frozen mammoth sperm.

Though these hairy critters have been extinct for over 30,000 years the plan is to bring them back by fertilizing elephants and creating a hybrid.

Now follow this: The experts claim that by cross-breeding through many generations eventually a "pure" mammoth will result.

I guess "pure" is reckoned differently with animals than it is with humans. Think about it.

And by the way, how did the U.S.A. miss out on this one?

Mummies of the Southwest

Still using the incorrect term "Anasazi" as the name for Hopiand Zuni ancestors - the correct word is Hisatsinom - a Peruvian physician-anthropologist claims that they may have mummified their dead.

Many mummified remains were excavated, some plundered, in the Four Corners region in the late 1800s and early 1900s. At that time these mummies were considered to be a natural result of the dry climate.

At the annual meeting of the Paleopathology Association in mid-Aptil of 1998, Guido Lombardi of Peru claimed that photos prove that the mummification was intentional. He said that this also proves that the Anasazi (Hisatsinom) had a much more complex society that has been believed.

They have further speculated (maybe they need to read the Four Corners Postcard) that there were positions of higher and lower rank within the Hisatsinom society.

Richard Wetherill found the first mummy in the Four Corners area in a cave southwest of Blanding, Utah, at Grand Gulch.

This discovery in the 1890s was named Cut-in-Two man, as the body had been severed across the hips and abdomen, and then sewn together with braided human hair.

At that time Wetherill made the conjecture that the body had suffered a knife wound and the stitching was an attempt to save the man's life.

It is now believed that the cut was made to remove the organs as part of the process of mummification. Arms and legs from other bodies were arranged around the mummy, and one opinion is that this was an "offering" of some kind.

There is still disagreement among the academics that any of this proves anything to anybody. Sounds like a fertile field to plough for grants.

There have been other mummies found in the Four Corners. In 1919, Alfred Kidder found a mummified head in a cave in northeast Arizona and said that it had represented a "trophy." The skull had been removed, the face and scalp sewn back together, the face painted, and an "elaborate hairdo" adorned this "trophy."

Bernado Arriaza, of the University of Las Vega, Nevada, reminded the meeting that mummification was a common practise of ancient Alaskan Aleuts and prehistoric South American cultures.

EDITOR'S NOTE: It is good to see that these folks are comparing notes, and they are getting closer to what should soon be obvious to all.

I would like you to meet a man who may already be there. Mr. Thomas O. Mills has kindly sent me his book which is humbly entitled "The Truth."

I have read it once and it is at the top of my further-study-required list. Tell you this, though: It is a must-read.

E-mail: Wanige to be added to a powwow mailing list.

Powwow and Events List

It is good to call and confirm.

Shiprock Navajo Nation Fair

Alabama Arkansas Georgia

Indiana Kentucky Tennessee

More - Unsorted


For more info on Alabama events & destinations, contact Alabama Bureau on Tourism & Travel at 1-800-ALABAMA.

For a listing of Native American activities, contact Alabama Indian Affairs Commision, 669 South Lawrence St., Montgomery, AL 36104 or (334) 242-2831.



NOTE: A $2.00 parking fee (ParkPass) is charged at all state parks in Georgia [in addition to any "event fee" you may have to pay]. Organized school groups in buses are exempt from this fee, as are visitors on Wednesdays. Overnight guests only have to pay one ParkPass fee for the duration of their stay.

Historic sites do not charge for parking, but may charge a small admission fee.

For more information, or a free brochure on Georgia State Parks and Historic Sites, contact:
Georgia Department of Natural Resources,
205 Butler St., Suite 1352,
Atlanta, GA 30334
(404) 656-2770 [TDD: (770) 389-7404]

Georgia State Parks Web site.






Wolf Soldier Three Crows Memorial Powwow,
Hendrickson Park
Merrick Road
Valley Stream, N.Y.
Sunday, October 11, 1998
11 am to 4 pm
Rain date: Sunday, Oct. 18, 1998
Northeeastern Native American Assoc.
Host Drum: The Native Drum Circle
For info call:
Little Fawn: 516 - 226-5306
Winter Flower: 718-978-7057
Vendors and Dancers welcome

Aug 9- Roasting Ears of Corn Festival
Museum Of Indian Culture,
2825 Fish Hatchery Rd.
Allentown Pa (610) 797-2121

Aug 8-9 11th Annual Mountain Springs Powwow,
Shartlesville, Pa.
Host Drum: Otter Trail (610) 488-6859

Aug 15-16- Carlisle, Pa Powwow
Carlisle Fairgrounds
1000 Bryn Maws Rd
(717) 243-7855 or (252) 257-5383

Aug 15-16 4th Annual Big Circle of Life Powwow,
Fairfield Fire Co,
Fairfield, Pa

Aug 21-23- 18th Annual Flying W Ranch Powwow.
Flying W Ranch,
Kellettville, Pa.
(814) 463-7663

Aug 21-23 Baltimore American Indian center Powwow,
Baltimore, Md
(420) 675-3535

Aug 29-30 Traditional Native American Festival
Rt 15 Trout Run, Pa
(15 mi S. of Williamsport, Pa)
(717) 995-5177

Sept 4-7 Tradition Native American Festival Gathering of the People,
located on City Island,
Harrisburg, Pa
(717) 995-5177

Sept 5-7- 5th Annual Fishing Creek Powwow,
Camp Levigne, Benton, Pa
Host Drum: Eagle Spirit

Sept 12-13- 5th Annual Lenape Honoring Festival,
Myrick Conservation Center,
West Chester, Pa.
info: Jane Bailey- (610) 793-1861

Sept 19-20- Nause Waiwash Band of Indians,
Native American festival,
Sailwinds Park, Cambridge, Md
(410) 376-3889

Sept 26-27- 16th Annual Native American Festival,
Indian Steps Museum, Airville, Pa

Sept 26-27- Council of Three Rivers American Indian center, 20th Annual Powwow
200 Charles St. Dorseyville, Pa (412)782-4457

Sept 25-27- 2nd Annual Gathering of the People Festival& Powwow,
Penns Cave, On Rt 192 east of State College (717) 566-9644

Sept 26-27- Turtle Island Powwow,
Greene Co Fairgrounds, Greene Co., Pa Host Drum: Eagle Spirit

Oct 11- A time of Thanksgiving, Museum of Indian Culture,
2825 Fish Hatchery Rd, Allentown, Pa. (610) 787-2121

Oct 10-11- 4th Annual American Indian Powwow,
Juniata Springs Bison Farm, Mifflintown, Pa.

Oct 17-19- Hagerstown, Maryland Powwow,
Hagerstown Junior College, 11400 Robinwood Dr (252) 257-5383

EDITOR: I surely admire the folks who put all of this information together, and I suggest you see the links page and get on the mailings lists, because I am NEVER going to do this again!

See PowWows on
Links Page E-mail Wanige to be added to a powwow mailing list.

Water Juggling Act

You don't think water can be juggled? Watch this.

On June 19, 1998 the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Development presented a check for $2,941,400 to the Consolidated Villages of First Mesa.

This is for the upgrading of water and wastewater systems, primarily for fire protection and drinking water for the shopping area, and will serve 291 families in the Polacca area of the Hopi Rez.

Thomas Jefferson, who spilled the beans, long ago reminded us that the goverment cannot give you something that it hadn't taken away in the first place.

The Hopi have had over a billion gallons of water pumped from under their land to be used to move coal slurry through the pipelines to Albuquerque and Nevada.

It looks like this juggling act dropped a lot of the balls.

Sacred Graves and Artifacts

"When mankind is not respectful to the earth or one another there is a disruption of balance, and harmony is restored when the artifacts and sacred items are returned."

That statement by Forrest Cuch, a member of the Northern Ute Tribe, who is also the director of the state Division of Indian Affairs, is the feeling that led to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.

The bill was passed in 1990, but it took two years for inventory of musuems. Tim McKeown, who was foremost in coordinating the act, says that 700 tribes have reclaimed more than 300,000 items, which are classified as religious, funeral or patrimonial.

What began as a chore for Duncan Metcalfe, curator of artifacts at the Utah Museum of Natural History, has become a labor of love.

The grave of a young child found in Glen Canyon revealed the baby wrapped in a rabbit skin robe, with a basket covering and small vessels placed in the grave.

"This was a much-loved child. That changed my views. We are doing the right thing," says Metcalfe.

The Utah museum has the largest collection, which dates back to the 1800's. So far 2,000 items have been identified but none have been reclaimed yet.

The process began by having the room blessed by a Shoshone holy man.

A closer relationship has grown between museums and tribes, there is better communication, and several displays have been corrected by this new cooperation.

A little respect can do wonders for all.

Native American Ancestors Roster

This e-mail tells you how to register your ancestors in the Native American Ancestors Roster. Hope it's helpful.

Laurie Beth Duffy

I am happy to help anyone that contacts me. Due to the volume of enquiries I receive, I am responding to all enquiries with a form they can send to me to register their ancestors in the Native American Ancestors Roster.

When I receive their forms I check all the files for anyone else researching the same or a similar name. When possible I refer them to other researchers, provide research or tribal contact addresses for them to use in their research.

Their ancestors are listed in the register so that they can take advantage of future referrals, and be listed in Who's Looking For Whom In Native American Ancesty VolumeII.

Following information about NAAH, you will find information about the Native American Ancestors Roster. Please fill out and mail in the Native American Ancestors Roster registration form. There is no cost to you for registering the ancestors you are researching or for the referral to other researchers.

When the form is received, I will check the Roster for others researching the same names. If no one has registered as researching the names or a similar surname, I will check other files at my disposal for information.

These other files include:


My homepage has information about the newsletter, the Native American Ancestors Roster, and more.

Registration is FREE. But each Ancestors name must be submitted separately.

Laurie Beth Duffy
Publisher/Executive Editor : NAAH
3308 Acapulco Drive
Riverview, Fl 33569

Walnut Valley Powwow

The weekend of July 4th, 1998, the Third Annual Walnut Valley Inter-Tribal Pow-Wow was held at Cowley County Fairground in my home town of Winfield, KS.

So I loaded a small box with camera, tape recorder, note pads and pens.

I came home with not one sound bite, not one picture, and an empty note pad.

Powwows are not about tourism, though there were many booths offering food and crafts.

They are not about competition, though the dancing was of top quality.

Powwows are about being there, sitting quietly and letting the rhythms transport you to a simple place of understanding.

They are the largest family reunions in the world.

And a good time was had by all in the welcoming community of Winfield, KS.

List of Powwows

See Powwows on links page.


Here are three searches for relatives and ancestors that I have received in e-mail. I hope this helps. See our new NAI Ancestry Section on the links page.


I am Jeanie White Bird. I am Ojibwa. I am interested in knowing other native people who were adopted as children out of Manitoba in the years of late 1960's through 1982 as I was in 1977.

Myself and others in Manitoba are actively searching those who were adopted at that time to reunite them with their native families. Please refer likewise request to me.

Jeanie, in love and honor..... Jeanie White Bird


Art McKellips

This man is seeking the name of his Great-grandmother and offers a wonderful prize for proof.

I am 67 years old and have been a professional Woodcarver and Artist of a much heralded reputation for the past 40 years.

My Mother and Grandmother, both long since deceased, raised me to take great pride in the fact that my Great Grandmother was Osage, and both Mom and her mother considered themselves Osage.

I carve many Indian subjects, in fact I have a whole room full of warriors and related subjects, and I do so with great attention to detail.

I have always considered myself Osage thru my mother's lineage and billed my Indian art works as part Indian Blood Artist.

Now, all of a sudden I am called upon to prove what I have known all my life and must get a card to show who I am. I know who I am and fought Bigots several times in defense of what I am and believe.

I now have Cancer and Diabetis which is affecting my heart so my works are slowed down, but I intend to continue.

What I need Brothers is someone with the knowledge of who my Great Grandmother was. I was told that she was some important Chiefs Daughter.

That Robert Morris (0f Philadelphia and signor of the Declaration of Independence) had a Grandson who opened a trading post with the Osage in whatis now Missouri. He was widowed at age 70 and remarried my Osage ancestor and lived until age 100, producing a cemented relationship with the tribe and five daughters from that union.

My Grandmother Sadie Morris was born in Van Buren, Carter County Missouri, June 3, 1869 (or perhaps '79 as two documents don't agree) She married James Thomas Collins and lived in Grandin, Missouri until migrating to Sultan Basin, Washington in 1903 and never knew of any closure act to my knowledge.

Grandfather Jimmy Collins set up the electricity for the Sawmills in that area and was an electrical Engineer.

He had brothers Harry Collins, Don and Richard all deceased. I am asking anyone of the Osage nation or persons surrounding the Nation for information as to who my Great Grandparents names were.

As you know, Indians were not listed in Missouri Census by name, but if I can get a copy of his marriage license and the fact that it states "WIFE" with no name would seem to me to be proof of her existance and Indian Blood.

My Grandmother's death certificate lists her mother as "UNKNOWN" Van Buren, Missouri. I've got an Osage warrior Carving with enclosing Eagle Spirit I will gladly award to anyone supplying the proof of name.

Walk with God.


From - Tue May 12 10:47:21 1998
From: AMckellips
Date: Tue, 12 May 1998 11:47:13 EDT

Mike, I appreciate the help and would like to keep it there awhile longer for verification purposes. I BELIEVE, and this is the result of a whole bunch of poking around, that my Great Grandmother was LURANA RAINY ( Morris.).

I discovered that a Little Osage Chief named "Traveling Rain" put the feather to a treaty in the early quarter of the 1800's, then he was followed by "Walking Rain" in hereditary Chieftainship. I believe that RAINY was their daughter or Grand Daughter.

I remember my Grandmother and Mother joking about the Rain up in Puget Sound area when I was young (they having moved from Grandin, Mo.). The gist of the joke was, " If we wanted this much rain, we should have stayed in Missouri." I feel they weren't talking about just the wet weather, but mother, Grandfather and Greart Grandfather in the Little Osage.

Incidently, as you well know, the Osage were "BIG" men. I am Six two and two hundred and fifty pounds, so I've got a bit of throw back collected.

Thank you again Mike, I appreciate all the assistance I can get.

Art McKellips
117 NE 32 nd Ave.,
Hillsboro, Oregon 97124-6782
My E Mail is: Art McKellips


This message was posted to osage-reflector by AndieKC

I know this is a long shot, but perhaps someone will remember these names.

My ggggrandmother was Julia A. Woods. I am certain that her birthdate was 1851 and her deathdate 1904. She married Henry Clay Tuttle, and lived in MO.

However, I can find no record of her parents. Supposedly (according to my oldest living relative) her mother was full Osage.

The story is that Julia and her sister Mattie were adopted by a local family when their parents died (they were young girls). The parents had their farm attacked by the Bald Knobbers Gang, and were both murdered. They were said to have been targeted because of the mother's American Indian blood.

Therefore, neither of the girls or their children ever spoke of it again, until my ggrandfather discovered it. He, however, was so ashamed that his family had hidden it he didn't talk about it until he was very old and dying.

I have searched endlessly, but although Julia's death cert says she was born in Christian County, MO, I can not find any record of her birth or her parents. I would really like to know who Julia's mother was, as I feel it is time for my family to have the story out in the open.

If anyone out there recognizes this story or these names, I'd really appreciate any leads you might be able to offer.

Thank you so much. AndieKC

Two Useful Books

Here is an e-mail quote fron John Garret Crow.

"Dear Fellow Native American or Friend of Native Americans:

My name is John Garret Crow and I am a full-blooded American Indian.

I am a member of the Ho-Chunk Nation of Black River Falls, Wisconsin.

To be an Indian in these times of high-technology is strange and new. It has always been hard to be an Indian, but now we have computers, fax machines, modems, so forth. Still, the opportunities and possibilities of this new technology are exciting. Exciting for our World and our People.

I am using the Tool of Technology to convey this message. I want to tell you about two books I and my wife Martha have researched and written.

Our books were made so Indian Country could better communicate, connect, and network together as a Circle of Nations. Our books were also made so we could give non-Indians authentic sources/resources to find information about our Native World.

When we have a better Talking Circle, we are less likely to be divided and conquered by the things that have tried to overcome us in the past.

Our books are empowerment tools as knowledge really is power. Knowledge is the fuel we need to infuse and enable this Talking Circle.

1997-98 Indian Country Address Book: A very comprehensive, national directory of Indian Country. With over 12,000 entries, it has 64 chapters, beginning with Agriculture and ending with Youth.

It sells for $55. If you mention this e-mail letter, shipping will be free.

Native American Internet Guide: A directory with almost 1,500 listings of Internet sites about/by/for Indigenous People of the Western Hemisphere.

It contains 30 chapters and we made this book so people can find Native sites easily and instantly.

It costs $30. Again, if you mention this e-mail letter, the shipping will be free.

To find out more about our books, please see
Todd Publications.

If you would like more information or to request a catalog, e-mail
Todd Publications.

You can call our publisher at his toll-free order number 800-747-1056, or FAX him at: 914-358-1059.

Our publishers address is:
Todd Publications
PO Box 635
Nyack, New York 10960-0635.

Wah' Kon: Osage Mystery Power

I receive a lot of interesting e-mail and am privileged to have met many people whom I call friends on-line.

When Ray Theis was thoughtful enough to send me an invitation to Jay Gentle Sky's Seminar I wrote to ask him to tell me more, and we compared a few notes on religions.

Ray is solid in his belief that Wah' Kon is a true power of healing and self-fullfillment. I hope I said that well.

So here is an offering of some of the words of Jay Gentle Sky, who practices and teaches the Way of the Osage.

Wah' Kon, the Mystery Power.

"Power of thought - power of consciousness - power of mind - and the connection.

"Your right to be in control of your life as we enter this new age of knowing what we are and who we are.

"Your right to manifest a thought at will, instantly fulfilling your created right to be in control of the physical, emotional, and mental states.

"Experience the inner world of peace and simplicity at will - experience love of all at will - be what you want at will. This is your created gift.

"Jay Gentle Sky taught his first students 26 years ago. He has done seminars from Houston to Calgary on "What Man Is" and the "Power of Thought".

"Many speak and talk of these things, but we believe Jay Gentle Sky is the only one to demonstrate these things with the audience, allowing them to participate and experience the power of thought as a personal experience of choice.

"Jay Gentle Sky is an Osage Tribal member. The Osage Indians were the first to study thought, "as far as we know," and the power behind every thought, and it's given name was WAH'KON, an Osage word meaning " 'The Mystery Power.' " End quoted article.

There is an upcoming seminar in Bartlesville, OK, this October.
The old link was gone - this link was updated on November 28, 1999.

Visit his website: WahKon New Millenium.

The Truth
Origin and Travels of the Hopi

Thomas O. Mills has written an educational and challenging book.

The education includes the full story of the Hopi Origin and first hand information from Tom Mill's Hopi friends.

The challenge is the thoroughness of Mill's research, and the fascinating theories he sets forth. This is not idle speculation; Mills has charts, maps, and mathematics to back him up.

Thomas Mills lived with the Hopi for four years in the early seventies, and he and his mother opened and ran the Hopi Cultural Center at Second Mesa, Arizona.

They were the only white people within sixty miles, except for a few BIA doctors, teachers, and Indian Traders located at Keams Canyon twenty miles east of Second Mesa.

Most of Mill's close friends were of the Traditionalists, who want to keep the original ways.

He says that he has become "somewhat of an expert" on Kachina dolls and the other crafts of the Navajo, Zuni, Apache, Laguna, Acoma, Pima, and Papago.

Mills listened and says that after 27 years he finally discovered the meaning of what he had heard.

The book begins with many questions and they are faithfully answered. The answers are satisfying and led my mind into new areas of wonderment.

Here are some excerpts from e-mail and they will definitely grab your interest.

" Once you live with the Hopi and see how they truly believe in their traditions you just go through your life with them in the back of your mind always trying to help.

"I've looked for the missing corner of the fire clans tablet since 1974 and do a lot of traveling with my work but no trace here in America that I can find.

"On page 31 of the Book of the Hopi, Waters states the the tablet Masaw gave to the fire clan was a dark colored stone. In the footnote on page 33 he describes the third Bear Clan tablet that he held in his hands as a dull gray marble with intrusive blotches of Rose. It was very heavy, weighing about 8 pounds.

"On page 492 of Hotevilla, Dan Evehema describes the Fire Clan Tablet as a dark colored stone.

"I have friends on Third Mesa but they are not geologist but next time I talk to them I'll see what I can find out or if I could bring someone to look at the stones.

"I tried to stay clear of the religious aspects altogether but there are very many things that came to mind.

"The Hopi of today still do not listen to the Navajo or anyone who come down from the North.

"Did you understand the inside back cover? Once you know who the players are then all the murals have a different meaning."

We had some interesting exchanges.

If you study Native Americans, Egyptology, astronomy, "saving the planet," ancient civilizations, engineering, or like me you are just curious about everything, then this book belongs in your library.

Now I have to read it again! Thanks Tom.

Web site for The Truth. Hopi Origin and Theory of Travels.

Update: New/old discoveries in Clamor Seven, The Ant People

Navajo News

A Tribute to Dr. Annie Wauneka

When I read of this amazing woman I just had to share it.

Dr. Annie Dodge Wauneka was so busy in her lifetime, when her daughter, Irma Bluehouse, unpacked all the awards in 1984, Annie Wauneka herself was surprised.

And the awards are still coming in, though Dr. Wauneka passed on November 10, 1997.

As a tribute to Dr. Wauneka, the Navajo Nation Museum presented a display of the achievements and personal memorabilia on April 9 - 10. She was born on April 10, 1910, in Sawmill.

Irma Bluehouse recalls her "mother's tireless efforts to eradicate tuberculosis on the reservation." Here is a list of some of the honors paid to Dr. Annie Wauneka.

Dr. Wauneka's daughter has said that there are more than 120 awards and she is planning a display in July.

The only information I have for contact is (505) 871-6627, which was for the April tribute.

Figure This One!

In February of 1998 a U.N. rapporteur was sent to Arizona to investigate human rights offenses against the Navajo and Hopi. Since then the conditions and offenses have been called "the greatest abuse of human rights in the western hemisphere."

Peabody Coal of England has been one of the main players in this drama, as they have been charged with pumping over one billion gallons of water from under the reservations in order to send coal slurry to Albuquerque and Nevada.

Other charges have been the forced relocation of Navajo onto radioactive land.

See: Black Mesa Report in Four Corners Clamor Spring issue.

So are you ready for this?

The Hopi Tribe has signed a new deal with Peabody Coal that increases payments by 10 per cent, or about $1 million more each year. Also a $1 million bonus was given at the signing.

The Navajo await their turn and expect an increase sometime this summer.

This is certainly none of my business, so I will just ask a couple of innocent questions.

I know in my heart that the "big boys" have already figured out these minor details, and that all will be well.

Or Not!

Well, we are not talking $$$millions$$$ here, just one lone Navajo woman.

Maxine Kescoli refuses to move and the Peabody Coal Company has the mining rights to her traditional home, which is one mile from the Kayenta Mine.

Small matter to most, because there is monetary compensation provided for in the agreement between the Navajo Nation and Peabody. It is all legal and to their credit, Peabody builds excellent houses with solar power and plumbing.

So what's the big deal? The hogan is the center of Navajo life.

Maxine Kescoli says, "My umbilical cord is buried here."

Peabody Skips Town

That isn't a very nice way to say it, is it? Well, actually they skipped the country.

With all the controversy and and the new deals done amd pending, Peabody Western has solved it's problems by selling out.

The deal was literally a two-step: Texas Utilities Company bought the British-based Energy Group and then sold the Peabody Group of companies to Lehman Merchant Banking. The Kayenta and the Black Mesa coal mines are part of the deal, and the new company says that there will not be any changes in the business of daily coal mining.

Stay tuned.

Quick Relief

Want a shot of good news? Here you go.

Aaron Casey Ben, three years old, went out early on a Sunday morning to practise roping goats. He heard a strange noise and turned to look, and said, "Oh, no, my house!"

He ran back into the house and told his parents that he wanted a new house "because this one is burning."

It was. They put it out quickly and with minor loss.

A three-year-old hero.

Navajo Answer to Bureaucracy

There is a lot of discussion and dispute about sovereignty, and some important legislation has recently been passed to give all tribes an edge in business dealings.

See Supreme Court Decision.

This idea for a new plan concerning business startups on the Rez may be the best thing that the Navajo Economic Development Committee has ever come up with.

Eliminate the federal requirements in the business lease process.

The simple solutions are the best and this one will reduce the steps from 64 to 32.

Some are opposed, as there is the possibilty that some jobs within the economic development arena would be lost.

Careful there, folks might catch on!

Money Report

Wow! Somebody knows what they are doing.

Navajo Nation total investments:

Permanent Trust Fund: Retirement Fund: Navajo Nation investments average a 15 to 25 per cent growth annually, and they are second to the Pequots of Connecticutt, who are in the serious money business of hundreds of millions a year.

The Pequots have gambling, the Navajo don't.

A Trying Anniversary
Navajo/Hopi Dispute

The Accommodation Agreement had its first anniversary on March 31, 1998. This is a three year trial period for another band-aid, quick-fix, no-true-help "solution" to the federal Relocation Act of 1974, which is an outgrowth of the 1882 Navajo/Hopi Partition.

The full duration of the agreement is 75 years, and states that those who have signed do not have to relocate or adhere to the 20-year construction freeze.

Here is the miserable history of the ongoing Hopi/Navajo dispute that traditionalists claim was not a dispute until the U.S. government made it so. Both tribes had been living among each other, in some cases sharing sacred sites.

NOW: As of June, 1998, attorneys for the Navajo are filing with 9th Circuit Court to have the 1974 Relocation Act, the 1980 amendments, and the 1996 Settlement Act declared as unconstitutional under the First Amendment. Navajo are still being forcibly relocated.

Whichever way the decision goes there will be further litigation, with the possibility of the case being sent to the Supreme Court.

A total of 84 householders have signed the lease, seven did not sign because they are moving, and six that did not sign have the intention of remaining where they are without a lease.

Deadline for non-signers to relocate is February 1, 2000.

Navajo 1868 Treaty On Display

Generations of Navajo have told the story of the Treaty of 1868 that began the return of the Navajo to their homeland.

Now, for the first time in nearly 130 years, the treaty is back within the Four Sacred Mountains.

This important document will be only display at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff for one year beginning June 1, 1998,

Originally there were three copies of the Treaty of 1868, but one is believed to have been buried with Barboncito, who was the lead chief of the Navajos in 1868.

The third copy was in the possession of General William Sherman, but is feared lost as it is not in the Sherman Museum.

Local Governance Act

In April the Navajo Nation Council passed the Local Governance Act (LGA), which is to give local chapters of the Navajo Nation more self-government.

Previously each chapter had to wait on a central and slow bureaucracy to implement plans and changes locally.

EDITOR'S NOTE: As an aside, I find this an interesting development, considering that the Navajo's basic approach to their society focuses on the importance of the individual rather than the group.

The centralized government that has developed with the Navajo was influenced by long contact with the Anglo ways. There appears to be a polarization within the Hopi and Navajo, just as within the U.S. example of state's rights versus the Federal umbrella. END NOTE.

The Navajo have drafted the governance act to be applied in three phases which expire on set dates.

The Local Governance Act includes:
At this point the Local Governance Act is not "real" yet, as the Navajo Nation Council still has the authority to approve funds.

Stay tuned.

Smoke From The Distant Fires

Terminator Technology

There is no such term as "fool-proof" and here is the proof.

The inherent design of the Creator as stated in Genesis, (for those prone to seeing for themselves) has been circumvented by the very clever people at Delta Pine and Land Company. And a patent has been granted.

First the background.

The Creator of All, foreseeing the need for folks to be able to eat from year to year, "brought forth" grass, herbs, and fruit "whose seed was in itself."

Makes sense to me, but let's play with this a bit.

The original system that has been working very well until now is a network of wind, birds, animals (squirrels come to mind) that carries the seeds far and wide to insure the continuing propagation of food.

About 12,000 years ago (bet I get mail on that one) man entered into the wisdom of this and saved the seed with the most desirable traits to plant next year's crop.

Sometimes we're smart.

But the USDA has decided that they are smarter. That august organization now shares the patent with Delta Pine and Land for a new technique to "genetically-disable" seeds.

Their product will produce the first crop, but seed cannot be saved from that plant. So far they have only been "successful" with cotton and tobacco seeds, but they're working on it.

I say anybody dumb enough to buy this stuff deserves to go out of business.

Or go hungry! Maybe this is "natural selection" at work. The dumb people will die.

See also bigger trout.

Another View of Crazy Horse Dedication

The Black Hills of South Dakota are sacred to the Sioux. A sculpture of Chief Crazy Horse was begun 50 years ago and dedication took place on June 3. Here is how the Lakota feel about that:

Crazy Horse Mountain and
Mt. Rushmore Disgrace Black Hills

More than 50 years ago the Oglala Sioux Tribe filed a suit against the United States of America for the illegal taking of the mountains held sacred to them. The suit was eventually joined by all of the tribes of the Great Sioux Nation.

Fifty years ago a man named Korczak Ziolkowski started the huge task of carving a statue to honor Chief Crazy Horse of the Oglala Sioux. He began to sculpt in the mountains still under litigation.

The suit would continue until 1981 when the U.S. government would make a monetary settlement for the theft of the sacred Black Hills of the Sioux.

The award of $105 million has now grown to more than $500 million since 1981 and the tribes of the Great Sioux Nation have rejected the cash offer. They have maintained since 1877, when Congress took the land without permission, that the Black Hills are not for sale.

In the late 1980's Sen. Bill Bradley (D-NJ) offered to sponsor a bill to be known as the Bradley Bill to return 1.3 acres of the 7.5 million acres making up the Black Hills to the tribes of the Great Sioux Nation so they could use it for religious purposes and to name it the Sioux Nation National Park.

Up stepped a millionaire claiming to be Sioux, Mr. Phil Stevens of California, making enough noise to divert the attention from the Bradley Bill. Sen. Bradley eventually became so fed up with the infighting that he withdrew his support of the bill.

Mr. Stevens, with all of his money, managed to destroy what it took the Sioux more than 60 years to accomplish, a bill to reclaim a small portion of their Black Hills and the money to make it work.

While the Sioux Nation was fighting for the legal title to a land stolen from them, a case described by Justice Harry Blackmun of the U.S. Supreme Court as " a ripe and rank case of dishonest dealings," by the United States, Gutzon Borglum and Mr. Ziolkowski were carving up the sides of two mountains.

One was carving the faces of four American presidents largely responsible for so much of the harm done to the American Indian and the other the face of a great Lakota warrior who would never have granted his permission to have his likeness deface his sacred Black Hills.

Fifty years ago World War II had just ended. Many Lakota warriors were just returning to their homes on the reservations of North and South Dakota. Many never returned and are buried far from their sacred Black Hills after giving their lives defending America.

These returning warriors brought with them a different attitude. They had seen the world. They had learned new laws. Their eyes had been opened to new ways of solving old problems.

They immediately took up the fight for the Hills and attacked the government-sponsored "relocation" programs and the termination programs that followed. They fought in the courts to stop further incursions upon reservation lands. In South Dakota they fought and won the battle to prevent state jurisdiction on tribal lands.

Some found it appalling that an organization such as Freedom Forum, headed by the founder of USA Today, Allen Newharth, a native of South Dakota, would honor Ruth Ziolkowski, the widow of Korczak, when so many Indians were totally opposed to the carving known as Crazy Horse Mountain.

The great-great-granddaughter of Black Elk, has been an outspoken critic of the Ziolkowskis. Charlotte Black Elk considers the carving of Crazy House to be an insult to all Lakota and Dakota people.

The great-great grandson of Chief Red Cloud is also aghast. Oliver Red Cloud said, "These white people are not helping anybody. They are just using Crazy Horse's name." He said, "His spirit (Crazy Horse) will not let them use his name. His spirit isn't going to let that monument live long. It will be destroyed by lightning or whatever. It will crumble."

I have often wondered who is being honored by the carving. If one visits the monument one will learn an awful lot about Korczak Ziolkowski, but very little about Crazy Horse or the Sioux Indians. I believe the monument is a tribute to the sculptor, not an honor to Crazy Horse.

The quiet Lakota warrior would never have allowed his likeness to be carved on the face of his beloved Hills.

Ruth Ziolkowski is a good woman. But times have changed since her husband began his project 50 years ago. The Lakota people, thought to be a dying race then, has grown considerably in numbers and political strength.

Ninety percent of the Lakota/Dakota/Nakota people will never accept a dime for the theft of the Black Hills. They still hope to introduce legislation to get a portion of the Black Hills back.

It is even more insulting for a U.S. Senator who claims to be an Indian, Ben Nighthorse Campbell,(R-Colo), to climb up on his soap box and offer praise for the monstrosity being carved at Crazy Horse Mountain.

This is the business of the Sioux people and Sen. Campbell should keep his nose out of their business. Who else would have the power to stop the construction of the highway passing in front of her precious monument so that it would not interfere with the 50th anniversary celebration except Ruth Ziolkowski?

The construction was stopped for the summer.

And the carving and the celebration will continue as scheduled.

This story came to me in The Blue Eagle Newsletter, and was derived from Indian Country Today Online. It was reprinted verbatim and the first person "I" is not this editor.
In Memory of Chief Crazy Horse
"One does not sell the land people walk on."
Crazy Horse, September 23, 1875.

Still Another View

Editor Here: I apologize: This article was done - I thought - but while sorting my e-mail this came to light.

From Blue Eagle Newsletter: April 11
Crazy Horse Sculpture.
Date: 98-04-11 21:17:29 EDT

-------------begin quoted article-----------

Crazy Horse Sculpture To Mark Golden Anniversary Of First Blast

Ruth Ziolkowski says this summer's 50th anniversary of the start of carving Crazy Horse Memorial, the world's largest sculpture, is not an end.

It's a celebration of what the family has accomplished and the beginning of what's needed in the next 50 years, she said. "We have a long, long way to go and a lot of work left," Mrs. Ziolkowski, 71, said.

That may be the case, but certainly the humanity of Crazy Horse is starting to show. Workers have nearly finished his face, which will be dedicated June 3. Even from the visitor's center a mile from the carving, the features are clear - right down to the chin, nose and eyes.

The goal is to turn a granite mountain into a sculpture 563 feet high and 641 feet long portraying Lakota warrior Crazy Horse astride a stallion, pointing to his sacred land.

It will be taller than the Washington Monument and almost twice the size of the Statue of Liberty. It's so big that all four presidents from nearby Mount Rushmore National Memorial could fit inside Crazy Horse's head.

The idea was born in 1939 when Lakota Indian Chief Henry Standing Bear wrote to Mrs. Ziolkowski's husband, sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski. Standing Bear had learned that Ziolkowski helped Gutzon Borglum that summer on the Mount Rushmore carving.

American Indians wanted their own monument.

Ruth Ziolkowski said one line from Standing Bear's letter to her husband persuaded him to take on the task of carving Crazy Horse: "Will you carve us a mountain so the white men will know the red men had great heroes, too?" the letter read.

Though Crazy Horse was a Lakota warrior, the monument is a symbol to all North American Indian tribes.

Ziolkowski always favored the underdog and believed the nation's treatment of Indians was one of the darkest marks on its history, Mrs. Ziolkowski said.

After volunteering to fight in World War II, Ziolkowski moved his family to Custer and set off the first blast June 3, 1948.

Korczak Ziolkowski died in 1982, but his wife and seven of the couple's 10 children took over the project, which is financed solely through entrance fees and donations.

"When Korczak died, the world thought the project died with him," Robb DeWall, who handles public relations at the memorial, said this past week. "He said to Ruth, 'I can't carve it from the grave. You're going to have to make some hard decisions.' And she has."

One of those decisions was to change the focus from carving the horse first to working on Crazy Horse's face. Visitors have a much better idea of the project's size since the face has taken shape, DeWall said.

They now comment less on its magnitude and more on its emotion, he said. "Korczak called it storytelling in stone. And the face has let the storytelling begin," DeWall said.

And as the memorial's physical mission takes shape, so is the cultural goal of improving racial relationships. The Native American Education and Cultural Center opened three years ago next to the visitor's center.

Flags from Indian tribes across the nation hang in gallery. And during the summer, artists from various tribes sell their works and talk with visitors from around the world. That breaks down cultural barriers, said Donovin Sprague, the center's assistant director. He also gives speeches and college classes on Indian culture.

New to the memorial is a bronze replica of Ziolkowski's "Fighting Stallions."

Mrs. Ziolkowski gave the state permission to use the carving to create a memorial in Pierre for Gov. George Mickelson and seven other government and business leaders who died in a 1993 airplane crash. She said the Crazy Horse Memorial should also have a replica of it. Mrs. Ziolkowski said she is enthusiastic about the project.

Events Planned To Commemorate Fiftieth Anniversary

The 50th anniversary of Crazy Horse is June 3, but the celebration is under way all year at the memorial near Custer.

Some of the people who plan to attend the 50th anniversary are descendants of Chief Henry Standing Bear, who asked Korczak Ziolkowski to build the memorial.

Billy Mills, a Lakota Indian from South Dakota who won an Olympic medal in 1964 in the 10-kilometer run, plans to attend. When Mills struggled during the Olympics, he thought of Crazy Horse and was inspired, Mrs. Ziolkowski said.

Three buses of Indians from Tennessee also plan to attend, as do several non-native people who attended the first blast on June 3, 1948.

The memorial will host its annual Volksmarch June 5-7. Last year, 13,000 people hiked 6 1/2 miles up the memorial and back.

Ziolkowski hopes the 50th anniversary celebration brings the Crazy Horse project back into the forefront.

--------------end quoted article------------
Source: Yankton Daily Press & Dakotan. Yankton, SD. April 11, 1998.

EDITOR: Well, for all I know I'm in some kind of copyright trouble. I have enclosed an e-mail with a copyrighted enclosure inside my copyrighted page.

This must be how all the people concerned about the Crazy Horse Memorial must feel: Who did what and who said they could do it?

My excuse is laziness; not wanting to bother to type it myself, or investigate further. Maybe that is the rationale with some of these folks.

I do know that a general attitude in various tribes is that if an individual was not present (say for the signing of a treaty) then the decision is not binding on that individual.

Also maybe that is the source of all the conflict with the broken treaties and the struggles today between the "tribal representatives" and the traditionalists:

We are trying to make a Democracy work within a Republic. Can't be done!

Too lazy to retype this too, so here it is. If there is a copyright on it, oh well!
The first person "I" is not this editor, but it could be.

American Indians Trying To Save
Languages From Extinction

"We are all suspended in language."

This is a quote from the great physicist, Neils Bohr. When I first read it, it did not mean much to me. But as I began to reflect, I realized that language is not reality anymore than computer generated images.

Language is a conceptual representation of reality. And as a culture chooses and defines these concepts, so will it be directed in it's world view. Thus a man is suspended in his own language, and thus will he view his world through the filter of that language.

How brilliant an insight Bohr had, and how brilliantly he expressed it--in his language. Thank you for sending this article.

HOOPA, Calif. -- At age 88 and blind in one eye, James Jackson Jr. keeps a crystal clear memory of a tiny linguistic skirmish in a continental campaign that has brought most of North America's Indian languages to the brink of extinction.

"The teacher at the Indian school grabbed my friend by the arm and said, 'You're speaking your language -- I'm going to wash your mouth out with soap,"' Jackson recalled. "That's where we lost it."

Eight decades later, Jackson told his story, in English, to a small circle of Hupa language students. Although the tribe has about 2,000 members, the room contained the four people who make up about half of the world's fluent Hupa speakers: Jackson, his younger sister, Minnie, and two elderly friends. Two others died in February.

Despite five centuries of population decline, assimilation and linguistic oppression, North America's Indian languages have survived surprisingly well: 211 still exist today; there were about 300 such languages when Europeans first arrived in what is now the United States and Canada.

But with the impact of television and radio and increased mobility, North America's Indian languages are suffering their sharpest free fall in recorded history.

Of the 175 Indian languages still spoken in the United States, only 20 are still spoken by mothers to babies, said Michael Krauss, a linguist at the University of Alaska who surveys native languages. In contrast, 70 languages are spoken only by grandparents, and 55 more are spoken by 10 or fewer tribal members.

"This is a major American tragedy that people are generally in a state of denial about," Krauss said. Noting that the federal government spends only $2 million a year to save endangered Indian languages, he said that under the Endangered Species Act, "we are spending $1 million a year per Florida panther to save the species."

Belonging to 62 language families, American Indian languages are as dramatically different as German, Chinese and Turkish.

With the rise of a global economy and increased communications, about half of the world's 6,000 languages are expected to disappear over the next century. Among American Indians, that process is unfolding today.

"We just gave a grant to study Klamath," said Douglas Whalen, a Yale University linguist who directs a new nonprofit group, the Endangered Language Fund. "When the proposal was made, Klamath had two speakers. Now, it is down to one."

Rapid erosion is also affecting the largest tribes.

In Arizona among the Navajo, the most populous tribe in the United States, the portion of native speakers among first-graders has dropped from 90 percent in 1968 to 20 percent today.

In Montana, the 9,300 enrolled Crow members display a classic American Indian linguistic profile: 77 percent of Crow Indians over 66 years of age speak the language, while only 13 percent of preschoolers do.

EDITOR'S Interjection (The Mike Smith): It sounds like the grandparents aren't doing their job.

On paper, California has the most linguistic diversity in the nation: 50 Indian languages are still spoken there, down from 80 in the pre-colonial era.

"But not a single one of those languages is now being spoken natively by children," said Leanne Hinton, a linguistics professor at the University of California at Berkeley. "We are heading toward a state where we will have no native speakers of any of the California languages in 10 or 20 years.

"We are entering an age when speakers of the California languages will be learning in school, or as adults, rather than at home."

As the language circle at the Hupa community center suggests, however, there is a belated movement among American Indians to rescue their languages from extinction.

"It's part of our culture; it contains how a Hupa person views the world -- to lose the language would be to lose our identity," said Daniel Ammon, a Hupa high school teacher who is one of several dozen adults studying the tribe's complex language. "I will talk to my kids all the time in Hupa."

At the regional high school in Hoopa, a town of 1,000 people on a bend of the Trinity River in northwestern California, classes started last fall in the three languages of Indians in this area: Hupa, Karuk and Yurok.

"I want to know Karuk because it is my language, because I want to teach it to my children," Nisha Supahan, 15, said after class as her twin sister, Elaina, giggled in assent.

(The Mike Smith again): These are the new grandparents.

Their 27-year-old Karuk teacher, Susan Smith, contrasted their attitude with her detribalized upbringing. "I never heard my language as a child," she said. "I didn't even know how to pronounce my tribal name."

Ammon and Ms. Smith learned their native language through an innovative effort to stave off linguistic extinction. Since 1992, the Native California Network, a nonprofit group based in Visalia, in the state's south-central region, has sponsored 50 "apprentices" to undergo intensive language immersions, sometimes for up to 500 hours, with "masters," tribal elders who speak the language.

The language revival effort is taking many forms. Last year the Crow Tribal Council adopted resolutions declaring Crow the official language of the reservation, honoring fluent speakers as "tribal treasures" and encouraging all tribal members to speak the language.

Elsewhere in Montana, the Northern Cheyenne are offering tribal children a summer language camp, taught by the five elders who still speak Cheyenne fluently. In Missoula, summer language classes are offered in Blackfeet.Across Montana, a recent state decision to ease the certification of Indian language instructors has led to an upsurge in language instruction.

Idaho State University now offers Shoshoni for foreign language credit.

"At least one quarter of the 30 tribal colleges now require language study," David Cournoyer, a director of the American Indian College Fund, said in Denver. "Today, 25 different languages are taught, plus Plains Indian sign language."

In Connecticut, the Mohegan and Pequot are studying written records in their languages in an effort to revive languages that have not been spoken since the early 1900s. Due to the work of missionaries and anthropologists, virtually all of the Indian languages in North America have dictionaries and written texts.

While official language extermination policies have stopped, the main threat today, said Krauss, the University of Alaska linguist, is "the cultural nerve gas of television."

Putting electronic communications to work, the Hopi of Arizona have expanded Hopi language radio broadcasting, the Choctaw of Oklahoma have produced native language video dramas, the Sioux of South Dakota maintain a Lakota language internet chat room, and the Skomish of Washington have produced a Twana language CD-ROM.

"There has been an almost total inversion in attitudes toward the native language," said Victor Golla, a linguistics professor at nearby Humboldt State University, who started visiting here 30 years ago.

"Before, people were unconcerned about their native language. Now there is a very strong feeling among almost all the people that the loss of their language would be a tragic and very damaging thing."

Indians interested in reviving traditional ways say they cannot pray to their ancestors in English.

"A number of people have learned how to pray in their language," said Ms. Hinton, the Berkeley linguistics professor, who runs a summer program for Indians in California seeking to revive their languages from recorded field notes and tapes. "They are starting to reinvent their languages so they can pray at ceremonies and funerals."

Linguists caution that the language revival movement may only delay inevitable extinctions. But here in Hoopa, a change can already be felt.

"Before, on the bus, I used to say to my sister in Karuk, 'Look at that guy's shirt,' and nobody knew what we were talking about," Nisha Supahan said. "Now that's not true anymore."

SMITH SPEAKS: I love the diversity of language. When I lived in California (and those rare times I had a car), two of my car radio buttons were welded to Mexican stations. Mexican is the word the Mexican people use.

I do not understand Spanish, so I had no clue as to what the words meant. But it was music, and the unexpectedness of the rhythm was good to hear.

Concerning programs to "save the language." Good! But aren't the speakers of the language the protectors of that language?

If someone has to be paid to protect something that they claim they already value what is the true value to them?

Chippewa Hunting and Fishing Rights

In 1837 the Chippewa gave over 13 million acres of tribal land to the U.S. Federal government with the agreement that the tribe could continue to hunt and fish on that land.

The State of Minnesota has since claimed that that right was lost when Minnesota became a state in 1858.

The Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa brought suit against Minnesota in 1990, claiming that the state has no right to regulate hunting and fishing by the tribe.

A federal ruling in 1994 stated that the Treaty of 1837 still exists, and that was upheld by the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in 1997.

In the appeal Minnesota had claimed that treaty rights were lost in an 1850 executive order signed by President Zachary Taylor, and by an 1854 treaty.

EDITOR: Wait a minute here. If Minnesota says that statehood in 1858 canceled the 1835 treaty, how could they claim that the 1854 treaty is still valid?
The case is Minnesota vs. Mille Lacs Band, 97-1337. The opponents are the federal government and eight Chippewa tribes in Minnesota and Wisconsin, versus eight private landowners, nine counties and the State of Minnesota.

The case has gone to the Supreme Court.

Until this year (1997) the Chippewa were blocked from any large fish harvest. In the first nine days after the court decision three Chippewa tribes have harvested about two tons of walleyes.

Buy A Language?

California voters have passed Proposition 227 by a two-to-one margin and shown their demand that bi-lingual education cease in public schools.

An immediate response from civil rights groups, educators, and immigrant advocates have asked a Federal court for a temporary injunction.

They claim the initiative violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1974.

The new program will be a one-year fast track English course and then English-only classes. This sounds like a reasonable quick-fix until the full consequences are understood.

About one and a half million California children rely on bilingual programs, and opponents claim that the initiative will block access to science and math classes.

Many Hispanic and other immigrant children will be left behind very quickly.
Read that as "children of the California agricultural work force."

In 1994 a vote to deny education and medical care to undocumented aliens (read that as "same as above") was contested by civil rights advocates. They won.

This time the protesters include the San Francisco Unified School district, who have declared that they will not enforce Proposition 227.

The Los Angeles school district is working on a plan to comply.

Ron Unz, the Silicon Valley software millionaire who wrote the Proposition 227, is happy with the outcome.

EDITOR'S NOTE: That is because Ron will be able to afford the rise in price of fruits and vegetables. Who's gonna pick 'em? America owes a lot to the bracero.

The is a related story about the
Utah decision in the Clamor Six.

NOTE: The supplies have already been received.

Ceremony Brings Cancer Remission

Date: Sun, May 17, 1998 11:53 PM EDT
Dr. Gene Norman

Hi:) Due to a high coincidence rate, I have been requested by physicians from our three area hospitals to perform the Sacred Circle Ceremony more often than my usual one day per week (usually on Friday).

By coincidence rate, I mean that they have high remission rates of named children with cancer.

I do not claim any direct benefit of the Ceremony and I have stated that any cures that occur are mere coincidence.

However, this coincidence rate has been averaging between 93 and 97 percent.

I am in need of certain supplies for the Ceremony. I need Sycamore twigs and Sage twigs and root stock of sycamore and sage so I can grow it here.

I have plenty of Cedar and Fir and was gifted with a large amount of Ceremonial Tobacco.

I will gladly pay for the postage of some twigs and will pay a reasonable price for the root stock.

Please send to:

Dr. Gene Norman
233 Bryan Street,
Allouez, WI 54301

Thank you, With love and respect, Wichi:tye

Editor's Note: I e-mailed Dr. Norman and this was his reply.
Hi:) Since I issued my request for supplies, our First People Community has responded copiously with the much needed supplies. I wish to particularly thank Dee Pinkney and Gregory (FM) Collier.

The supplies were gathered in the traditional manner (asking for the donations of Brother Sycamore and of Brother Sage).

In so doing, the donators experienced a new and wondrous knowledge that they could actually communicate directly with our One-legged Brothers.

They also learned the power of listening, not with their ears and minds, but with their hearts. It is something that I have always tried to get across to our young people.

Perhaps, Creator, in needing these ceremonial supplies (but not really needing them), has used me as a tool in getting this message to our people.

Further, this is the message that you should be giving to your readers.

"It is of utmost importance to return to the traditional ways to see how our lives intertwine with tradition.

"With these ways, we become less concerned with the negative aspects of life which lead to depression and suicide and, instead, see the traditional interdependency that has maintained the true positive aspects of our lives.

"We have continued, as a people, in spite of other dominant societies, in spite of technology and in spite of a theology that tends to separate people instead of bringing them together.

"Perhaps there is something that needs to be further explored in our traditional relationships with each of our non-human Brothers and Sisters.

"Perhaps there are lessons that we have discarded which are leading us to a less fulfilling life devoid of the true values that we are actually dependent upon as a people.

"We are not Europeans. We are not Orientals. We are not Africans.

"We ARE the First People of the Western Hemisphere. We do have an identity for which we may be proud.

"We do not have to subjugate ourselves as a people to a little known Italian Mapmaker named, "Americus Vespucci"!

"We ARE the First People of the Western Hemisphere!"

With love and respect,Wichi:tye
Enrolled Qualla/Abenaki
One of the First People

Hopi Prophecy

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